Haji Hassan bin Munas (1853 – 25 June 1915) was a Malay warrior in Kelantan, Malaysia during the Kelantan rebellion. Haji Mohd Hassan Bin Munas was nicknamed Tok Janggut.
Born in Kampung Jeram, Pasir Puteh, Kelantan in 1853, Tok Janggut received his early education (pendidikan pondok) in Kelantan and in Mecca and was a master of silat, a Malaysian martial art. His father was Panglima Munas, who served as a commander in the Kelantan palace.
After the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909, Britain took over the administration of Kelantan from Siam, and immediately made significant changes in its administration system, : 9 triggering a rebellion.
The local government of Jeram, Pasir Puteh, and Kelantan was taken over by British administrators. British officer Encik Abdul Latiff took over the administration of Kelantan from the local leader, Engku Jeram. Latiff was viewed as an outsider by the Kelantan locals, both for his subservience to the British colonial administration and for the fact that, although Malay, he was not from Kelantan, which has a culture and dialect distinct from other Malay areas of Southeast Asia. Furthermore, anecdotal evidence suggests that Latif perhaps considered himself above the largely rural Kelantanese and was notably stern in his tax collection duties. : 78
The deposed local administrator, Engku Besar Jeram, called upon Tok Janggut, Haji Said, Che Sahak Merbol and Penghulu Adam to discuss the tense situation in Kelantan. At the meeting, a pact was signed by the participants which prohibited any one of them to co-operate with the British. Their independence fight gained support from most Kelantan residents, whose refusal to pay taxes meant the revenue of the district dropped by half in one year. : 57
In 1915, Latiff discovered that Janggut was responsible, and sent Sergeant Sulaiman and six other policemen to arrest him. The officers found him surrounded by 2,000 of his followers, many of whom were carrying weapons. : 58 Tok Janggut did not try and escape: he stood his ground and refused to go with the officers. In the heat of the argument, Janggut stabbed Seargeant Sulaiman with his keris. Sulaiman shortly died, and the crowd disarmed the other officers, who were sent back to Latif. : 58
Encik Latif attempted to rally the surrounding villages against Janggut, but this failed because Tok Janggut was now marching towards Pasir Puteh with his followers. Latif fled Pasir Puteh to avoid Janggut, and to seek an audience with the Sultan of Kelantan in Kota Bharu. : 58 Tok Janggut's forces fought against the British in Pasir Puteh, and the rebels triumphed. They remained in Pasir Puteh for three days and declared the independence of Pasir Puteh from British rule. Engku Besar was selected as Sultan of Pasir Puteh, with Tok Janggut as his chief minister. Having heard about Janggut's rebellion from Encik Latif, the Sultan branded Janggut a traitor and called a meeting with the state officials. : 59 The rebel leaders were ordered to surrender themselves within seven days, failing which they would be arrested and sentenced to death. They refused to surrender, and a $500 reward was offered to anyone who arrested Engku Besar, Tok Janggut, Haji Said, Haji Ishak or Penghulu Adam. : 61
In May 1915, 1,500 British troops marched to Pasir Puteh to attempt to quell the rebellion. Tok Janggut got wind of this, however, and advised his followers to flee. He and the other rebel leaders hid in the jungle, avoiding the troops. The soldiers returned to Singapore on 17 May, having failed in their mission. : 61 After the British troops withdrew, Tok Janggut came out of hiding. News of this reached the authorities in Kota Bharu, who decided to send Indian troops led by British officers in a second attempt at ending the rebellion. The rebel leaders went into hiding again, and out of anger the troops burnt down Jeram town, including the houses of Tok Janggut and many of his followers. Tok Janggut marched on Pasir Puteh town (where the Indian troops had gone after burning down Jeram) on 25 June 1915, with 1,000 of his followers, armed with guns and traditional weaponry. : 62 Even though the rebel forces outnumbered their enemy, the Indian troops were much better-equipped. Many of Tok Janggut's followers fled, and he himself was killed. All the corpses were buried except Janggut's: his dead body was exhibited throughout Kota Bharu and Pasir Puteh, as an example of the consequences of rebelling against government rule. : 62 Tok Janggut's body was buried in Kota Bharu afterwards, ending the rebellion against British rule in Kelantan.
Kelantan is a state in Malaysia. The capital is Kota Bharu and royal seat is Kubang Kerian. The honorific name of the state is Darul Naim . Kelantan is located in the north-eastern corner of the peninsula. Kelantan, which is said to translate as the "Land of Lightning", is an agrarian state with green paddy fields, rustic fishing villages and casuarina-lined beaches. Kelantan is home to some of the most ancient archaeological discoveries in Malaysia, including several prehistoric aboriginal settlements.
Kota Bharu colloquially referred to as KB, is a town in Malaysia that serves as the state capital and royal seat of Kelantan. It is situated in the northeastern part of Peninsular Malaysia and lies near the mouth of the Kelantan River.
Raja Perempuan Besar Tengku Budriah binti Almarhum Tengku Ismail was the Raja Perempuan of Perlis, wife of Syed Putra Jamalullail, and the third Raja Permaisuri Agong of Malaysia.
Tumpat is a town, a district (jajahan) and parliamentary constituency in northern Kelantan, Malaysia, at the mouth of Kelantan River.
Machang is one of the ten districts in the state of Kelantan, Malaysia. It is situated at the centre of the state, bordering with Kelantanese territories of Kota Bharu to the north, Pasir Puteh to the east,Terengganu State to the southeast, Tanah Merah to the west and Kuala Krai to the south. Its major town and administrative centre is Machang town.
Pasir Mas is a town in Pasir Mas District, in north-western Kelantan, Malaysia.
Pasir Puteh District is a district (jajahan) in Kelantan, Malaysia. The town of Pasir Putih is situated on the bank of Semerak River, about 30 kilometers to the south of Kota Bharu. Pasir Puteh district borders Terengganu to its south-east.
Bachok District is an administrative division of Kelantan, Malaysia. It is located approximately 25 km east of Kota Bharu.
Abdul Rahman bin Tuanku Imam Nuh was a nobleman and famous Malay warrior best known for his role in the Pahang Uprising (1891–1895) in Pahang, Malaysia during the period of British protectorate. Dato' Bahaman was an Orang Besar Raja – a fief of the Sultan of Pahang.
This article lists important figures and events in Malayan public affairs during the year 1954, as well as births and deaths of significant Malayans.
The Sultan of Kelantan is the constitutional head of Kelantan state in Malaysia. The executive power of the state is vested in him as the monarch of the state. The current sultan, Muhammad V, is the 29th Sultan of Kelantan. He is the Head of Islam in the state and the source of all titles, honours and dignities of its people. He was the 15th Yang di-Pertuan Agong or the monarch and head of state of Malaysia from 13 December 2016 to his abdication on 6 January 2019, after his election on 14 October 2016 at the 243th (special) Conference of Rulers.
Nik Ahmad Kamil bin Nik Mahmud was a Malaysian politician who played an active role during the country's road to independence. A prominent member of the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) in the state of Kelantan, he served as the fourth Speaker of the Dewan Rakyat, the lower house of the Malaysian Parliament.
Kelantanese Malays are a sub-ethnic group of Malays native to the state of Kelantan, Malaysia as well as in Northern Terengganu. The Kelantanese Malays are closely related to Thai Malays and Terengganuan Malays in neighbouring Terengganu, these two Malay sub-ethnic groups shared historical, cultural and linguistic as well as kinship ties with the Kelantanese Malays. Kelantanese Malays form 94% of Kelantan's population, which makes them the largest ethnic group in Kelantan and around 150,000 in Besut, Terengganu.
The outbreak of the Kelantan Rebellion in 1915 has attracted much attention from scholars but there is much disagreement over what actually was the cause of the rebellion. It remains to be an area of Kelantan's history that is still debated amongst scholars, whether these scholars have studied the rebellion through the British colonial sources or whether they have studied the folk version of the rebellion. Both versions present very different interpretations of the motivations behind the rebellion. However, what is agreed upon by both sides was that the rebellion was centered on “a venerable-looking bearded gentleman” - Haji Mohd Hassan bin Munas, known as Tok Janggut.
The Kingdom of Besut Darul Iman was a historical Malay Kingdom located in the northeastern coast of the Malay Peninsula, precursor of the present-day Besut District and most of Setiu, Terengganu. A principality of Terengganu, the state was established in 1780 following the crowning of a Terengganuan prince, Tengku Kadir as the Raja Palembang Besut. The House of Palembang, a cadet branch of Terengganu nobility continued to rule the territory before it was unified with Terengganu in 1899.
The Burung Petala Processions referred to a series of imperial parades to commemorate the circumcision ceremony of the Kelantanese nobility. During the grand cavalcade, the prince and his royal entourage were celebrated around Kota Bharu via a large bird-like processional cart, notably the grand chariot of 1933 known as Burung Petala Indra and tanduBurung Petalawati of 1923. The processions were held three times between 1919 and 1933.
Machang is a town in Machang District, Kelantan, Malaysia. It is a home to one of the main campuses of Universiti Teknologi MARA.
Raja Perempuan Tengku Anis binti Almarhum Tengku Abdul Hamid is the former Raja Perempuan of Kelantan. She is the widow of Sultan Ismail Petra and the mother of Sultan Muhammad V. As a Queen dowager, she is now styled as Yang Maha Mulia Raja Perempuan Tengku Anis.
Muhammad Kilau bin Rasu popularly know as 'Mat Kilau', or alternatively known as Mohamed bin Ibrahim or 'Mat Siam', was a local chieftain and folk hero from Pahang, Malaysia, best known for his role in the Pahang Uprising (1891-1895) against the British Empire. The outbreak of the resistance movement in Pahang in the late 19th century was mainly fueled by the grievances among the traditional ruling class towards the British Residential system.
The Pahang Uprising, also known as the Pahang Rebellion or the Pahang War, was an anti-colonial uprising in Pahang, Malaysia, between 1891 and 1895. The uprising was largely led by traditional chiefs and fueled by local grievances towards the British Residential system.