Tokat

Last updated

Tokat
Tokat sehir panoramasi 2012.JPG
Turkey adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Tokat
Location in Turkey
Coordinates: 40°18′50″N36°33′15″E / 40.31389°N 36.55417°E / 40.31389; 36.55417
Country Turkey
Province Tokat
District Tokat
Government
  MayorEyüp Eroğlu (AKP)
Elevation
623 m (2,044 ft)
Population
 (2022) [1]
163,405
Time zone TRT (UTC+3)
Postal code
60100/60200
Area code 0356
Website www.tokat.bel.tr

Tokat is a city of Turkey in the mid-Black Sea region of Anatolia. It is the seat of Tokat Province and Tokat District. [2] Its population is 163,405 (2022). [1] It is located at the confluence of the Tokat River (Tokat Suyu) with the Yeşilırmak.

Contents

History

Tokat Castle seen from below. Tokat Kale.jpg
Tokat Castle seen from below.

The city was established in the Hittite era. During the time of King Mithradates VI of Pontus, it was one of his many strongholds in Asia Minor.

Known as Evdokia or Eudoxia, [lower-alpha 1] ecclesiastically it was later incorporated into the western part of the Byzantine Greek Empire of Trebizond.

Tokat Museum. Tokat Muzesi binasinin dis gorunumu.jpg
Tokat Museum.

Some authors like Guillaume de Jerphanion [4] and William Mitchell Ramsay [5] identified Tokat with the ancient and medieval Dazimon, with Ramsay saying, "Dazimon, which seems to have been a fortress, must have been the modern Tokat, with its strong castle. [5]

Henri Grégoire, on the other hand, refuted this as implausible, because a 13th-century text written by Ibn Bibi clearly distinguishes Dazimon and Tokat as separate places. [4] Instead, he said, Tokat should be identified with the town of Dokeia (Greek : Δόκεια) mentioned in another 10th-century text, by Theophanes Continuatus, which says that the Byzantine general John Kourkouas was born in a village near Dokeia sometime in the 9th century. [4] According to Grégoire, the name "Dokeia" does not have a Greek etymology and probably represents an old Anatolian place name. [4] The supposed derivation from "Eudokia", he claimed, is only a folk etymology that came much later. [4]

After the Battle of Manzikert the town, like most of Asia Minor, came under the control of the Seljuk Turks. After the death of Sultan Suleiman ibn Qutulmish in 1086, the Emir Danishmend Gazi took control of the area, operating from his power base in the town of Sivas. It would be many decades before the Seljuks re-took control of that region, in the reign of Kilij Arslan II. After the Battle of Köse Dağ, Seljuk hold over the region was lost, and local Emirs such as the Eretna took power until the rise of the Ottomans, who captured the town in 1392 under Sultan Bayazid I. [3]

Prior to the late Ottoman genocides, Tokat had 40,000 residents of which included 15,000 Armenians, 1,000 Greeks, and a small number of Jews. [3]

Turkish and Azerbaijani flags on the Tokat Municipality Building. Turkish and Azerbaijani flags in the Tokat Municipality Building (cropped).jpg
Turkish and Azerbaijani flags on the Tokat Municipality Building.

Climate

Tokat has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate, or alternatively a continental climate (Köppen: Csa, Trewartha: Dc). Due to the relatively high altitude and inland location, winters are fairly cold with average lows below the freezing point and significant snowfall.

Climate data for Tokat (1991–2020, extremes 1929–2020)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)21.9
(71.4)
22.8
(73.0)
31.1
(88.0)
35.1
(95.2)
37.2
(99.0)
39.8
(103.6)
45.0
(113.0)
40.8
(105.4)
40.7
(105.3)
35.3
(95.5)
30.8
(87.4)
26.0
(78.8)
45.0
(113.0)
Average high °C (°F)6.5
(43.7)
8.8
(47.8)
13.8
(56.8)
19.4
(66.9)
24.1
(75.4)
27.6
(81.7)
30.2
(86.4)
30.9
(87.6)
27.4
(81.3)
21.5
(70.7)
13.6
(56.5)
8.0
(46.4)
19.3
(66.7)
Daily mean °C (°F)2.1
(35.8)
3.6
(38.5)
7.8
(46.0)
12.6
(54.7)
16.6
(61.9)
20.1
(68.2)
22.9
(73.2)
23.3
(73.9)
19.6
(67.3)
14.6
(58.3)
7.6
(45.7)
3.7
(38.7)
12.9
(55.2)
Average low °C (°F)−1.4
(29.5)
−0.6
(30.9)
2.9
(37.2)
6.6
(43.9)
10.3
(50.5)
13.7
(56.7)
16.3
(61.3)
16.7
(62.1)
13.0
(55.4)
9.0
(48.2)
3.0
(37.4)
0.4
(32.7)
7.5
(45.5)
Record low °C (°F)−23.4
(−10.1)
−22.1
(−7.8)
−21.2
(−6.2)
−6.3
(20.7)
0.0
(32.0)
2.7
(36.9)
6.1
(43.0)
6.7
(44.1)
2.4
(36.3)
−3.2
(26.2)
−11.8
(10.8)
−21.0
(−5.8)
−23.4
(−10.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches)41.1
(1.62)
33.8
(1.33)
45.8
(1.80)
52.5
(2.07)
61.7
(2.43)
40.4
(1.59)
12.7
(0.50)
10.1
(0.40)
18.2
(0.72)
41.4
(1.63)
43.1
(1.70)
42.1
(1.66)
442.9
(17.44)
Average precipitation days13.5012.5715.6715.1715.7010.634.403.876.8310.1010.3713.87132.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 83.7104.5142.6186.0226.3237.0269.7282.1243.0182.9129.077.52,164.3
Mean daily sunshine hours 2.73.74.66.27.37.98.79.18.15.94.32.55.9
Source: Turkish State Meteorological Service [6]

Economy

Historically, copper was mined in the area. According to Greek researcher, Dimosthenis Oeconomidis (1858–1938):

The town was notorious for its textile industry and its copper manufacturing plants which were reliant on the Kempan Maden mine, a mine which has since been depleted but which in the prior century kept 600 factories in operation.

[3]
Tokat Airport Terminal Tokat Havalimani Terminal Binasi.jpg
Tokat Airport Terminal

Culture

Education

Tokat Gaziosmanpasa University Faculty of Arts and Sciences building. Gaziosmanpasa Universitesi Fen-Edebiyat Fakultesi binasi.JPG
Tokat Gaziosmanpaşa University Faculty of Arts and Sciences building.

Tokat Gaziosmanpaşa University is one of Turkey's newer tertiary institutions, founded in 1992. It was named after the local hero Gazi Osman Paşa.

Sports

Football is the most popular sport: in the older districts above the city center children often kick balls around in the evenings in the smallest streets. The city's football club is Tokatspor, which plays its games at the Tokat Gaziosmanpaşa Stadium.

Basketball, volleyball, tennis, swimming, cable skiing (in summer), horse riding, go karting, paintballing, martial arts and many other sports are played. Cycling and jogging are only common along the sea front, where recreational fishing is also popular.

Cuisine

Tokat Kebabi Tokatkebap.JPG
Tokat Kebabı

Foods distinctive to Tokat include Tokat kebabı and Zile pekmezi, the latter being served in a wooden pot. Tokat kebabı consists of sliced lamb, aubergines, potatoes, green bell peppers and tomatoes. The slices are laid on their sides in rows in a dish and baked with cloves of garlic. [7] Zile pekmezi is a grape-molasses confection, prepared from a variety of small green grapes, which are pressed (traditionally by foot but nowadays by machine) and then evaporated to a thick syrup by boiling. Egg-whites are then beaten into the syrup until it forms a pale marshmallow-like paste. It is sold commercially in tubs. [8]

Tourism

Facade of the Gok Medrese in Tokat, founded by the Pervane in around 1270. Gok Medrese at Tokat.jpg
Façade of the Gök Medrese in Tokat, founded by the Pervâne in around 1270.

The most important landmark is Tokat Castle, an Ottoman citadel with 28 towers on a rocky hill overlooking the town. Vlad the Impaler, who may have inspired Bram Stoker's fictional character Count Dracula, was imprisoned in one of its dungeons. [9] [10] Other sights include the remains of several Greek Orthodox churches and a cathedral, the Garipler Mosque dating to the 12th century, the Ali Paşa Mosque (16th century), the Hatuniye Külliyesi, also 16th century and the Gök Medrese (Pervane Bey Darussifasi), which was constructed in 1270. It was founded as a school of theology, and was converted into a museum, housing archaeological finds from the area, until that function was transferred in 2012 to another location.

The Latifoglu Konak, a late 18th-century Ottoman residence, is an example of Baroque architecture. The two-story building has been restored and has been converted into a small museum. Much of the furniture in the kitchen, study, visitors' rooms with bath and toilet, bedroom, master's room, and harem is original.

Ballıca Cave is a small cave situated at 6 km (3.8 mi) southeast of Pazar, Tokat Province.

Notable people

Statue of Gazi Osman Pasa in Tokat Gazi Osman Pasa Heykeli.JPG
Statue of Gazi Osman Paşa in Tokat

International relations

Tokat is twinned with:

Europe

Africa

See also

Notes

  1. The town was called "Tokation", then it was renamed to Evdokia (Evdoksia), after Byzantine Emperor Heraclius' daughter, Eudoxia Epiphania. [3]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bursa</span> City in Bursa province in western Turkey

Bursa is a city in northwestern Turkey and the administrative center of Bursa Province. The fourth-most populous city in Turkey and second-most populous in the Marmara Region, Bursa is one of the industrial centers of the country. Most of Turkey's automotive production takes place in Bursa.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kayseri</span> Metropolitan municipality in Central Anatolia, Turkey

Kayseri is a large industrialised city in Central Anatolia, Turkey, and the capital of Kayseri province. Historically known as Caesarea, it has been the historical capital of Cappadocia since ancient times. The Kayseri Metropolitan Municipality area is composed of five districts: the two central districts of Kocasinan and Melikgazi, and since 2004, also outlying Hacılar, İncesu and Talas.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zile</span> Municipality in Tokat, Turkey

Zile, anciently known as Zela, is a city in Tokat Province, Turkey. It is the seat of Zile District. Its population is 33,557 (2022). Zile lies to the south of Amasya and the west of Tokat in north-central Turkey. The city has a long history, including as former bishopric and the site of the Battle of Zela, which prompted the phrase "Veni, vidi, vici." Today the city is a center for agricultural marketing and tourism.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tokat Province</span> Province of Turkey

Tokat Province is a province in northern Turkey. Its adjacent provinces are Amasya to the northwest, Yozgat to the southwest, Sivas to the southeast, and Ordu to the northeast. Its capital is Tokat, which lies inland of the middle Black Sea region, 422 kilometers from Ankara.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kırşehir</span> Municipality in Turkey

Kırşehir, formerly Mocissus and Justinianopolis (Ἰουστινιανούπολις), is a city in Turkey. It is the seat of Kırşehir Province and Kırşehir District. Its population is 150,700 (2022). Its elevation is 1,027 m (3,369 ft). The Mayor of Kırşehir is Selahattin Ekicioğlu.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Aksaray</span> Municipality in Turkey

Aksaray is a city in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey. It is the seat of Aksaray Province and Aksaray District. Its population is 247,147 (2021). In 2021 the province had an estimated population of 429,069 distributed over about 7,659 km2 (2,957 sq mi). The average elevation is 980 m (3,215 ft), with the highest point being Mt. Hasan at 3,253 m (10,673 ft).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gaziosmanpaşa</span> Municipality in Istanbul, Turkey

Gaziosmanpaşa is a developing working class municipality and district of Istanbul, Turkey, on its European side. Its area is 12 km2, and its population is 495,998 (2022). With a population of almost 500,000, it is one of the most populous districts. Esenler and Bayrampaşa are at west, Sultangazi is at north and Eyüp is at south and east of district.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fatih</span> Municipality in Istanbul, Turkey

Fatih is a municipality and district of Istanbul Province, Turkey. Its area is 15 km2, and its population is 368,227 (2022). It is home to almost all of the provincial authorities but not the courthouse. It encompasses the peninsula coinciding with old Constantinople. In 2009, the district of Eminönü, which had been a separate municipality located at the tip of the peninsula, was once again remerged into Fatih because of its small population. Fatih is bordered by the Golden Horn to the north and the Sea of Marmara to the south, while the Western border is demarked by the Theodosian wall and the east by the Bosphorus Strait.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Osman Nuri Pasha</span> Ottoman field marshal

Osman Nuri Pasha, also known as Ghazi Osman Pasha, was an Ottoman field marshal. Being one of the most respected and decorated Ottoman pashas of all time, many songs have been written for him, and many places have been named after him. This is mainly because he held the Bulgarian town of Plevna for five months against superior Russo-Romanian forces in 1877 during the Russo-Turkish War, though the city eventually fell.

Evrenos or Evrenuz was an Ottoman military commander. Byzantine sources mention him as Ἐβρενός, Ἀβρανέζης, Βρανέζης, Βρανεύς (?), Βρενέζ, Βρενέζης, Βρενές.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gazi Atik Ali Pasha Mosque</span> 15th-century Ottoman mosque in Istanbul, Turkey

The Gazi Atik Ali Pasha Mosque is a 15th-century Ottoman mosque located in the Çemberlitaş neighbourhood of the Fatih district in Istanbul, Turkey. Its construction was started under the orders of the future Grand Vizier Hadım Atik Ali Pasha in 1496 and was completed in 1497, during the reign of Sultan Bayezid II. The mosque is located near the entrance to the Kapalıçarşı, the Column of Constantine, and the historical Nuruosmaniye Mosque.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kara Ahmed Pasha Mosque</span>

The Kara Ahmed Pasha Mosque or Gazi Ahmed Pasha Mosque is a 16th-century Ottoman mosque near the city walls in Istanbul, Turkey. It was designed by the imperial architect Mimar Sinan and completed in around 1572.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Outline of the Ottoman Empire</span> Overview of and topical guide to the Ottoman Empire

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the Ottoman Empire:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hekimoğlu Ali Pasha</span> Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (1732–1735, 1742–1743, 1755)

Hekimoğlu Ali Pasha was an Ottoman statesman and military leader who served as Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire three times.

Beçin was a historical fort in Turkey.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ali Pasha Mosque (Tokat)</span> 16th-century Ottoman-era mosque in northern Turkey

Ali Pasha Mosque is a mosque in the centre of the town of Tokat in the Anatolia region of Turkey. It is a work of the Ottoman period, built in 1572 during the reign of Sultan Selim II, and has a single dome and a minaret.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Classical Ottoman architecture</span> Ottoman architectural style of the 16th and 17th centuries

Classical Ottoman architecture is a period in Ottoman architecture generally including the 16th and 17th centuries. The period is most strongly associated with the works of Mimar Sinan, who was Chief Court Architect under three sultans between 1538 and 1588. The start of the period also coincided with the long reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, which is recognized as the apogee of Ottoman political and cultural development, with extensive patronage in art and architecture by the sultan, his family, and his high-ranking officials.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Early Ottoman architecture</span> Ottoman architecture in the 14th and 15th centuries

Early Ottoman architecture corresponds to the period of Ottoman architecture roughly up to the 15th century. This article covers the history of Ottoman architecture up to the end of Bayezid II's reign, prior to the advent of what is generally considered "classical" Ottoman architecture in the 16th century. Early Ottoman architecture was a continuation of earlier Seljuk and Beylik architecture while also incorporating local Byzantine influences. The new styles took shape in the capital cities of Bursa and Edirne as well as in other important early Ottoman cities such as Iznik. Three main types of structures predominated in this early period: single-domed mosques, "T-plan" buildings, and multi-domed buildings. Religious buildings were often part of larger charitable complexes (külliyes) that included other structures such as madrasas, hammams, tombs, and commercial establishments.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gazi Hasan Pasha Mosque</span> Mosque in Kos, Greece

The Gazi Hasan Pasha Mosque is an Ottoman-era mosque in the Aegean island of Kos, in Greece. Built in the 18th century, it serves the Muslim-Turkish community of Kos, as one of the two out of the five Ottoman mosques to be still operational and open for prayers on Kos, the other being the Defterdar Mosque.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Neradje Mosque</span> Historical Ottoman mosque in Rethymno, Crete

The Neradje Mosque or Neradjes, formerly known as Gazi Hüseyin Pasha Mosque is a historical Ottoman-era mosque located in the old town of Rethymno, Crete, Greece. It now serves as a music school.

References

  1. 1 2 "Address-based population registration system (ADNKS) results dated 31 December 2022, Favorite Reports" (XLS). TÜİK . Retrieved 22 May 2023.
  2. İl Belediyesi, Turkey Civil Administration Departments Inventory. Retrieved 22 May 2023.
  3. 1 2 3 4 "Tokat - Τοκάτη". pontosworld.com. 5 February 2017.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 Grégoire, Henri (1935). "Dazmana est bien Dazimon". Byzantion. 10 (2): 760–3. JSTOR   44169796 . Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  5. 1 2 Ramsay, William Mitchell (1890). The Historical Geography of Asia Minor. London. pp. 329–30. Retrieved 4 February 2022.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  6. "Resmi İstatistikler: İllerimize Ait Mevism Normalleri (1991–2020)" (in Turkish). Turkish State Meteorological Service. Retrieved 7 August 2021.
  7. Tokat Kebabı on YouTube
  8. "Zile pekmezi", Zile haber (Commerce of Zile), Tokat, Turkey (Turkish)
  9. 'Dracula's Dungeon' Discovered by Archaeologists at Tokat Castle in Turkey
  10. Archaeologists In Turkey Say They've Discovered Dracula's Dungeon
  11. Tokat'ın kardeş şehir ve belediyeleri Archived 2016-03-07 at the Wayback Machine , Tokat Newspaper, (16 June 2013)
  12. İllere Göre Kardeş Şehirler Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine , Presidency of Religious Affairs (2013)