Last updated
Tokmak Revolutsiyna vul. Torgoviy Budynok Ya.Shal'mana 01 (YDS 8846).JPG
Historical merchant's building in Tokmak
Flag of Tokmak.svg
Tokmak gerb.png
Interactive map of Tokmak
Country Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine
Oblast Flag of Zaporizhia Oblast.svg  Zaporizhzhia Oblast
Raion Polohivskyj rayon prapor.png Polohy Raion
  Land32.46 km2 (12.53 sq mi)
43 m (141 ft)
Demonym(s) Tokmachanin, Tokmachanka, Tokmachany
Time zone UTC+2 (EET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
Area code +380 6178
Licence plate AP, KR / 08
Climate Dfa

Tokmak (Ukrainian : Токмак, IPA: [tokˈmɑk] ) is a small city in Polohy Raion, Zaporizhzhia Oblast, in south-central Ukraine. It stands on the Tokmak River, a tributary of the Molochna. It is the administrative centre of the Tokmak urban hromada, and was the centre of the Tokmak Raion until that was disestablished in 2020. Its population is approximately 29,573 (2022 estimate). [1]


Tokmak has been occupied by Russia since early March, 2022. [2]


The name of the town comes from the Tokmak River. One common theory is that the hydronym comes from the Turkish tokmak ("mallet, stick, hammer"). An alternative theory is that the name comes from the Turkish dökmek ("to pour"). Another possibility is that the name comes from a tribe belonging to the Cumans or the Kyrgyz people. [3]


Early history

The territories around Tokmak have been inhabited since the Neolithic era. This is evidenced by the excavations of settlements and burial mounds near the town, where burials dating from the Bronze Age were found. There have also been excavations indicating the presence of the Scythians (4th century BC), Sarmatians (3rd-2nd centuries BC), and of nomads (10th-12th centuries BC).[ citation needed ]

From the archival documents of the Zaporizhian Sich (mid-18th century), it is known that there were seasonal deployments of the Cossack kurins along the Tokmak river where they engaged in fishing and hunting. They were adjacent to the seasonal sheep-breeding camps of the Crimean Tatars and Armenians, and the nomad camps of the Nogais, which sometimes led to conflicts and legal complaints from both sides.[ citation needed ]


The official year of the foundation of Tokmak is 1784, which coincides with the conquest of the Crimea and the formation of the Taurida Oblast. Intensive settlement of the region began after 1791, the end of the Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792), when several families, who were descendants of Zaporozhian Cossacks, and state serfs from the area of Poltava settled on the banks of the Tokmak River. Facilitated by the trade route, the Old Chumatsky Road, that passed through the area, the settlement grew. The village was named Velykyi Tokmak, or Bolshoi Tokmak (both "Great Tokmak").[ citation needed ]

Russian Empire

In 1796, Tokmak was appointed the center of the Melitopolsky Uyezd (Melitopol District) of the Taurida Oblast. In 1797, the Melitopol Uyezd was included in the Mariupol uezd of the Novorossiya Governorate, the center of which again became Tokmak. In 1801, the center of the Uyezd was moved to Orikhiv, and Tokmak remained the center of the Velykyi Tokmak Volost. Sloboda of Novoalexandrovka, which became the town of Melitopol in 1842, was also part of the Bolshoi Tokmak Volost in 1814–1829. [4]

In the summer of 1842, a strong fire broke out in the city of Orikhiv, and the administrative offices were again transferred to Velykyi Tokmak. In the same year, the Berdyansky Uyezd was created and both Tokmak (which became a provincial town) and Orikhiv were included with the new Uyezd.

During the Crimean War, Velykyi Tokmak temporarily became the center of the Berdyansky Uyezd. Between 1854 and 1856, a military hospital was located in the village. 281 soldiers who died of wounds and diseases were buried in Tokmak. [5]

In 1861, the settlement was granted the status of a small town and became part of the Berdyan district of the Tavrya province. The inhabitants were engaged in agriculture, cattle breeding, trade, and artisanry. The goods were sold during the spring (May 9) and autumn (October 1) fairs, which included merchants from places such as Moscow, Kursk, and Berdyansk.

Velikiy Tokmak railway station Zaliznichnii vokzal 3747374.jpeg
Velikiy Tokmak railway station

By the beginning of the 20th century, there were about one thousand workers at nine Tokmak enterprises. The largest of them were factories for the production of agricultural machinery. These factories were founded in 1882 by I. I. Fuchs and in 1885 by I. V. Kleiner.

Further economic development was facilitated by the construction of a railway line connecting the town with the Pryshyb Station on the Kharkiv–Sevastopol line. On the eve of the First World War, local manufacturers and merchants built the railway line between Tsarekostyantynivka (Komysh-Zoria) and Fedorivka station  [ uk ] (Novobohdanivka  [ uk ]), and the Velikiy Tokmak station on it, which further contributed to the growth of trade and the development of the city.

At the beginning of the 20th century, Tokmak was one of the largest settlements in Northern Tavria. A branch of the Azov-Don Commercial Bank contributed to the development of the local economy. The company "Triumph" began to produce gasoline engines. Berger and Zagorelin, machine-building and iron-foundry factories, began operations around this time as well. Despite this modest industrialization, the majority of the population was still working the land. At that time, there was a small printing house, two photographic studios, a hospital with 15 beds, and 5 elementary schools in Tokmak.

Soviet era

In 1917, the publication of the local newspaper "News of the Bolshoi Tokmak Council of Workers', Soldiers' and Peasants' Deputies" began. [6] In 1918, the Soviets established control of the town.

From March 23, 1921 to December 1, 1922, the town of Velykyi Tokmak served as the administrative center of the Veliky Tokmak Povit. The resolution of the All-Ukrainian Committee of March 7, 1923, created the Velykyi Tokmak Raion with its administrative center in the town of Velykyi Tokmak. [7] In those years, the military commissar in Tokmak was Sydir Kovpak.

In addition to the formation of administrative authorities, attention was paid in particular to industry and education. A library was opened on the premises of the party committee and the executive committee of the council. The executive committee also organized classes in order to eliminate illiteracy. Professionals of various types were educated at mechanical technical school, a nursing school, and a collective farming administration school. There were 8 clubs, 2 cinemas, and 13 general education schools. An infectious disease department and 2 pharmacies also began operating.

From 1923 to 1927, the factory "Red Progress" produced a serial three-wheeled tractor known as the "Zaporozhets". [8] For the original design and its high productivity, the factory staff were awarded a state diploma of the 1st degree. "Red Progress" was the first state factory of agricultural machinery. In the 1930s, the plant produced 75% of the low-power diesel engines in the USSR. Oleksandr Ivchenko began his work in here in the "Red Progress" factory.

On October 7, 1941, during the German invasion of the USSR, Soviet troops retreated from Tokmak. [9] [10]

During the Nazi occupation of 1941-1943, two partisan units operated in the area: A Soviet partisan unit led by V.G. Akulov and I.K. Shchava. And an underground partisan group organized by G.F. Burkut, V.V. Veretennikov and V. O. Fedyushin. On September 20, 1943, the city was liberated during the Donbass operation by the Soviet troops of the Southern Front (Soviet Union): the 2nd Guards Army, the 4th Guards Motor Rifle Division, and the 4th Guards Cavalry Corps. [10]

On December 30, 1962, Velikiy Tokmak was renamed Tokmak and received the status of a city of regional significance. [11]

Independent Ukraine

On September 5, 2002, the city of Tokmak was divided into 8 microdistricts: "Korolenko", "Kalininsky", "Livy Bereh" (English: "Left Bank"), "Ryzhok", "Zaliznychny", "Akhramiivka", "Kovalsky", "Tsentralʹny" (English: "Central").

On May 19, 2016, the Zaporizhia Regional State Administration issued Order No. 275 which renamed five streets in the city of Tokmak:

On June 12, 2020, in accordance with the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine's Order No. 713-R, "On the determination of administrative centers and approval of the territories of territorial communities of Zaporizhzhya Oblast", the city acquired the status of administrative center of the Tokmak urban hromada.[ citation needed ] On July 17, 2020, Tokmak Raion was dissolved and Tokmak became part of Polohy Raion. [13]

Russian invasion of Ukraine

On February 26, 2022, Russian tanks broke into the territory of the Tokmak urban community despite the resistance of Ukrainian defenders. During the night of February 27 and the early morning of February 28th, Russian forces attacked the city. [14] Russian saboteurs, who were part of sabotage and reconnaissance groups on the territory of Ukraine and had previously stolen the military uniform of the Armed Forces of Ukraine from one of the military depots, entered into battle with the Ukrainian military. [15] According to a report of the Zaporizhzhia State Administration, as a result of the confrontation, the enemy lost a large number of personnel and retreated to the southern outskirts of the city of Tokmak. [16]

On March 2, 2022, the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation announced that the city was captured by Russian troops. [2] Deputy Mayor Volodymyr Kharlov disputed this claim as he reported that the situation in the city was extremely difficult as Russian troops have surrounded the city, but the city was nonetheless still under the control of Ukrainian authorities. Deputy Mayor Kharlov also reported that there were military casualties on both sides along with civilian casualties during the battle which saw the use of tanks, artillery, and other weapons. The Deputy Mayor added that the city authorities were not working with the Russian forces nor contacting them. [17] On March 4, Mayor Ihor Kotelevskyi announced that the city authorities were continuing to work on the restoration of power to the city and that an agreement had been made with the Russian armed forces to establish humanitarian corridors. [18] By March 7, Tokmak was captured by Russian forces. [19] Citizens repeatedly went to rallies against the occupation of the Russian military throughout the rest of March. [20] [21]

On April 3, 2022, it was reported that the Russian military intended to hold a "referendum" in the city of Tokmak. The leaders of the Zaporizhia Oblast appealed to citizens with a message that the referendum would not be legal. [22]

The war memorial to victims of the Second World War Tokmak Pam'yatnyk Robitnykam Dyzelebudivnogo Zavodu zagyblym u Drugiy Svitoviy Viyni 02 (YDS 8321).JPG
The war memorial to victims of the Second World War

On April 21, 2022, the Russian singer Yulia Chicherina, while in Tokmak, took part in the lighting of the eternal flame near the memorial to the fallen participants of the Second World War. [23] On May 7, 2022, news broke of the death of the mayor of Tokmak, Igor Kotelevskyi, who refused to cooperate with occupying Russian forces. The cause of Kotelevsky's death is unknown, but "Ukrinform" noted at the time that, according to the unofficial version, he probably committed suicide. Igor Kotelevsky was first elected Mayor of Tokmak in August 2009. [24] [25] [26]

Near the end of June, 2022, there were reports of Russian soldiers dismantling the Tokmak solar power plant and relocating it to Russia. These reports were later disproven. [27] On July 11, 2022, the Armed Forces of Ukraine struck a Russian military base in Tokmak. After several hits in the area of the military unit and warehouses, an ammunition storage site was destroyed. [28]

Starting in early 2023, extensive fortifications have been built by the Russian military in a ring around the city. [29] The main thrust of the 2023 Ukrainian counteroffensive has been in the direction of Tokmak. [30]


The city of Tokmak is divided into 8 microdistricts:

There are 12 village councils operating in the territory of the Tokmak urban hromada.


Historical population
1952 28,575
1979 42,178
1989 45,112
2001 36,275
2021 30,125

The city of Tokmak had a population of 30,125 in 2021. The most recent information regarding native language and ethnicity usage comes from the 2001 Ukrainian Census. At that point in time, 70.25% of the population of Tokmak spoke Ukrainian, and 29.35% spoke Russian. Ethnically, 81.4% of the population was Ukrainian; 16.6% Russian; 0.5% Belarusian; and 1.5% other. [31]


The city has an educational institution where you can get a higher education: Tokmak Mechanical College of Zaporozhye National Technical University. There is also the Tokmak educational and consulting center of the National University of Shipbuilding. There are also 10 schools and 8 kindergartens. City secondary school No. 2 is named after a Hero of the Soviet Union Alexei N. Kot.


In Tokmak, there is a city cultural center, a city museum of local history, a public folk museum of OJSC "Pivddieselmash" (Diesal Plant), three public libraries, and children's music and art schools.

There are 21 groups of amateur artists and 6 clubs with more than 300 participants in the city's House of Culture.

The decorative and applied art works of embroiderers V. M. Melai and Z. P. Fedan and the basket weaving of V. D. Olyzko were demonstrated at exhibitions in the cities of Zaporizhzhia and Kyiv.

There are 17,307 exhibits in the city museum of local history, and 8,485 exhibits in the state museum. The city has 47 historical and artistic monuments.

There is a local radio station and three local newspapers which cover the events of the city and the surrounding region.


Tokmak Solar Energy is large solar power plant with a 50 MW capacity.

Largest enterprises in Tokmak:


The Velikiy Tokmak railway station of the Zaporizhzhia Directorate (part of the regional branch: Cisdnieper Railways) operates in the city on the line: Fedorivka - Verkhniy Tokmak II - Volnovakha.

Notable people

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zaporizhzhia Oblast</span> Oblast (region) of Ukraine

Zaporizhzhia Oblast, commonly referred to as Zaporizhzhia (Запоріжжя), is an oblast (region) in south-east Ukraine. Its administrative centre is Zaporizhzhia. The oblast covers an area of 27,183 square kilometres (10,495 sq mi), and has a population of 1,638,462.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Starobilsk</span> City in Luhansk Oblast, Ukraine

Starobilsk is a city in Luhansk Oblast, Ukraine. It serves as the administrative center of Starobilsk Raion. The modern settlement was founded in 1686, and it was granted city status in 1938. The city has a population of 15,947. As a result of the Russian invasion of Ukraine, it has been under Russian occupation since March 2, 2022.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kremenchuk</span> City in Poltava Oblast, Ukraine

Kremenchuk is an industrial city in central Ukraine which stands on the banks of the Dnieper River. The city serves as the administrative center of Kremenchuk Raion within Poltava Oblast. Kremenchuk also hosts the administration of Kremenchuk urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine. Its population is approximately 215,271, ranking 31st in Ukraine. In 2001, the Ukrainian government included the city in the list of historical settlements.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Izium</span> City in Kharkiv Oblast, Ukraine

Izium or Izyum is a city on the Donets River in Kharkiv Oblast, eastern Ukraine. It serves as the administrative center of Izium Raion. Izium hosts the administration of Izium urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine. It is about 120 kilometres (75 mi) southeast of the administrative center of the oblast, Kharkiv.

Orikhiv is a city in Polohy Raion, Zaporizhzhia Oblast, southern Ukraine. It had an estimated population of 13,896, as of 1 January 2022. Early in the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, many residents were evacuated, with 6,000 remaining by August, and the city being shelled constantly by Russian artillery.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Huliaipole</span> City in Zaporizhzhia Oblast, Ukraine

Huliaipole is a city in Polohy Raion, Zaporizhzhia Oblast, Ukraine. It is known as the birthplace of Ukrainian anarchist revolutionary Nestor Makhno. In January 2022, it had an estimated population of 12,786.

Vovchansk is a city in Chuhuiv Raion, Kharkiv Oblast, Ukraine. It hosts the administration of Vovchansk urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine. Population: 17,459.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zolochiv, Kharkiv Oblast</span> Urban locality in Kharkiv Oblast, Ukraine

Zolochiv is an urban-type settlement in Bohodukhiv Raion, Kharkiv Oblast, Ukraine. It hosts the administration of Zolochiv settlement hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine. Population: 7,744.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Development of the administrative divisions of Ukraine</span>

Administrative divisions development in Ukraine reviews the history of changes in the administrative divisions of Ukraine, in chronological order.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Orikhiv Raion</span> Former subdivision of Zaporizhzhia Oblast, Ukraine

Orikhiv Raion was one of raions (districts) of Zaporizhzhia Oblast in southern Ukraine. The administrative center of the raion was located in the city of Orikhiv. Its population was 54,462 as of the 2001 Ukrainian Census. The raion was abolished on 18 July 2020 as part of the administrative reform of Ukraine, which reduced the number of raions of Zaporizhzhia Oblast to five. The area of Orikhiv Raion was split between Polohy Raion and Zaporizhzhia Raion. The last estimate of the raion population was 44,114 .

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Polohy Raion</span> Subdivision of Zaporizhzhia Oblast, Ukraine

Polohy Raion is one of the five raions (districts) of Zaporizhzhia Oblast in southern Ukraine. The administrative center of the region is the town of Polohy. Population: 163,641.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tokmak Raion</span> Former subdivision of Zaporizhzhia Oblast, Ukraine

Tokmak Raion was one of the raions (districts) of Zaporizhzhia Oblast in southern Ukraine between 1923 and 2020. The administrative center of the region was the small city of Tokmak. Before 1962, it was known as Velykyi Tokmak Raion. The last estimate of the raion population was 21,330.

Velykyi Burluk is an urban-type settlement in Ukraine, in Kupiansk Raion of Kharkiv Oblast. It hosts the administration of Velykyi Burluk rural hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine. Population: 3,614 The settlement was controlled by the Russian military from February 24, 2022, to September 10, 2022.

Zaporizhzhia Oblast is subdivided into districts (raions) which are subdivided into territorial communities (hromadas).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Southern Ukraine campaign</span> Theater of conflict in the Russian invasion of Ukraine

The southern Ukraine campaign is an ongoing theatre of operation in the Russian invasion of Ukraine, which began on 24 February 2022. From their base in Russian-occupied Crimea, the Russian Armed Forces attacked Kherson Oblast, Mykolaiv Oblast, and Zaporizhzhia Oblast in southern Ukraine, battling the Armed Forces of Ukraine.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Russian occupation of Zaporizhzhia Oblast</span> Military occupation and annexation by Russia

The Russian occupation of Zaporizhzhia Oblast began on 24 February 2022 when Russian forces invaded Ukraine and seized southern areas of Zaporizhzhia Oblast. On 26 February, the city of Berdiansk fell under Russian control, followed by Russian victory at Melitopol on 1 March. Russian forces besieged the city of Enerhodar, home of the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant, then captured it on 4 March. They did not take the oblast's capital city of Zaporizhzhia, however, which remained under Ukrainian government control.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Battle of Huliaipole</span> Ongoing battle of the Russo-Ukrainian War

The battle of Huliaipole is an ongoing military conflict between the Armed Forces of Russia and the Armed Forces of Ukraine over the city of Huliaipole, in central Zaporizhzhia Oblast.

Pavlivka is a village in the Volnovakha Raion of Donetsk Oblast in Ukraine. The population as of 2021 is 2,505 people, and the body of local self-government is the Vuhledar settlement hromada.

Robotyne is a village in Polohy Raion, Zaporizhzhia Oblast, Ukraine. Administratively, it is part of Tokmak urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine. The village is approximately 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) southeast of Orikhiv, and 23 kilometres (14 mi) north of Tokmak.

Verbove is a village in Polohy Raion, in the Zaporizhzhia Oblast of southern Ukraine. It is administratively located in Polohy urban hromada. It had a population of 1,246 as of 2001. A small river, the Verbova, flows north-westward through the village and on to Orikhiv, where it joins the Konka river.


  1. Чисельність наявного населення України на 1 січня 2022 [Number of Present Population of Ukraine, as of January 1, 2022](PDF) (in Ukrainian and English). Kyiv: State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 July 2022.
  2. 1 2 "Украинская армия без боя сдала населенные пункты Токмак и Васильевка". 2 March 2022.
  3. Evgeny, Pospelov (2002), Geographical names of the world: Toponymic dictionary, Рус. словари, ISBN   5-17-001389-2
  4. Krylov, N. Очерки по истории города Мелитополя 1814-1917 (in Russian).
  5. Saenko, V. M. (2008). Токмаччина пiд час Схiдної (Кримської) вiйни (in Ukrainian). Tokmak, Ukraine: Gutenberg Press.
  6. Catalog: Newspapers of pre-revolutionary Russia 1703-1917.
  7. "КОРОТКА ІСТОРИЧНА ДОВІДКА ПРО ЗМІНИ АДМІНІСТРАТИВНО-ТЕРИТОРІАЛЬНОГО ПОДІЛУ НА ЗАПОРІЖЖІ (1770-1994 рр.) на 10 сторінках" [BRIEF HISTORICAL INFORMATION ABOUT CHANGES IN THE ADMINISTRATIVE-TERRITORIAL DIVISION IN ZAPORIZHA (1770-1994) in 10 pages.] (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on June 21, 2016. Retrieved December 22, 2017.
  8. Удод И. С. Токмак — родина отечественного тракторостроения // Мелитопольский краеведческий журнал, 2013, № 1, с. 87-92.
  9. Медведський В. І., Медведська Г. В. «Что нас ожидает, неизвестно…» // Мелітопольський краєзнавчий журнал, 2020, № 15, с. 75-85
  10. 1 2 Dudarenko, M. L. (1985). Liberation of cities: a guide to the liberation of cities during the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 (in Russian). p. 598.
  11. "Токмак, Токмацький район, Запорізька область". Історія міст і сіл Української РСР (in Ukrainian).
  12. "Розпорядження голови Запорізької обласної державної адміністрації від 19.05.2016 року № 275 Перейменування об'єктів топоніміки міст та районів Запорізької області" (PDF).
  13. Resolution of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, dated July 17, 2020 No. 807-IX: "On the Formation and Liquidation of Districts".
  14. "У місті Токмаку (Запорізька область) вночі були потужні бої" [In the city of Tokmak (Zaporizhia region) there were heavy battles at night] (in Ukrainian). February 28, 2022.
  15. "У Токмаку йшли бої з окупантами у військовій формі ЗСУ" [In Tokmak, there were battles with the occupiers who were wearing ZSU military uniforms] (in Ukrainian). February 28, 2022.
  16. Karateeva, Anastasiya (February 28, 2022). "В Токмаке войска оккупантов понесли большие потери" [In Tokmak, the occupying troops suffered heavy losses] (in Russian). Archived from the original on February 28, 2022. Retrieved March 11, 2022.
  17. "Токмак тримається, але ситуація складна, – заступник мера". 2 March 2022.
  18. Стало відомо, яка ситуація сьогодні у Токмаку, який перебуває в оточенні російських окупантів. Archived from the original on April 12, 2022. Retrieved on April 12, 2022.
  19. "Ukraine after 11th night of war: Mayor killed, towns taken, Moscow promises civilian corridors to Russia". Baltic News Network. 7 March 2022. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  20. В Токмаке люди вышли прогонять русских военных из города (ВИДЕО)
  21. Герої серед нас: Хто і як відстоює український Токмак. Archived from the original on March 29, 2022. Retrieved on April 12, 2022.
  22. «Прийшли звірі, можуть зробити, що завгодно». Викрадення та «референдуми» на Запоріжжі. Archived from the original on April 21, 2022. Retrieved on April 21, 2022.
  23. Одіозна російська пропагандистка Чичеріна приїхала до окупованого Токмака, – ФОТО, ВІДЕО Archived from [ the original] on April 23, 2022. Retrieved on April 30, 2022.
  24. Умер мэр оккупированного Токмака — Игорь Котелевский
  25. Помер мер окупованого Токмака Ігор Котелевський
  26. Mayer, Patrick (9 July 2023). "Putins letzte Bastion? Ukrainische Kleinstadt wird zu russischer Festung" [Putin's last bastion? Ukrainian town becomes Russian fortress]. Frankfurter Rundschau (in German). Retrieved 18 August 2023.
  27. "Співвласник сонячної електростанції біля Токмака спростував її вивіз окупантами: що відбувається насправді —". (in Ukrainian). 2022-06-24. Retrieved 2023-07-22.
  28. Украинские военные нанесли удар по вражеской военной базе в Токмаке (фото, видео).
  29. Palumbo, Daniele; Rivault, Erwan (May 23, 2023). "Ukraine war: Satellite images reveal Russian defences before major assault". BBC News. Retrieved September 18, 2023.
  30. Kilner, James (September 17, 2023). "Russia braces for Ukrainian attack on 'linchpin' town". The Telegraph. Retrieved September 18, 2023.
  31. M. Dnistryanskyi . Ethnopolitical geography of Ukraine: problems of theory, methodology, practice. — Lviv: LNU named after Ivan Franko, 2006. — 490 p.

47°15′20″N35°42′20″E / 47.25556°N 35.70556°E / 47.25556; 35.70556