Tokomaro or Tokumaro (徳麻呂) was a soldier of 7th-century AD Japan, during the Asuka period. He and four slaves of the Ōi temple served in the Jinshin War of 672 and fought at the Battle of Nakatsu-michi.
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south.
The Asuka period was a period in the history of Japan lasting from 538 to 710, although its beginning could be said to overlap with the preceding Kofun period. The Yamato polity evolved greatly during the Asuka period, which is named after the Asuka region, about 25 km (16 mi) south of the modern city of Nara.
The Jinshin War was a war of succession in Japan during the Asuka period of the Yamato state. It broke out in 672 following the death of Emperor Tenji. The name refers to the jinshin (壬申) or ninth year of the sixty-year Jikkan Jūnishi calendrical cycle, corresponding to the Western year 673.
His name appears in the history book Nihon Shoki at the Battle of Nakatsu-michi of Yamato Province at the beginning of the 7th month of the year 672 (by the Japanese calendar). Yamato had been one of the two major fronts of the war. Ōtomo no Fukei, the commander general of this front for Prince Ōama's (Emperor Tenmu) side, divided his army into three divisions along the Kamitsu-michi ("upper road"), Nakatsu-michi ("middle road") and Shimotsu-michi ("lower road"). Enemy general Inukai no Isokimi dispatched his commander Ioi no Kujira and sent 200 soldiers against the thin center of Fukei. Five slaves of Ōi temple, including Tokomaro, took the lead in the defence and shot arrows, which stopped Ioi's advance. Then Fukei's right division broke Inukai's left at Kamitsu-michi, and rushed to the rear of the enemy, turning the flank. Yamato province was won by Fukei soon after this battle.
The Nihon Shoki (日本書紀), sometimes translated as The Chronicles of Japan, is the second-oldest book of classical Japanese history. The book is also called the Nihongi. It is more elaborate and detailed than the Kojiki, the oldest, and has proven to be an important tool for historians and archaeologists as it includes the most complete extant historical record of ancient Japan. The Nihon Shoki was finished in 720 under the editorial supervision of Prince Toneri and with the assistance of Ō no Yasumaro dedicated to Empress Genshō.
This article is about the Yamato province. To read the article about the Yamato people, see Yamato people.
Emperor Tenmu was the 40th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
The Nihon Shoki describes details of the war but merely mentions background of rank-and-file soldiers. "Slaves of Oi temple" is evidence of the broad mobilization effort and an example of the loyalty of slaves in ancient Japan.
The rokurokubi is a type of Japanese yōkai (apparition). They look almost completely like humans, with one major difference. There are two types of Rokurokubi: one whose neck stretches, and one whose head comes off and flies around freely (nukekubi). The Rokurokubi appear in classical kaidan and in yōkai works. It has been suggested, however, that the idea of rokurokubi may have been created purely for entertainment purposes rather than originating from any folk beliefs or legends.
Tsuchigumo (土蜘蛛), literally translated "dirt/earth spider", is a historical Japanese derogatory term for renegade local clans, and also the name for a race of spider-like yōkai in Japanese folklore. Alternate names for the mythological Tsuchigumo include yatsukahagi (八握脛) and ōgumo. In the Kojiki and in Nihon Shoki, they were also referred to by the homophonic synonym 都知久母, and these words were frequently used in the fudoki of Mutsu, Echigo, Hitachi, Settsu, Bungo and Hizen as well as others.
Nekomata are a kind of cat yōkai told about in folklore as well as classical kaidan, essays, etc. There are two very different types: the ones that live in the mountains, and the ones raised domestically that grow old and transform. It is often confused with Bakeneko.
The akaname (垢嘗) is a Japanese yōkai depicted in Toriyama Sekien's 1776 book Gazu Hyakki Yagyō. Meaning "filth licker", they are stated to lick the filth that collects in bathtubs and bathrooms.
Murakuni Oyori (村国男依) was a military commander of ancient Japan, who fought in the Jinshin War as a servant of Prince Ō-ama. His kabane, or family title, is muraji. He was given the rank of Shōshi after death.
The bakeneko is a type of Japanese yōkai, or supernatural creature. According to its name, it is a cat that has changed into a yōkai. It is often confused with the nekomata, another cat-like yōkai, and the distinction between the two can often be quite ambiguous, but the largest difference is that the Nekomata has two tails, while the Bakeneko has only one.
Natori District was a district located in Rikuzen Province in Miyagi Prefecture.
Tokushi Kasahara is a Japanese historian. He is a professor emeritus at Tsuru University and his area of expertise is modern Chinese history.
Akira Fujiwara was a Japanese historian. His academic speciality was modern Japanese history and he was a professor emeritus at Hitotsubashi University. In 1980 he became a member of the Science Council of Japan and was a former chairman of the Historical Science Society of Japan.
Ikuchi is a yōkai of the sea in Japanese legend. It is described in Tankai (譚海) by Sōan Tsumura and in Mimibukuro by Negishi Shizumori among other written works of the Edo period.
Shiryō (死霊) in Japanese is a word for the souls of the dead. It is the antonym of Ikiryō.
Zuiho Yamaguchi is a Japanese Buddhologist and Tibetologist. He is an emeritus professor at the University of Tokyo, where he also took his doctorate degree in Sanskrit in 1954. He also studied in Paris and for many years was a researcher at the Tōyō Bunko. He retired in 1986.
Takafusa Nakamura was a Japanese economist who was a specialist in the Japanese economy.
Kazutami Watanabe was a Japanese scholar and translator of French literature.
Takao Iwami was a Japanese political pundit and journalist.
Taichung Japanese School is a Japanese international school in Daya District, Taichung, Taiwan in the Republic of China.
The ubagabi is an atmospheric ghost light in legends of Kawachi Province and Tanba Province. They are mentioned in old literature, such as the Tenpō period book the Shokoku Rijin Dan (諸国里人談) and Ihara Saikaku's collection of miscellaneous tales the Saikaku Shokoku Banashi (西鶴諸国ばなし) as well as Edo period kaidan books such as the Kokon Hyaku Monogatari Hyōban (古今百物語評判'), the Kawachi Kagami Meishōki (河内鑑名所記), and Toiryama Sekien's collection of yōkai depictions, the Gazu Hyakki Yagyō, among other mentions.
The Okamoto Kyōsai Zatcho (岡本況斎雑著) is the 226-volume collected works of the Japanese kokugaku scholar Okamoto Yasutaka. It was compiled after Yasutaka's death by an unknown editor, based on Yasutaka's manuscripts that had entered the holdings of Seikadō Bunko.
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.
Saburō Ienaga was a Japanese historian. In 1953, the Japanese Ministry of Education published a textbook by Ienaga, but censored what they said were factual errors and matters of opinion, regarding Japanese war crimes. Ienaga undertook a series of lawsuits against the Ministry for violation of his freedom of speech. He was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1999 and 2001 by Noam Chomsky among others. He also recorded the history of the Japanese resistance in World War II in his book The Pacific War, 1931–1945.