| Hero of Kazakhstan
Hero of the Soviet Union
Time in space
|7d 22h 12m
|1991 Cosmonaut Group
|Soyuz TM-13, Soyuz TM-12
Toktar Ongarbayuly Aubakirov (Kazakh : Тоқтар Оңғарбайұлы Әубәкіров (Toqtar Oñğarbaiūly Äubäkırov), Russian : Токтар Онгарбаевич Аубакиров, born on 27 July 1946) is a retired Kazakh Air Force officer and a former cosmonaut. He is the first person from Kazakhstan to go to space.
Toktar Aubakirov was born in Karkaraly District, Karaganda Region, Kazakh SSR, which is now Kazakhstan. After graduating from the 8th grade of a secondary school he started working as a metal turner at the Temirtau foundry, whilst attending an evening school. In 1965 he joined the Armavir Military Aviation Institute of the Anti-Air Defence Pilots. He served as a fighter pilot in the Soviet Air Force on the Far East borders of the USSR until his acceptance into the Fedotov Test Pilot School in 1975.
Between 1976 and 1991 Aubakirov served as a test pilot at the Mikoyan Experimental Design Bureau (MiG aircraft). During this time he tested over 50 types of aircraft. He was the first in the Soviet Union to make a nonstop flight crossing the North Pole, with two in-flight refuelings, and the first in the Soviet Union to take off from the aircraft-carrier Tbilisi (later named Kuznetsov) on a MiG 29K.
In 1991, in accordance with an agreement between the governments of the USSR and the Kazakh SSR, started training at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center. On 2 October 1991 he launched with Russian cosmonaut Alexander Volkov as flight commander, and the Austrian research cosmonaut Franz Viehböck in Soyuz TM-13 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome spaceport, and spent over eight days in space. Their mission was the last launched by the Soviet Union, which dissolved shortly thereafter, with Aubakirov becoming a citizen of the independent Republic of Kazakhstan.
Since 1993, he has been the general director of the National Aerospace Agency of Republic of Kazakhstan. He was a member of the Kazakhstan parliament. Now he is a pensioner and consultant.
Toktar Aubakirov is married to Tatyana Aubakirova. They have two children: Timur (born in 1977) and Mikhail (born in 1982).
Georgy Timofeyevich Beregovoy was a Soviet cosmonaut who commanded the space mission Soyuz 3 in 1968. From 1972 to 1987, he headed the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center.
Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov was a Soviet and Russian cosmonaut who flew three space missions of the Soyuz programme: Soyuz 4, Soyuz 8, and Soyuz 10. From 1987 to 1991, he headed the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center.
The Soviet Air Forces (Russian: Военно-Воздушные Силы Союза Советских Социалистических Республик, tr.Voenno-Vozdushnye Sily Soyuza Sovetskih Sotsialisticheskih Respublik, VVS SSSR; literally "Military Air Forces of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics"; initialism VVS, sometimes referred to as the "Red Air Force", were one of the air forces of the Soviet Union. The other was the Soviet Air Defence Forces. The Air Forces were formed from components of the Imperial Russian Air Service in 1917, and faced their greatest test during World War II. The groups were also involved in the Korean War, and dissolved along with the Soviet Union itself in 1991–92. Former Soviet Air Forces' assets were subsequently divided into several air forces of former Soviet republics, including the new Russian Air Force. The "March of the Pilots" was its marching song.
Pyotr Ilyich Klimuk is a former Soviet cosmonaut and the first Belarusian to perform space travel. Klimuk made three flights into space. From 1991 to 2003, he headed the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center.
Vladimir Aleksandrovich Dzhanibekov is a retired Soviet Air Force Major General and a cosmonaut veteran of five orbital missions.
Talgat Amangeldyuly Musabayev is a Kazakh test pilot and former cosmonaut who flew on three spaceflights. His first two spaceflights were long-duration stays aboard the Russian space station Mir. His third spaceflight was a short duration visiting mission to the International Space Station, which also carried the first paying space tourist Dennis Tito. He retired as a cosmonaut in November 2003. Since 2007 he has been head of KazCosmos, Kazakhstan's National Space Agency.
Viktor Mikhailovich Afanasyev is a colonel in the Russian Air Force and a test cosmonaut of the Yu. A. Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center. He was born 31 December 1948, in Bryansk, Russian SFSR, and is married to Yelena Ya. Afanasyeva, born in 1952. They have two children. His father, Mikhail Z. Afanasyev, is deceased. His mother, Marya S. Afanasyeva, resides in Merkulyevo, Bryansk region, Russia. His recreational interests include football, swimming, and tourism. He considers his favorite meal to be borscht.
Franz Artur Viehböck is an Austrian electrical engineer and cosmonaut, who became the first Austrian to fly in space. He visited the Mir space station in 1991 aboard Soyuz TM-13, returning aboard Soyuz TM-12 after spending just over a week in space.
Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev is a Russian mechanical engineer, former cosmonaut and former head of the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center.
A test pilot is an aircraft pilot with additional training to fly and evaluate experimental, newly produced and modified aircraft with specific maneuvers, known as flight test techniques.
Soyuz TM-13 was the 13th expedition to the Mir space station. Lasting from October 1991 to March 1992, the mission included cosmonauts from Austria and the soon-to-be independent region of Kazakhstan, as the Soviet Union collapsed in December 1991. The launch ceremony at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakh SSR was attended by the Soviet Premier Ivan Silaev, the President of the Kazakh SSR Nursultan Nazarbayev, and the Chancellor of Austria Franz Vranitzky. Before the launch, for the first time, President Nazarbayev received the launch report from cosmonaut Tokhtar Aubakirov in the Kazakh language.
Igor Petrovich Volk was a Russian test pilot and former Soviet cosmonaut in the Buran programme.
Anatoly Nikolayevich Kvochur is a Soviet and Russian test pilot. He was awarded with the awards Honoured Test Pilot of the USSR (1990) and Hero of the Russian Federation (1992).
Nikolai Alekseyevich Kuznetsov was a Soviet, and later, Kazakhstani aviator. Kuznetsov served in the Soviet Armed Forces during World War II, and later went on to serve as the director of the Kazakh SSR's Administration of Civil Aviation. Kuznetsov has been called the "father of Kazakhstani aviation".
The honorary title Pilot-Cosmonaut of the USSR was a state award of the Soviet Union presented to all cosmonauts who flew for the Soviet Space Agency. Usually accompanying the distinction was the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, the highest title that could be awarded to a Soviet citizen for performing heroic deeds while in service of the state.
The Honorary Title "Honoured Test Pilot of the USSR" was a state award of the Soviet Union established on August 14, 1958 by Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet № 2523-X to recognise courage and excellence of military and civilian test pilots in flight research and testing of aircraft. Its statute was confirmed on August 22, 1988 by Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet № 9441-XI. The title ceased to be awarded following the December 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Out of the Present is a 1995 documentary film by Andrei Ujică that deals with the prolonged stay of the Russian cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev at space station Mir. This was the first time a 35 mm film camera was used in space.
Pavel Nikolaevich Vlasov is a Russian test pilot, engineer, one of the Gromov Flight Research Institute directors (2010–2017), chief of the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Centre (2017–2021) and Hero of the Russian Federation.
The space program of Kazakhstan is originated from the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, when Kazakhstan declared their independence. The Kazakh space program consist of cosmonaut and satellite missions. The only launch site situated at Kazakhstan is Baikonur Cosmodrome, which is leased to Russia. The program is led by KazCosmos since 2007.
The Roscosmos Cosmonaut Corps is a unit of the Russia's Roscosmos State Corporation that selects, trains, and provides astronauts as crew members for the Russian Federation and international space missions. It is part of the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center, based at Star City in Moscow Oblast, Russia.