|Preceded by||Tokugawa Iemitsu|
|Succeeded by||Tokugawa Tsunayoshi|
|Born||7 September 1641|
Edo, Tokugawa shogunate
|Died||4 June 1680 38) (aged|
Edo Castle, Edo, Tokugawa shogunate
Tokugawa Ietsuna (徳川 家綱, September 7, 1641 – June 4, 1680) was the fourth shōgun of the Tokugawa dynasty of Japan who was in office from 1651 to 1680. He is considered the eldest son of Tokugawa Iemitsu, which makes him the grandson of Tokugawa Hidetada and the great-grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu.
Tokugawa Ietsuna was born in 1641, allegedly the eldest son of Tokugawa Iemitsu with his concubine, Oraku no Kata later Houjuin. Later Ietsuna was raised with his sister, Chiyohime (born by Ofuri) by Iemitsu's concubine, Oman no kata (later Eikoin) and Iemitsu's wife, Takatsukasa Takako later Honriin. After Eikoin retired, Senhime (also called Tenjuin) raised him with Honriin.At that time his father was shogun in his own right and had enacted several anti-Christian measures after the bloody Shimabara Rebellion of 1637. Though the suppression of this rebellion quelled all serious threats to Tokugawa rule, it was nonetheless an unsure era. Ietsuna was a frail child, and this carried over into his adult years. Nothing else is known of his youth. His childhood name was Takechiyo (竹千代).
Tokugawa Iemitsu died in early 1651, at the age of forty-seven. After his death, the Tokugawa dynasty was at major risk. Ietsuna, the heir, was only ten years old. Nonetheless, despite his age, Tokugawa no Ietsuna became shogun in Kei'an 4 (1651).Until he came of age, five regents were to rule in his place, but Shogun Ietsuna nevertheless assumed a role as formal head of the bakufu bureaucracy.
In this period, regents exercised power in the shogun's name. These were Sakai Tadakatsu, Sakai Tadakiyo, Inaba Masanori, Matsudaira Nobutsuna (a distant member of the Tokugawa), and one other. In addition to this regency, Iemitsu handpicked his half-brother, Hoshina Masayuki.
The first thing that Shogun Ietsuna and the regency had to address was the rōnin (masterless samurai). During the reign of Shogun Iemitsu, two samurai, Yui Shōsetsu and Marubashi Chūya, had been planning an uprising in which the city of Edo would be burned to the ground and, amidst the confusion, Edo Castle would be raided and the shōgun, other members of the Tokugawa and high officials would be executed. Similar occurrences would happen in Kyoto and Osaka. Shosetsu was himself of humble birth and he saw Toyotomi Hideyoshi as his idol.
Nonetheless, the plan was discovered after the death of Iemitsu, and Ietsuna's regents were brutal in suppressing the rebellion, which came to be known as the Keian Uprising or the "Tosa Conspiracy".Chuya was brutally executed along with his family and Shosetsu's family. Shosetsu chose to commit seppuku rather than being captured.
In 1652, about 800 rōnin led a small disturbance on Sado Island, and this was also brutally suppressed. But for the most part, the remainder of Ietsuna's rule was not disturbed anymore by the rōnin as the government became more civilian-oriented.
In Meireki 3 (1657), on the 18th–19th days of the 1st month, when Ietsuna was almost 20 years old, a great fire broke out in Edo and burned the city to the ground. Ietsuna's concubine Oyo burned to death in the fire.It took two years to rebuild the city and bakufu officials supervised the rebuilding of the city. In 1659, Ietsuna presided over the opening ceremonies. In the 11th month he married Asa no Miya Akiko, daughter of Fushimi no Miya Sadakiyo. It is said that his relationship was quite good with Asa no Miya, though they didn't have a child; they adopted Naohime, daughter of Tokugawa Mitsutomo.
In 1663, the regency for shōgun Ietsuna ended, but the regents still held power for him, the first time that the power behind the bakufu was not a former shōgun. Ietsuna's chief advisors were now Hoshina Masayuki, Ietsuna's uncle (whom he had deep regard for) Itakura Shigenori, Tsuchiya Kazunao, Kuze Hiroyuki, and Inaba Masanori. Even though Ietsuna was now ruling in his own right, these former regents now became his official advisors, and in some cases, acted for him. In some cases, however, Ietsuna acted upon his own accord, as when he came up with the idea of abolishing junshi, where a samurai follows his lord into death.
Another example of this is in 1671 when the Date family of Sendai was involved in a succession dispute. The bakufu intervened and prevented another rendition of the Ōnin War. By 1671, however, many of the former regents were either dead or retired, and Ietsuna began to rule in his own right.
Following the succession dispute of the Date, very few disturbances occurred for the remainder of Ietsuna's reign, except some defiant daimyōs.
In 1679, shōgun Ietsuna fell ill. His succession began to be discussed, in which Sakai Tadakiyo took an active role. He suggested that a son of Emperor Go-Sai become the next shogun, following the precedent of the later Kamakura shoguns, who in reality were members of the blood royal. Tadakiyo probably saw himself as becoming powerful like the Hōjō regents, and thus many members of the Tokugawa blood preferred Shogun Ietsuna's younger brother Tokugawa Tsunayoshi, also a son of Shogun Iemitsu, to become shōgun.
Tadakiyo retired, embarrassed, and shortly after, Tokugawa Ietsuna died in 1680. His posthumous name was Genyū-in (厳有院) and was buried in Kan'ei-ji.He was succeeded by his younger brother, Tsunayoshi.
Though Ietsuna proved to be an able leader, affairs were largely controlled by the regents his father had appointed, even after Ietsuna was declared old enough to rule in his own right.
The years in which Ietsuna was shōgun are more specifically identified by more than one era name or nengō .
|Ancestors of Tokugawa Ietsuna|
Tokugawa Iemitsu was the third shōgun of the Tokugawa dynasty. He was the eldest son of Tokugawa Hidetada with Oeyo, and the grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu. Lady Kasuga was his wet nurse, who acted as his political adviser and was at the forefront of shogunate negotiations with the Imperial court. Iemitsu ruled from 1623 to 1651; during this period he crucified Christians, expelled all Europeans from Japan and closed the borders of the country, a foreign politics policy that continued for over 200 years after its institution. It is debatable whether Iemitsu can be considered a kinslayer for making his younger brother Tadanaga commit suicide by seppuku.
Tokugawa Yoshimune was the eighth shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, ruling from 1716 until his abdication in 1745. He was the son of Tokugawa Mitsusada, the grandson of Tokugawa Yorinobu, and the great-grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu.
Tokugawa Tsunayoshi was the fifth shōgun of the Tokugawa dynasty of Japan. He was the younger brother of Tokugawa Ietsuna, as well as the son of Tokugawa Iemitsu, the grandson of Tokugawa Hidetada, and the great-grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu.
Tokugawa Ienobu was the sixth shōgun of the Tokugawa dynasty of Japan. He was the eldest son of Tokugawa Tsunashige, thus making him the nephew of Tokugawa Ietsuna and Tokugawa Tsunayoshi, the grandson of Tokugawa Iemitsu, the great-grandson of Tokugawa Hidetada, and the great-great-grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu. All of Ienobu's children died young.
Tokugawa Ietsugu; 徳川 家継 was the seventh shōgun of the Tokugawa dynasty, who ruled from 1713 until his death in 1716. He was the son of Tokugawa Ienobu, thus making him the grandson of Tokugawa Tsunashige, daimyō of Kofu, great-grandson of Tokugawa Iemitsu, great-great grandson of Tokugawa Hidetada, and finally the great-great-great grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu.
Tokugawa Ieharu (徳川家治) was the tenth shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, who held office from 1760 to 1786.
Tokugawa Ieshige; 徳川 家重 was the ninth shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan.
Enpō (延宝) is the Japanese era name after Kanbun and before Tenna. This period spanned the years from September 1673 to September 1681. The reigning emperor was Reigen-tennō (霊元天皇).
Manji (万治) was a Japanese era name after Meireki and before Kanbun. This period spanned the years from July 1658 through April 1661. The reigning emperor was Go-Sai-tennō (後西天皇).
Keian (慶安) was a Japanese era name after Shōhō and before Jōō. This period spanned the years from February 1648 through September 1652. The reigning emperor was Go-Kōmyō-tennō (後光明天皇).
Hoshina Masayuki was a Japanese daimyō of the early Edo period, who was the founder of what became the Matsudaira house of Aizu. He was an important figure in the politics and philosophy of the early Tokugawa shogunate.
The Ōoku was historically the women's quarters of Edo Castle, the section where the women connected to the reigning shōgun resided. Similar areas in the castles of powerful daimyō, such as the Satsuma Domain, were also referred to by this term.
Abe Tadaaki was a high-ranking government official in Japan under Tokugawa Iemitsu and Ietsuna, the third and fourth Tokugawa Shōgun. As the daimyō of the Oshi Domain in modern-day Saitama Prefecture, with an income of 80,000 koku, Abe was appointed wakadoshiyori in 1633, and rōjū shortly afterwards.
Hotta Masatoshi was a daimyō in Shimōsa Province, and top government advisor and official in the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan. He served as rōjū to shōgun Tokugawa Ietsuna from 1679–80, and as Tairō under Tokugawa Tsunayoshi from the 12th day of the 11th lunar month of 1681 until his death on 7 October 1684.
Sakai Tadakiyo, also known as Uta-no-kami, was a daimyō in Kōzuke Province, and a high-ranking government advisor and official in the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan.
Tokugawa Mitsusada was a daimyō in Japan during the Edo period (1603–1868). Mitsusada was born as the son and heir of Tokugawa Yorinobu and a grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu with the childhood name Nagatomimaru (長福丸). Among his sons was the eighth Tokugawa shōgun Yoshimune. Norihime, a daughter of his, married Ichijō Kaneteru. He married the daughter of Prince Fushimi-no-Miya Sadakiyo, Yaso-no-Miya Teruko.
Tokugawa Mitsutomo was daimyō of Owari Domain during early Edo period Japan.
Tokugawa Tsunanari was daimyō of Owari Domain during early-Edo period Japan.
The midaidokoro (御台所) was the official wife of the shōgun. During the Edo period, she resided in the Ōoku of Edo Castle and sometimes wielded considerable political power behind the scenes.
Chiyohime was Tokugawa Iemitsu's daughter with his concubine, Ofuri no Kata, daughter of Oka Shigemasa, also known as Jishō'in. After Ofuri died, Chiyohime was adopted by Iemitsu's concubine, Oman no Kata (1624-1711), later Keishoin. She married Tokugawa Mitsutomo, daimyō of Owari Domain. In 1652, she constructed a mausoleum for her mother named Jishō'in Mausoleum, which is now located in Edo-Tokyo Open Air Architectural Museum. She died in 1699 and was given the name Reisen'in (霊仙院).