|Preceded by||Tokugawa Ienari|
|Succeeded by||Tokugawa Iesada|
|Born||22 June 1793|
Edo Castle, Edo, Tokugawa shogunate
(now Tokyo, Japan)
|Died||27 July 1853 (aged 59)|
Tokugawa Ieyoshi (徳川 家慶, June 22, 1793 – July 27, 1853; r. 1837–1853) was the 12th shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan.
Ieyoshi was born as the second son of the 11th shōgun, Tokugawa Ienari and named Toshijirō (敏次郎). Toshijirō was appointed heir on the death of his elder brother, Takechiyo. He became shogun on September 2, 1837, at the age of 45 upon the retirement of his father, Tokugawa Ienari. However, Ienari continued to wield much power from behind the throne, and it was not until after his death in 1841 that Senior Rōjū Mizuno Tadakuni was able to purge the government of his clique, and to implement measures to overhaul the shogunate's finances and controls in the aftermath of the Great Tenpō Famine of 1832–36.
Known as the Tenpō Reforms, these numerous sumptuary laws attempted to stabilize the economy through a return to the frugality, simplicity and discipline that were characteristic of the early Edo period, by banning most forms of entertainment and displays of wealth. The restrictions proved extremely unpopular with the commoners.
Increasing criticism of the government's handling of foreign affairs led to the Bansha no goku in 1839, suppressing rangaku studies.
Another part of the Reform included the Agechi-rei of 1843, which was to have daimyō in the vicinity of Edo and Ōsaka surrender their holdings for equal amounts of land elsewhere, thereby consolidating Tokugawa control over these strategically vital areas. However, this was also greatly unpopular amongst daimyō of all ranks and income levels. To complicate the situation further, in May 1844, Edo Castle burned down, and Mizuno Tadakuni was forced into exile and retirement. Mizuno was replaced by Doi Yoshitsura, Abe Masahiro and Tsutsui Masanori as rōjū. He forced the retirement of Tokugawa Nariaki in 1844 and placed Nariaki's seventh son, Tokugawa Yoshinobu as head of the Hitotsubashi-Tokugawa house in 1847. He also forced the retirement of Shimazu Narioki in 1851.
US Commodore Matthew Perry arrived on June 3, 1853, on a mission to force a treaty opening Japan to trade. Ieyoshi died on July 27, 1853, before the treaty could be concluded, of heart failure possibly brought on by heat stroke, and was succeeded by his third son Tokugawa Iesada. The following year the Tokugawa shogunate was forced to accept the American demands by signing the Convention of Kanagawa.
Tokugawa Ieyoshi's grave is at the Tokugawa family mausoleum at Zōjō-ji in Shiba. His Buddhist name was Shintokuin.
Ieyoshi's official wife was Princess Takako (1795–1840), the sixth daughter of Prince Arisugawa Orihito. She relocated to Edo Castle in 1804 when she was only age 10, and they were formally wed in 1810. In 1813, she gave birth to a son, Takechiyo, followed by a daughter in 1815 and in 1816. In addition, Ieyoshi had another 13 sons and 11 daughters by numerous concubines; however, only one son, Tokugawa Iesada, lived past the age of 20.
The years in which Ieyoshi was shōgun are more specifically identified by more than one era name or nengō .
|Ancestors of Tokugawa Ieyoshi|
Mizuno Tadakuni was a daimyō during late-Edo period Japan, who later served as chief senior councilor (Rōjū) in service to the Tokugawa shogunate. He is remembered for having instituted the Tenpō Reforms.
Tokugawa Nariaki was a prominent Japanese daimyō who ruled the Mito Domain and contributed to the rise of nationalism and the Meiji Restoration.
Tokugawa Ieharu (徳川家治) was the tenth shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, who held office from 1760 to 1786.
Tokugawa Iemochi was the 14th shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, who held office from 1858 to 1866. During his reign there was much internal turmoil as a result of the "re-opening" of Japan to western nations. Iemochi's reign also saw a weakening of the shogunate.
Tokugawa Ienari was the eleventh and longest-serving shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan who held office from 1787 to 1837. He was a great-grandson of the eighth shōgun Tokugawa Yoshimune through his son Munetada (1721–1764), head of the Hitotsubashi branch of the family, and his grandson Harusada (1751–1827).
Tokugawa Iesada was the 13th shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan. He held office for five years from 1853 to 1858. He was physically weak and was therefore considered by later historians to have been unfit to be shōgun. His reign marks the beginning of the Bakumatsu period.
Tenpō (天保) was a Japanese era name after Bunsei and before Kōka. The period spanned from December 1830 through December 1844. The reigning emperor was Ninko-tennō (仁孝天皇).
Hotta Masayoshi was the 5th Hotta daimyō of the Sakura Domain in the Japanese Edo period, who served as chief rōjū in the Bakumatsu period Tokugawa shogunate, where he played an important role in the negotiations of the Ansei Treaties with various foreign powers.
The Ōoku was historically the women's quarters of Edo Castle, the section where the women connected to the reigning shōgun resided. Similar areas in the castles of powerful daimyō, such as the Satsuma Domain, were also referred to by this term.
Abe Masahiro was the chief senior councilor (rōjū) in the Tokugawa shogunate of the Bakumatsu period at the time of the arrival of Commodore Matthew Perry on his mission to open Japan to the outside world. Abe was instrumental in the eventual signing of the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854. Abe did not sign the treaty himself or participate in the negotiations in person; this was done by his plenipotentiary Hayashi Akira. His courtesy title was Ise-no-kami.
The Kishū Domain, also known as Kii Domain (紀伊藩) or Wakayama Domain (和歌山藩), was a han or Japanese feudal domain in Kii Province. The domain spanned areas of present-day Wakayama and southern Mie prefectures, and had an income of 555,000 koku. The domain was administered from Wakayama Castle in present-day Wakayama, Wakayama Prefecture. The heads of the domain were drawn from the Kishu-Tokugawa clan, one of the Gosanke, or three branches of the Tokugawa clan. The domain was founded by Tokugawa Yorinobu, the tenth son of the shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu, when he moved from Sunpu Domain in Suruga Province to Kii Province. The Kishū came to control the smaller adjacent Tanabe and Shingū domains. The Kishū Domain was noted for its production of the Kishū mikan, soy sauce, lacquerware, and high-grade oak charcoal during the Edo period, and leather and cotton production by the Meiji Restoration in 1868.
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Manabe Akikatsu was the 7th daimyō of Sabae Domain in Echizen Province under the Tokugawa shogunate of Edo period Japan. His courtesy title was Shimōsa-no-kami, and his Court rank was Junior Fifth Rank, Lower Grade, later raised to Junior Fourth Rank, Lower Grade. He was the 8th hereditary chieftain of the Manabe clan.
Hachisuka Narihiro was a Japanese daimyō of the late Edo period, who ruled the Tokushima Domain. He was a son of the eleventh shōgun, Tokugawa Ienari.
Maeda Narinaga was an Edo period Japanese samurai, and the 11th daimyō of Kaga Domain in the Hokuriku region of Japan. He was the 12th hereditary chieftain of the Kanazawa Maeda clan.
Maeda Yoshiyasu was a late-Edo period Japanese samurai, and the 13th daimyō of Kaga Domain in the Hokuriku region of Japan, and the 14th hereditary lord of the Maeda clan.
Inoue Masaharu was a daimyō and official of the Tokugawa shogunate during late-Edo period Japan. His courtesy title was Kawachi-no-kami.
Inoue Masanao was a daimyō and official of the Tokugawa shogunate during Bakumatsu period Japan.
Date Nariyoshi was an mid-Edo period Japanese samurai, and the 11th daimyō of Sendai Domain in the Tōhoku region of northern Japan, and the 27th hereditary chieftain of the Date clan.
Date Narikuni was an late-Edo period Japanese samurai, and the 12th daimyō of Sendai Domain in the Tōhoku region of northern Japan, and the 28th hereditary chieftain of the Date clan.