|Born||11 July 1628|
|Died||14 January 1701 72)(aged|
Tokugawa Mitsukuni(徳川 光圀, 11 July 1628 – 14 January 1701) or Mito Kōmon(水戸黄門) was a prominent daimyō who was known for his influence in the politics of the early Edo period. He was the third son of Tokugawa Yorifusa (who in turn was the eleventh son of Tokugawa Ieyasu) and succeeded him, becoming the second daimyō of the Mito Domain.
The daimyō were powerful Japanese feudal lords who, until their decline in the early Meiji period, ruled most of Japan from their vast, hereditary land holdings. In the term, dai (大) means "large", and myō stands for myōden(名田), meaning private land.
The Edo period or Tokugawa period (徳川時代) is the period between 1603 and 1868 in the history of Japan, when Japanese society was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional daimyō. The period was characterized by economic growth, strict social order, isolationist foreign policies, a stable population, "no more wars", and popular enjoyment of arts and culture. The shogunate was officially established in Edo on March 24, 1603, by Tokugawa Ieyasu. The period came to an end with the Meiji Restoration on May 3, 1868, after the fall of Edo.
Tokugawa Yorifusa, also known as Mito Yorifusa, was a Japanese daimyō of the early Edo period.
He was responsible for assembling the Mitogaku scholars to compile a huge Japanese history, Dai Nihonshi .In it, Japan was depicted as a nation under the Emperor, analogous to that in Chinese dynasties. This helped the rise of nationalism in the late shogunate and in the Mito Domain later. His childhood name was Chomaru (長丸) later become Chiyomatsu (千代松) this name was personally granted by his cousin and the shōgun, Tokugawa Iemitsu.
Mitogaku (水戸学) refers to a school of Japanese historical and Shinto studies that arose in the Mito Domain.
The Dai Nihonshi (大日本史), literally Great History of Japan, is a book on the history of Japan. It was begun in the 17th century, during the Edo period, by Tokugawa Mitsukuni, the head of the Mito branch of the Tokugawa family. After his death, work was continued by the Mito branch until its completion in the Meiji era. The work starts with Emperor Jimmu, the legendary first emperor of Japan, during the early Kofun period, and covers the first hundred emperors, ending with Emperor Go-Komatsu after the merging of the Southern and Northern Court in 1392. The whole work comprises 397 scrolls in 226 volumes, and 5 scrolls of index.
The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and the head of state of Japan. Under the 1947 constitution, he is defined as "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people." Historically, he was also the highest authority of the Shinto religion. In Japanese, the emperor is called Tennō (天皇), literally "heavenly sovereign". In English, the use of the term Mikado for the emperor was once common, but is now considered obsolete.
In 1661, at age 34, he became the daimyō of the Mito han. one village, one shrine policy(一村一社isson issha). At age 63, he was awarded the court office of gon-chūnagon, or provisional middle counsellor. In 1691, he retired to his villa, Seizan-sō.He anticipated the forcible division of kami and Buddhas ( shinbutsu bunri ) of 1868 ordering there the destruction of a thousand Buddhist temples and the construction of at least one shrine per village (
Kami are the spirits or phenomena that are worshipped in the religion of Shinto. They can be elements of the landscape, forces of nature, as well as beings and the qualities that these beings express; they can also be the spirits of venerated dead persons. Many kami are considered the ancient ancestors of entire clans. Traditionally, great or sensational leaders like the Emperor could be or became kami.
The Japanese term shinbutsu bunri (神仏分離) indicates the separation of Shinto from Buddhism, introduced after the Meiji Restoration which separated Shinto kami from buddhas, and also Buddhist temples from Shinto shrines, which were originally amalgamated. It is a yojijukugo phrase.
Chūnagon (中納言) was a counselor of the second rank in the Imperial court of Japan. The role dates from the 7th century.
He directed at Zuisen-ji the creation of the very first guide to Kamakura, the Shinpen Kamakurashi. The book would have a profound influence on the city in the following centuries, an influence which continues to this day in names for parts of the city like Kamakura's Seven Mouths, Kamakura's Ten Bridges, and other such popular monikers he coined.
Kinbyōzan Zuisen-ji (錦屏山瑞泉寺) is a Buddhist temple of the Rinzai sect in Nikaidō's Momijigayatsu Valley in Kamakura, Japan. During the Muromachi period it was the family temple of the Ashikaga rulers of Kamakura : four of the five kubō are buried there in a private cemetery closed to the public and first kubō Ashikaga Motouji's is also known by the name Zuisen-ji-den (瑞泉寺殿). Designed by prominent Zen religious figure, poet and Zen garden designer Musō Soseki, the temple lies on top of an isolated hill and is famous for both its garden and its Zen rock garden. The beauty and the quantity of its plants have gained it since antiquity the nickname "Temple of Flowers" (花の寺). The main object of worship is Jizō Bosatsu. Zuisen-ji is an Historic Site and contains numerous objects classified as Important Cultural Properties and Places of Scenic Beauty.
The Shinpen Kamakurashi is an Edo period compendium of topographic, geographic and demographic data concerning the city of Kamakura, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, and its vicinities. Consisting of eight volumes and commissioned in 1685 by Tokugawa Mitsukuni to three vassals, it contains for example information about "Kamakura's Seven Entrances", "Kamakura's Ten Bridges" and "Kamakura's Ten Wells". It includes illustrations, maps, and information about temples, ruins and place names etymologies not only about Kamakura, but also about Enoshima, Shichirigahama, Hayama and Kanazawa. The book created and popularized many of these "numbered" names, which were picked up by many subsequent tourist guides and became part of Kamakura's image. Each volume contains a day's worth of walking and is a real and effective guide to sightseeing. This makes the book a precious source of information to historians.
In 1657 ( Meireki 3) at the age of 27, he married a daughter of the kampaku Konoe Nobuhiro.He was also known as a gourmet of the Edo period. He is claimed to be one of the first Japanese to eat ramen as well as routinely enjoying such exotic food as wine and yogurt. Mitsukuni had one son, who took the Matsudaira surname. Additionally, Mitsukuni adopted the son of an elder brother; this adopted son, Tokugawa Tsunaeda, became his heir.
Meireki (明暦) was a Japanese era name of the Edo period, after the Jōō era and before Manji era. This era's period spanned the years from April 1655 to July 1658.
East Asian age reckoning originated in China and continues in limited use there and in Japan, but is still common in Korea. People are born at the age of one, i.e. the first year of lifetime using ordinal number, and on Chinese New Year or New Year's Day one year is added to their age. Since age is incremented at the beginning of the lunar or solar year, rather than on the anniversary of a birthday, people may be one or two years older in Asian reckoning than in the international age system.
Konoe Nobuhiro, Ōzan (応山) as a monk, was a kugyō or Japanese court noble of the Edo period (1603–1868). He was born the fourth son of Emperor Go-Yōzei. His mother was Empress Dowager Chūka, or Konoe Sakiko by birth. Nobuhiro was adopted by Konoe Nobutada, his maternal uncle, as Nobutada had no legitimate heir.
He died at his villa in 1701. He posthumously received the court rank of junior first rank (1869) and first rank (1900).He is now considered to be a kami.
During the latter half of the Edo period and the Meiji period, a kōdan (narrative tale) named "Mito Mitsukuni Man'yūki" fictionalized the travels of Tokugawa Mitsukuni. This tradition of dramatizing his life continued with a novel and, in 1951, the first television series to portray him as a wanderer, masquerading as a commoner, who castigated the evil powers in every corner of the nation. From 1969 to 2011, the TBS ran the series Mito Kōmon , which continues to attract audiences in reruns. Episodes were re-broadcast in the early 1990s by WNYE-TV (New York City) under the title The Elder Lord of Mito.[ citation needed ]
Each summer, the city of Mito hosts the Mito Komon festival, which prominently features the Tokugawa seal, as well as actors representing Tokugawa Mitsukuni and his assistants.[ citation needed ]
Emperor Go-Yōzei was the 107th Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Go-Yōzei's reign spanned the years 1586 through to his abdication in 1611, corresponding to the transition between the Azuchi–Momoyama period and the Edo period.
Matsudaira Katamori was a samurai who lived in the last days of the Edo period and the early to mid Meiji period. He was the 9th daimyō of the Aizu han and the Military Commissioner of Kyoto during the Bakumatsu period. During the Boshin War, Katamori and the Aizu han fought against the Meiji Government armies, but were severely defeated. Katamori's life was spared, and he later became the Chief of the Tōshōgū Shrine. He, along with his three brothers Sadaaki, Yoshikatsu, and Mochiharu, had highly influential roles during the Meiji Restoration and were called the four Takasu brothers.
Hayashi Razan, also known as Hayashi Dōshun, was a Japanese Neo-Confucian philosopher, serving as a tutor and an advisor to the first four shōguns of the Tokugawa bakufu. He is also attributed with first listing the Three Views of Japan. Razan was the founder of the Hayashi clan of Confucian scholars.
The Tokugawa clan was a powerful daimyō family of Japan. They nominally descended from Emperor Seiwa (850–880) and were a branch of the Minamoto clan by the Nitta clan. The early history of this clan remains a mystery. Members of the clan ruled Japan as shōguns from 1603 to 1867.
The Tokugawa Gosanke, also called simply Gosanke, or even Sanke, were the most noble three branches of the Tokugawa clan of Japan: Owari House of Tokugawa, Kii House of Tokugawa, and Mito House of Tokugawa, all of which were descended from clan founder Tokugawa Ieyasu's three youngest sons, Yoshinao, Yorinobu, and Yorifusa, and were allowed to provide a shōgun in case of need. In the Edo period the term gosanke could also refer to various other combinations of Tokugawa houses, including (1) the shogunal, Owari and Kii houses and (2) the Owari, Kii, and Suruga houses.
Moriyama Domain was a feudal domain under the Tokugawa shogunate of Edo period Japan, located in southern Mutsu Province in what is now part of the modern-day city of Kōriyama, Fukushima. It was established by a cadet branch of the Tokugawa clan of Mito. A relatively small domain, it had a kokudaka of 20,000 koku.
Mito was a Japanese domain of the Edo period. It was associated with Hitachi Province in modern-day Ibaraki Prefecture.
Matsudaira Yoshinaga, also known as Matsudaira Keiei, or better known as Matsudaira Shungaku (春嶽) was a Japanese daimyō of the Edo period. He was head of the Fukui Domain in Echizen Province. He is counted as one of the "Four Wise Lords of the Bakumatsu period", along with Date Munenari, Yamauchi Yōdō and Shimazu Nariakira. "Yoshinaga" is his imina and "Shungaku" is his gō.
Matsudaira Yoshikuni was an mid-Edo period Japanese samurai, and the 8th daimyō of Fukui Domain He was famed as a lover of sumo.
Shishido Domain was a feudal domain under the Tokugawa shogunate of Edo period Japan, located in Hitachi Province, Japan. It was centered on Shishido Jin'ya in what is now part of the city of Kasama, Ibaraki. It was ruled for much of its history by a junior branch of the Mito Tokugawa clan.
The Takamatsu Domain was a han or feudal domain in Sanuki Province, Japan during the Edo period. The domain was governed first by the Ikoma clan then by the Mito-Matsudaira clan.
Konoe Hisatsugu, son of regent Nobuhiro, was a kugyō or Japanese court noble of the Edo period (1603–1868). He held a regent position kampaku from 1651 to 1653.
Komoro Domain was a feudal domain under the Tokugawa shogunate of Edo period Japan. It is located in Shinano Province, Honshū. The domain was centered at Komoro Castle, located in what is now part of the city of Komoro in Nagano Prefecture.
Matsudaira Mochiaki was a Bakumatsu period daimyō under the Edo period Tokugawa shogunate of Japan. He was the 7th daimyō of Itoigawa Domain in Echigo Province and later the 17th daimyō of Fukui Domain in Echizen Province.
Yunagaya Domain was a minor fudai feudal domain under the Tokugawa shogunate of Edo period Japan. based in southern Mutsu Province in what is now part of modern-day Iwaki, Fukushima. It was ruled for the entirety of its history by the Naitō clan. The domain was initially known as Yumoto Domain
Matsudaira Yorishige was a Japanese daimyō of the early Edo period, who ruled the Takamatsu Domain. Yorishige was the first son of Tokugawa Yorifusa, and Tokugawa Mitsukuni was the third son of Tokugawa Yorifusa, the first Tokugawa daimyō of Mito Domain; this made him the grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu.
The Mito-Tokugawa family is a branch of the Tokugawa clan based in Mito, Ibaraki.
Masumida Shrine is a Shinto shrine in the city of Ichinomiya in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. As the name of the city implies, the shrine is the ichinomiya of former Owari Province. The main festival of the shrine is held annually on April 3.
| Daimyō of Mito |