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Tokuzō Fukuda (福田 徳三 Fukuda Tokuzō; born February 12, 1874; died May 8, 1930) was a pioneer of modern Japanese economics.
Fukuda introduced economic theory and economic history for the Social Policy School and the Younger Historical school of economics.
He graduated from the Tokyo Higher School of Commerce (today's Hitotsubashi University). After he was appointed lecturer of his alma mater, he studied in Germany, under Karl Bücher among others in the field, and he earned his doctorate from Munich University. His thesis dealt with the social and economic development in Japan (original title: Die gesellschaftliche und wirtschaftliche Entwicklung in Japan) and was supervised by Lujo Brentano.
After returning to Japan, he became professor of his alma mater and later at Keiō University.
During the years known as the period of "Taishō Democracy", he joined with others to establish Reimeikai, which was a society "to propagate ideas of democracy among the people."This group was formed in order to sponsor public lectures.
After World War I, he defended democracy, advanced a critique of Marxian theory, and emphasized the solution of social and labour problems by government intervention rather than revolution. He is also considered a pioneer of the contemporary welfare state. As an advisor to the Ministry of Home Affairs, he also worked out policy drafts. He is closely related to the Japanese liberal movement and is considered a social-liberal or social-democrat.
Classical liberalism is a political tradition and a branch of liberalism that advocates free market and laissez-faire economics; civil liberties under the rule of law with special emphasis on individual autonomy, limited government, economic freedom, political freedom and freedom of speech. It gained full flowering in the early 18th century, building on ideas stemming at least as far back as the 13th century within the Iberian, Anglo-Saxon, and central European contexts and was foundational to the American Revolution and "American Project" more broadly.
Amartya Kumar Sen is an Indian economist and philosopher, who since 1972 has taught and worked in the United Kingdom and the United States. Sen has made contributions to welfare economics, social choice theory, economic and social justice, economic theories of famines, decision theory, development economics, public health, and measures of well-being of countries.
Fukuda Hideko, born Kageyama Hideko, was a Japanese feminist activist. She was educated at a young age and pursued socialist and feminist goals for most of her adult life. She was a participant in the Osaka Incident of 1885, where approximately 130 liberal activists were arrested on their way to attempt to incite revolution and liberate Korea. The group had planned to provide guns, bombs, and manpower to support reformist movements in Korea before the police intercepted them. After being freed, Fukuda continued to pursue social and gender reforms in Japan, playing an active role in the Freedom and People's Rights Movement which pushed for democratic changes to the government. She eventually established the magazine Sekai Fujin, which aimed at empowering women in Japan and getting them involved in international affairs. Throughout her life, Fukuda was involved in Japanese reform movements as they transitioned from aiming on increasing citizen's political rights to the more socialist-focused waves which attempted to exact nationwide social and economic revisions.
The Taishō era was a period in the history of Japan dating from 30 July 1912 to 25 December 1926, coinciding with the reign of Emperor Taishō. The new emperor was a sickly man, which prompted the shift in political power from the old oligarchic group of elder statesmen to the Imperial Diet of Japan and the democratic parties. Thus, the era is considered the time of the liberal movement known as Taishō Democracy; it is usually distinguished from the preceding chaotic Meiji era and the following militaristic-driven first part of the Shōwa era.
New Right is a term for various right-wing political groups or policies in different countries during different periods. One prominent usage was to describe the emergence of certain Eastern European parties after the collapse of the Soviet Union. In the United States, the Second New Right campaigned against abortion, homosexuality, the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), the Panama Canal Treaty, affirmative action, and most forms of taxation.
Sakuzō Yoshino was a Japanese academic, historian, author and professor of political science.
Social liberalism, also known as new liberalism in the United Kingdom, modern liberalism in the United States where it is known as liberalism, left-liberalism in Germany, and progressive liberalism in Spanish-speaking countries, is a political philosophy and variety of liberalism that endorses social justice and the expansion of civil and political rights. It is economically based on the social market economy and views the common good as harmonious with the individual's freedom. Social liberals overlap with social democrats in accepting economic intervention more than other liberals; its importance is considered auxiliary compared to social democrats. Ideologies that emphasize its economic policy include welfare liberalism, New Deal liberalism in the United States, and Keynesian liberalism. Cultural liberalism is an ideology that highlights its cultural aspects. The world has widely adopted social liberal policies.
Socialist thought in Imperial Japan appeared during the Meiji period (1868–1912) with the development of numerous relatively short-lived political parties through the early Shōwa period. Left wing parties, whether advocating communism or socialism, provoked hostility from the mainstream political parties, oligarchs and military alike, and many were either banned or went underground soon after formation. Although occasionally winning a seat in the lower house of the Diet of Japan, left-socialist parties played little role in the government of the Empire of Japan.
Hajime Kawakami was a Japanese Marxist economist of the Taishō and early Shōwa periods.
The capability approach is a normative approach to human welfare that concentrates on the actual capability of persons to achieve lives they value rather than solely having a right or freedom to do so. It was conceived in the 1980s as an alternative approach to welfare economics. In this approach, Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum combine a range of ideas that were previously excluded from traditional approaches to welfare economics. The core focus of the capability approach is improving access to the tools people use to live a fulfilling life.
Crawford Brough Macpherson was an influential Canadian political scientist who taught political theory at the University of Toronto.
Count Gotō Shōjirō was a Japanese samurai and politician during the Bakumatsu and early Meiji period of Japanese history. He was a leader of Freedom and People's Rights Movement which would evolve into a political party.
Baron Katō Hiroyuki was an academic and politician of the Meiji period Japan.
Social democracy is a political, social, and economic philosophy within socialism that supports political and economic democracy. As a policy regime, it is described by academics as advocating economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal-democratic polity and a capitalist-oriented mixed economy. The protocols and norms used to accomplish this involve a commitment to representative and participatory democracy, measures for income redistribution, regulation of the economy in the general interest, and social welfare provisions. Due to longstanding governance by social democratic parties during the post-war consensus and their influence on socioeconomic policy in Northern and Western Europe, social democracy became associated with Keynesianism, the Nordic model, the social-liberal paradigm, and welfare states within political circles in the late 20th century. It has been described as the most common form of Western or modern socialism, as well as the reformist wing of democratic socialism.
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on the rights of the individual, liberty, consent of the governed, political equality and equality before the law. Liberals espouse various views depending on their understanding of these principles. However, they generally support private property, market economies, individual rights, liberal democracy, secularism, rule of law, economic and political freedom, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly, and freedom of religion. Liberalism is frequently cited as the dominant ideology of modern history.
Eiichi Sugimoto was a Japanese economist and professor at the Tokyo University of Commerce who was a pioneer of mathematical economics in Japan. He participated in the Tokuzō Fukuda Seminar, and majored in Marxist economics at the Tokyo University of Commerce and went on to study in Germany before returning to Japan.
Reimeikai was a Japanese "educational society" formed in Japan's Taishō period. The members declared themselves committed "to strive for the stabilization and enrichment of the life of the Japanese people in conformity with the new trends of the postwar world."
Liberal socialism is a political philosophy that incorporates liberal principles to socialism. This synthesis sees liberalism as the political theory that takes the inner freedom of the human spirit as a given and adopts liberty as the goal, means and rule of shared human life. Socialism is seen as the method to realize this recognition of liberty through political and economic autonomy and emancipation from the grip of pressing material necessity. Liberal socialism refuses to abolish capitalism with a socialist economy and supports a mixed economy that includes both social ownership and private property in capital goods.
Kokutairon and Pure Socialism (1906), otherwise known as The Theory of Japan's National Polity and Pure Socialism (国体論及び純正社会主義), is a radical socialist treatise written by Ikki Kita in critique of the government of Meiji Japan. Kita was a notable Japanese political intellectual in the late 19th-century and early 20th-century. His political views, commonly aligned with the ideology of Shōwa nationalism, reflect the widespread Japanese reaction against Meiji government and kokutairon ideology on which their society was based.