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|Tokyo Metropolitan Ordinance Regarding the Healthy Development of Youths|
|Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly|
|Territorial extent||Tokyo, Japan|
|Enacted||August 1, 1964|
The Tokyo Metropolitan Ordinance Regarding the Healthy Development of Youths (東京都青少年の健全な育成に関する条例, Tōkyō-to Seishōnen no Kenzen na Ikusei ni Kansuru Jōrei) is a prefectural law passed by the Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly on August 1, 1964. Its purpose is to promote the healthy development of people under the age of 18 by restricting their access to published material that is considered inappropriate. The restrictions are primarily carried out through self-regulation by the publishing industry.
The Ordinance was controversially revised in December 2010 to expand the definition of "harmful publications" and to give the Metropolitan government greater powers to enforce the law's provisions.
According to Michiko Nagaoko, director of a non-profit organization in Kyoto called Juvenile Guide, founded in 2003, approximately half of the 2,000 pornographic animation titles distributed in Japan every year, including films and video games, feature schoolgirl characters.On 11 March 2008, UNICEF Japan issued a statement calling for further tightening of child pornography laws in Japan, including the ban of sexual depictions of minors in manga, anime and video games. Such a ban was not considered by Japan's officials at the time.
Currently, works that are "restricted" under the ordinance bear a mark labeling them as "seinen" (成年, "adult") or "18-kin" (１８禁, "18+"); retailers are required to shelve such material separately from unrestricted works and to perform age-checks on purchasers of restricted material. Publisher self-regulation and retail compliance is administered by the Shuppan Ronri Kyogika (出版倫理協議会,, Council on Publishing Ethics), which is operated by the Japan Book Publishers Association.
On 24 February 2010, the Metropolitan government submitted a proposed revision to the ordinance that would restrict sexually provocative depictions of fictional characters who appear to be under 18 years of age, referred to in the bill as "non-existent youths" (非実在青少年, hijitsuzai seishōnen). This proposal was criticised by many manga authors and received strong opposition from the publishing industry, the Writers Guild of Japan and the Japan Federation of Bar Associations, and was rejected by the Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly on 16 June 2010. Voting on the bill was put on hold until June, and Shintarō Ishihara, the governor of Tokyo, admitted that the bill's language needed revision.
Despite revisions made which changed "nonexistent youths" to "depicted youths",the bill continued to be opposed by the Democratic Party of Japan and was rejected by the Assembly in June.
After the original bill's defeat, Tokyo governor Shintarō Ishihara announced his intent to submit a new revision later in the year.This revision, informally referred to as Bill 156, was submitted by the government in November 2010. It removed the controversial "non-existent youth" term but still proposed a number of significant changes to the law:
Like its predecessor the bill was opposed by many writers, publishers and lawyers.However, the Japanese Parent Teacher Association expressed its support for the changes.
Bill 156 was approved by the Metropolitan Assembly's general affairs committee on 13 December 2010 and passed by the full Assembly two days later.The committee added a non-binding clause to the bill that calls on regulators to take into account "merits based on artistic, social, educational, and satirical criticism criteria" when evaluating publications under the revised law. Only two small political parties, the Japanese Communist Party and the Tokyo Seikatsusha Network, opposed the bill. The revised law took full effect on 1 July 2011.
A revised edition was presented in November to the Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly,which would require self-regulation of "'manga, anime and other images'...that 'unjustifiably glorify or emphasize' certain sexual or pseudo sexual acts"...depictions of 'sexual or pseudo sexual acts that would be illegal in real life'". However, the bill no longer uses the term nonexistent youth and applies to all characters and to material that is not necessarily meant to be sexually stimulating. On 13 December 2010 it passed through committee. It was approved in December and will take full effect in July 2011. According to the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Office for Youth Affairs and Public Safety, the bill does not regulate mobile sites or downloaded and is only intended for publications such as books and DVDs.
The original proposal was criticized by a group of manga artists, who prepared a statement for the Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly signed by many anime and manga industry personnel opposing the legislation.After Bill 156 passed through committee, Shueisha's management tried to calm worries for new manga artists. According to Anime News Network (ANN), at the New Manga Creators Awards ceremony Kazuhiko Torishima, senior managing director and editor, said he wanted "new manga authors to produce manga that would blow away [Tokyo Governor] Shintaro Ishihara" and Masahiko Ibaraki, editor-in-chief of its third editorial department, added that he did not want the increased regulations to have a chilling effect on their content and they would still feature anything that was exciting. In addition, the Mobile Content Forum and a group of female yaoi authors voiced their opposition.
Takeshi Nogami announced the publication of an anti-Ordinance dōjinshi at Comiket 79, entitled An Idiot's Guide to Tokyo's Harmful Books Regulation.The all-ages dōjin sold out its first printing of over 1000 copies and went into a second printing; it will be officially translated into English & released online. In a blog post on 13 December 2010, the Japanese Prime Minister Naoto Kan expressed concern about the impact of the boycott and urged the parties involved to work towards resolving the situation.
The Association of Japanese Animations (AJA) along with the Comic 10 Society (コミック10社会, Comikku 10 Shakai) and several Japanese anime and manga publishers have voiced opposition to the bill. For its part, the AJA has voiced concerns the bill has major freedom of expression problems which are guaranteed by the Constitution of Japan. Specifically, the bill's scope and its vague requirements. In addition, the AJA said that they did not receive prior notice or hearings on the matter even though the bill deals with anime and thus it did not receive due process.
In response to the bill, Comic 10 Society has said it will boycott the 2011 Tokyo International Anime Fair organized by the AJA which, according to AJA, threatens the event's quality. Shueisha has asked anime production companies to pull its material and asked other publishers to do the same. In response, Shogakukan and Kodansha posted similar responses.Other vendors have backed out of the fair in response to the bill with rented space down 20%. The resulting cancellations TAF lowered its expectations ¥110 million (about US$1.3 million). According to ANN, the Japanese Prime Minister Naoto Kan wrote in his blog about the concerns of TAF's cancellation.
There is another topic I would like to talk about concerning [the strength of] the Japanese brand. Currently, there are concerns over the possibility that the Tokyo International Animation Fair could be cancelled due to controversies related to the healthy development of youth issues. Healthy development of youth is an important issue. At the same time, it is important that Japanese animation is broadcast to a global audience. I urge all parties involved to try to work toward preventing a situation where an international animation fair cannot be held within Tokyo.
After some publishers asked for a list of standards required by the newly revised bill before they start the sale of a book, Mika Sakurai, the section chief of youth affairs at the Office for Youth Affairs and Public Safety, stated that the publishers can ask the government whether or not a specific work is subject to the law before sale, but a response might not be immediate as "the assessment may not be clear until release".
On 14 April 2011, a list of the first six titles to be "considered for restrictions" under the bill was published in the magazine Weekly Playboy , based on materials presented by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government during meetings with the Council on Publishing Ethics. The works listed include five seinen titles and one shōjo title[ citation needed ], with reasons for restriction varying from "rape" and "incest" to "sexual intercourse in a school building". One week after the meeting, Masahiro Itosugi, the author of the listed work Aki Sora , announced that there would be no further reprints of volumes 1 and 3 of the manga after the law goes into effect in July 2011.
In March 2013, manga artist Yuzupon claimed on their Twitter account that the first volume of their work Welcome to Sugarpot, which was released about a month earlier, had been withdrawn from stores due to the Tokyo bill. The volume was still available digitally; the ordinance does not apply to digital sales.
In May 2014, the Imouto Paradise 2 manga became the first work to officially be restricted as "unhealthy" in Tokyo under the 2010 revisions to the youth law for "glorifying incestuous acts".
Hentai is anime and manga pornography. A loanword from Japanese, the original term does not describe a genre of media, but rather an abnormal sexual desire or act, as an abbreviation of hentai seiyoku. In addition to anime and manga, hentai works exist in a variety of media, including artwork and video games.
Manga are comics or graphic novels originating from Japan. Most manga conform to a style developed in Japan in the late 19th century, and the form has a long history in earlier Japanese art. The term manga is used in Japan to refer to both comics and cartooning. Outside of Japan, the word is typically used to refer to comics originally published in the country.
Yaoi, also known as boys' love and its abbreviation BL, is a genre of fictional media originating in Japan that features homoerotic relationships between male characters. It is typically created by women for women and so is distinct from bara, the genre marketed to gay men, but it does also attract a male audience and can be produced by male creators. It spans a wide range of media, including manga, anime, drama CDs, novels, video games, television series, films, and fan works. "Boys' love" and "BL" are the generic terms for this kind of media in Japan and much of Asia; though the terms are used by some fans and commentators in the West, yaoi remains more generally prevalent in English.
Ken Akamatsu is a Japanese manga artist and politician who has served since 2022 as a member of the House of Councillors. He made his professional manga debut in 1993, and is best known as the author of Love Hina (1998–2001) and Negima! Magister Negi Magi (2003–2012), both serialized in Weekly Shōnen Magazine; a sequel to Negima!, UQ Holder!, was serialized from 2013 to 2022. In 2011, Akamatsu founded J-Comi, a free digital distributor of out-of-print manga.
Naruto is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Masashi Kishimoto. It tells the story of Naruto Uzumaki, a young ninja who seeks recognition from his peers and dreams of becoming the Hokage, the leader of his village. The story is told in two parts – the first set in Naruto's pre-teen years, and the second in his teens. The series is based on two one-shot manga by Kishimoto: Karakuri (1995), which earned Kishimoto an honorable mention in Shueisha's monthly Hop Step Award the following year, and Naruto (1997).
In Japan, pornography has unique characteristics that readily distinguish it from western pornography. Pornographic films are known as "adult videos" (AV) in Japan, so Japanese adult videos (JAV), referring to the Japanese pornographic film industry. Animated films are referred to as hentai in English, but in Japan the terms "adult anime" and "erotic animation" are used. In addition to pornographic videos and magazines featuring live actors, there are now categories of pornographic manga and anime, and pornographic computer games.
In Japanese popular culture, lolicon is a genre of fictional media in which young girl characters appear in romantic or sexual contexts. The term, a portmanteau of the English words "Lolita" and "complex", also refers to desire and affection for such characters, and fans of such characters and works. Associated with unrealistic and stylized imagery within manga, anime, and video games, lolicon in otaku culture is understood as distinct from desires for realistic depictions of girls, or real girls as such, and is associated with the concept of moe, or feelings of affection and love for fictional characters as such.
The following is a glossary of terms that are specific to anime and manga. Anime includes animated series, films and videos, while manga includes graphic novels, drawings and related artwork.
The Tokyo International Anime Fair also known as Tokyo International Animation Fair was one of the largest anime trade fairs in the world, held annually in Tokyo, Japan. The first event was held in 2002 as "Tokyo International Anime Fair 21". The event was held at Tokyo Big Sight, a convention and exhibition center in Tokyo Bay, in late March. Usually, the first one or two days of the fair were weekdays and the entrance was open only to industry members and the press; the last two days were scheduled on the weekend and the fair was open to the public.
To Love Ru is a Japanese manga series written by Saki Hasemi and illustrated by Kentaro Yabuki. The manga was serialized in Shueisha's Weekly Shōnen Jump magazine from April 2006 to August 2009, and the chapters collected into 18 tankōbon volumes. It chronicles the life of high school student Rito Yuuki after he meets and accidentally gets engaged to the alien princess Lala Satalin Deviluke. The title, Toraburu, is a pun on the English loan words toraburu ("trouble") and rabu ("love"), referencing the harem aspect of the series. To Love Ru is noted for its fan service, with Hasemi and Yabuki admitting that they tested the boundaries of what would be allowed in a shōnen manga.
Osamu Akimoto is a Japanese manga artist from Katsushika, Tokyo. He is best known for his long-running comedy series KochiKame: Tokyo Beat Cops, which was continuously published in Weekly Shōnen Jump for 40 years from 1976 to 2016. With 1,960 chapters collected into 201 tankōbon volumes, it held the Guinness World Record for "Most volumes published for a single manga series" from September 2016 to July 2021. The series has sold over 155 million copies, making it one of the best-selling manga series in history. Akimoto has been creating the Western series Black Tiger since 2017.
Censorship in Japan has taken many forms throughout the history of the country. While Article 21 of the Constitution of Japan guarantees freedom of expression and prohibits formal censorship, effective censorship of obscene content does exist and is justified by the Article 175 of the Criminal Code of Japan. Historically, the law has been interpreted in different ways—recently it has been interpreted to mean that all pornography must be at least partly censored, and a few arrests has been made based on this law.
The production, sale, distribution, and commercialization of child pornography in Japan is illegal under the Act on Punishment of Activities Relating to Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, and the Protection of Children (1999), and is punishable by a maximum penalty of five years in prison and/or a fine of ¥5,000,000. Simple possession of child pornography was made illegal by an amendment to the act in 2014. Virtual child pornography, which depicts wholly-fictional characters, is legal to produce and possess.
Sket Dance is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Kenta Shinohara. The manga follows the adventures of the Sket-dan, a high school club whose goal it is to help the students and teachers of Kaimei High School with their problems, as they do whatever it takes to help make their campus a better place. The story is mainly told in the perspective of the Sket-dan's three members: Bossun, the leader of the group; Himeko, the "muscle" and the only female in the group; and Switch, the otaku and the "brains" of the group. It was serialized in Shueisha's shōnen manga magazine Weekly Shōnen Jump from July 2007 to July 2013, with its chapters collected in 32 tankōbon volumes.
Kazuhiko Torishima is a Japanese publishing executive and former manga magazine editor, who is currently serving as an advisor to Hakusensha. He formerly worked at Shueisha, where he began as an editor in 1976, before becoming a senior managing director (CEO), and later a Shogakukan-Shueisha Productions director. When he moved to Hakusensha in 2015, he first served as president, then representative director, before taking on his current role of advisor.
Manga Library Z, before 2018 known as J-Comi, is a Japanese website that distributes out of print manga and doujinshi as DRM-free ebooks, with the permission of the authors and supported by advertising. J-Comi is limited to out of print titles so that quality of the work is assured and so that J-Comi does not compete with publishers. The site was the idea of famed manga artist Ken Akamatsu, officially established on January 25, 2008. But it was not launched until April 12, 2011, after it gained momentum in response to Tokyo Metropolitan Ordinance Regarding the Healthy Development of Youths' 2011 passing of Bill 156, which many manga creators opposed.
Sunny is a Japanese slice of life manga series written and illustrated by Taiyō Matsumoto. It was serialized in Shogakukan's seinen manga magazine Monthly Ikki from December 2010 to September 2014, when the magazine ceased publication. It was later transferred to Monthly Big Comic Spirits, being serialized from January to July 2015. Its chapters were collected in six wide-ban volumes. The manga was licensed for English release in North America by Viz Media.
Imouto Paradise! 2: Onii-chan to Go nin no Imouto no Motto! Ecchi Shimakuri na Mainichi is a Japanese erotic visual novel developed by Moonstone Cherry and released on May 31, 2013, for Windows PCs and later ported as a DVD TV game. Imouto Paradise! 2 is a sequel to the visual novel Imouto Paradise!, featuring a new cast of characters, but with a similar plot. Both games depict incest.
Tokyo Alice is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Toriko Chiya. It was serialized in Kodansha's josei manga magazine Kiss from October 25, 2005, to August 25, 2015. Its chapters were collected in 15 tankōbon volumes. A live-action drama premiered in Japan from August 25, 2017, and ran for 12 episodes; it was later released internationally on Amazon Prime Video in 2019.
Paradise of Innocence is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Uran. It was serialized in Hakusensha's Young Animal Arashi from April 2010 to September 2017. An spin-off, titled Paradise of Innocence Parallel, was serialized in the same magazine from November 2017 to May 2018. The chapters were compiled into thirteen tankōbon volumes.