The Tokyo Shinbu Gakkō (東京振武学校) was a military preparatory school located in Tokyo, Japan. Established in 1896 by the Imperial Japanese Army for the purpose of providing basic military training to students from China, many of its students later played important roles in the Xinhai Revolution and in the early period of the Republic of China. The school closed in 1914.
Following the resumption of diplomatic relations in 1896 between the Empire of Japan and Qing dynasty China following the First Sino-Japanese War, the Chinese government began a series of military reforms to create a modern army along western-lines. The Pan-Asian faction within the Japanese government actively assisted in this effort, in hopes of forming an Asian alliance against the Empire of Russia and other European powers, as well as to place Japan in a favorable position to influence the direction of Chinese military reforms and domestic political policy.
To this effect, the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff dispatched General Fukushima Yasumasa and General Utsunomiya Taro to open discussions with Zhang Zhidong, Liu Kunyi and Yuan Shikai about sending Chinese students to Japan for military training. On the diplomatic side, Yano Fumio, the Japanese minister to China, advised the Chinese government that the Japanese government was willing to bear all expenses for the first two hundred students. The first thirty students were sent the same year to the newly established Foreign Student Division of the Seijō Gakkō, a military preparatory school in Tokyo attached to the Imperial Japanese Army Academy.
As the number of students grew year-by-year, in 1903, a separate Shinbu Gakkō was established in Tokyo specifically for Chinese military students, who numbered over 1000 by 1908.
The creation of the school was initially strongly opposed by Army leader General Yamagata Aritomo, who argued against the wisdom in training a recent, a possibly future enemy, but his objections were overruled by Fukushima. The policy paid dividends to Japan in terms of Chinese assistance and goodwill during the Russo-Japanese War, as well as creating a pro-Japanese officer corps, some of whom would later collaborate with Japan during the Second Sino-Japanese War.The program was initially hailed by Yuan Shikai as essential to the modernization and training of the Chinese military, especially after Japan's victory over Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, and given the much greater economic burden that sending so many students to European schools would have entailed. However but he later expressed concerns that the training stopped at the sub lieutenant rank with little field training, and that access to more advanced training at the Imperial Japanese Army Academy was not forthcoming.
Following the Xinhai Revolution and the establishment of the Republic of China in 1911, the Chinese began to feel more strongly the need to learn directly from the West, rather than from Japan. When an overall decline in Sino-Japanese relations following the Japanese occupation of Shandong Province during World War I led to increasing anti-Japanese sentiments in China, the numbers of Chinese students in Japan began to drop precipitously. The Tokyo Shinbu Gakkō closed in 1914 for lack of students.The site of the school is now the campus of the Tokyo Women's Medical University.
Yuan Shikai was a Chinese military and government official who rose to power during the late Qing dynasty, becoming the Emperor of the Empire of China (1915–1916). He tried to save the dynasty with a number of modernization projects including bureaucratic, fiscal, judicial, educational, and other reforms, despite playing a key part in the failure of the Hundred Days' Reform. He established the first modern army and a more efficient provincial government in North China in the last years of the Qing dynasty before the abdication of the Xuantong Emperor, the last monarch of the Qing dynasty, in 1912. Through negotiation, he became the first President of the Republic of China in 1912. This army and bureaucratic control were the foundation of his autocratic. He was frustrated in a short-lived attempt to restore hereditary monarchy in China, with himself as the Hongxian Emperor. His death shortly after his abdication led to the fragmentation of the Chinese political system and the end of the Beiyang government as China's central authority.
The Wuchang Uprising was an armed rebellion against the ruling Qing dynasty that took place in Wuchang, Hubei, China on 10 October 1911, which was the beginning of the Xinhai Revolution that successfully overthrew China's last imperial dynasty. It was led by elements of the New Army, influenced by revolutionary ideas from Tongmenghui. The uprising and the eventual revolution directly led to the downfall of the Qing dynasty with almost three centuries of imperial rule, and the establishment of the Republic of China (ROC), which commemorates the anniversary of the uprising's starting date of 10 October as the National Day of the Republic of China.
The New Armies, more fully called the Newly Created Army, was the modernized army corps formed under the Qing dynasty in December 1895, following its defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War. It was envisioned as militia fully trained and equipped according to Western standards.
Zhang Qun or Chang Ch'ün also known as Zhang Yuejun (張岳軍), was premier of the Republic of China and a prominent member of the Kuomintang. He served as secretary general to the President of the Republic from 1954 to 1972 and senior advisor to Presidents Chiang Kai-shek, Yen Chia-kan, Chiang Ching-kuo, and Lee Teng-hui. Under the influence of his wife, Ma Yu-ying, he became a Christian in the 1930s.
The Beiyang Army, named after the Beiyang region, was a powerful, Western-style Imperial Chinese Army established by the Qing Dynasty government in the late 19th century. It was the centerpiece of a general reconstruction of Qing China's military system. The Beiyang Army played a major role in Chinese politics for at least three decades and arguably right up to 1949. It made the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 possible, and, by dividing into warlord factions known as the Beiyang Clique, ushered in a period of regional division.
Huang Fu was a general and politician in early Republic of China.
Cai E (simplified Chinese: 蔡锷; traditional Chinese: 蔡鍔; pinyin: Cài È; Wade–Giles: Ts'ai4 O4; 18 December 1882 – 8 November 1916) was a Chinese revolutionary leader. He was born Cai Genyin (Chinese: 蔡艮寅; pinyin: Cài Gěnyín) in Shaoyang, Hunan, and his courtesy name was Songpo (Chinese: 松坡; pinyin: Sōngpō). Cai eventually became an influential warlord in Yunnan, and is best known for his role in challenging the imperial ambitions of Yuan Shikai during the anti-monarchy war.
Liang Hongzhi; was a leading official in the Anhui clique of the Beiyang Government, later noted for his role as in the collaborationist Reformed Government of the Republic of China during World War II.
Yang Yuting, was a Fengtien clique warlord and Military Governor of Jiangsu during the early period of the Republic of China from August to November 1925. He was executed by Zhang Xueliang during a political power struggle.
Jiang Fangzhen, courtesy name Baili and art name Danning, better known as Jiang Baili, was a Chinese military writer, strategist, trainer and army general of the Republic of China.
Yuán Kèdìng, courtesy name Yuntai (云台), was the eldest son of Yuan Shikai. His mother was Yuan's first wife, Yu (于氏), and Yuan Kewen was his younger brother.
Li Liejun, was a Chinese revolutionary leader and general in the early Republic of China.
Zhao Hengti, was a general and warlord in Hunan during the Warlord Era of early Republic of China.
Jiang Chaozong was a general in the late Empire of China and an acting Premier of the Republic of China in 1917.
Cheng Qian was a Chinese army officer and politician who held very important military and political positions in both the Republic of China and the People's Republic of China. Educated at the Imperial Japanese Army Academy and Waseda University, he first met Sun Yat-sen in Tokyo, becoming an early supporter. Later, under Chiang Kai-shek, he was one of the most powerful members of the Kuomintang, notably serving as Chief of Staff of the Military Affairs Commission during the Second Sino–Japanese War.
Yin Changheng was a military leader in the Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China. He was a member of the Tongmenghui, and on the outbreak of the Xinhai Revolution he became one of the leaders of the revolutionary army in Sichuan. He was the first Military Governor of Sichuan Province and one of the founders of the Sichuan Army. His former name was Changyi (昌儀). Courtesy name was Shuo Quan (碩権). He was born in Peng District, Sichuan.
The Mutual Protection of Southeast China was an agreement made in the summer of 1900 during the Boxer Rebellion by governors of the provinces in southern, eastern and central China when the Eight Power Expedition invaded North China. The governors, including Li Hongzhang, Xu Yingkui, Liu Kunyi, Zhang Zhidong and Yuan Shikai, refused to carry out the imperial decree promulgated by the Qing dynasty to declare war on 11 foreign nations, with the aim of preserving peace in their own provinces.
Late Qing reforms, or New Policies, or New Administration of the late Qing dynasty (1901–1912), were a series of cultural, economic, educational, military, and political reforms implemented in the last decade of the Qing dynasty to keep the dynasty in power after the invasions of the great powers of the Eight Nation Alliance in league with the ten provinces of the Southeast Mutual Protection in the Boxer Uprising. The reforms started in 1901 and since they were implemented with the backing of the Empress Dowager Cixi, they are also called Cixi's New Policies.
Wang Yingkai, whose courtesy name was Shaochen (紹宸), was a Chinese general in the Beiyang Army and first rank official of the late Qing dynasty, who served as the Vice President of the Ministry of War and Vice-Commander-in-Chief of the Plain White Banner. Wang graduated from the Tianjin Military Academy (天津武備學堂), also known as Beiyang Wubei Xuetang (北洋武備學堂), and fought with distinction in the First Sino-Japanese War. After China lost the war, he joined the Beiyang Army established by Yuan Shikai and became one of leading commanders of the army. However, during subsequent political struggles he sided with the court party against Yuan. Sun Chuanfang, who later became one of the most important warlords in the early Republican years, was his brother-in-law and protégée. Wang Yingkai died in Beijing in 1908.
The Imperial Edict of the Abdication of the Qing Emperor was an official order issued by the Empress Dowager Longyu on behalf of the six-year-old Xuantong Emperor, who was the monarch of the Qing dynasty, on 12 February 1912, as a response to the Xinhai Revolution which started in Wuhan. The revolution led to the self-declared independence of 13 southern Chinese provinces and the sequent peace negotiation between the rest of Imperial China with the collective of the southern provinces. The issuance of the Imperial Edict ended the Qing dynasty of China, which lasted 276 years, and the era of imperial rule in China, which lasted 2,132 years.