|• Total||32.1 km2 (12.4 sq mi)|
|• Density||5,300/km2 (14,000/sq mi)|
Toliara (also known as Toliary, [tuliˈar] ; formerly Tuléar) is a city in Madagascar.
It is the capital of the Atsimo-Andrefana region, located 936 km southwest of national capital Antananarivo.
The current spelling of the name was adopted in the 1970s, reflecting the orthography of the Malagasy language. Many geographic place names, assigned French spellings during the colonial period, were altered following Malagasy independence in 1960.
The city has a population of 168,758 in 2018.As a port town it acts as a major import/export hub for commodities such as sisal, soap, hemp, cotton, rice and peanuts.
In the 17th century, French buccaneers landed in the bay of St. Augustine near the Tropic of Capricorn, and founded the city to maintain commercial relations. It was not until the colonial period, after 1897, when the city really grew: with the efforts of Joseph Gallieni to install French administrative services, previously isolated on the island of Nosy Ve, to form the regional capital. Tulear grew along a grid pattern of cross streets, with wide avenues and public monuments.
Toliara has seen a population boom over the last two decades, due to a rural exodus that has brought over 200,000 citizens into urban centers in the region.
The Vezo, nomadic fishermen, are the indigenous ethnic group. Today they are being dominated by migrants from the South (Mahafale, Masikoro, Antandroy) which make up more than half of the urban population. To these are added migrants from other urban regions, occupying positions in government and the private sector.
Toliara's cathedral is the archiepiscopal seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toliara, one of five in the country, originally the Diocese of Tuléar since 1957, renamed with the city in 1989, promoted in 2003 to Metropolitan archbishopric.
Regional cultural highlights include:
The University of Toliara is historically the oldest center for higher education, founded in 1971 after the decentralization of the University of Madagascar center. The university campus is located in Maninday 5 km east of the city, and teaches Humanities and Social Science, Science, Philosophy, and Management.
The Fisheries and Marine Sciences Institute (IHSM) welcomes students from diverse backgrounds, and offers advanced training in fisheries, aquaculture, and the marine and coastal environment.
Toliara has a Technical School and two grammar schools (Lycée Laurent Botokeky and Antaninarenina High School), private and religious schools such as Sacred Heart College, Tsianaloke Mahavatse, and the School of Notre Dame, and a French international school, Collège Etienne de Flacourt, which serves école primaire (primary school) and collège.
The port played a key role during the "boom corn" years in the 1980s and 90s. Today, the arrival of migrants contributing to agricultural production (maize, cassava and rice) and livestock (cattle and goats) supplying the city markets with food, has contributed to the development of small informal businesses: particularly among the Mahafale and Masikoro communities. The city specializes in the import and export of various products including sisal, cotton, rice, peanuts and soap. Production of sea salt thrives, from salt marshes and landscaped places in coastal areas.
The Bay of Toliara houses one of Madagascar's oil exploration sites. The sea floor is rich in minerals gemstones (about 200 km to the north lies the Ilakaka sapphire deposit has operated since 1999) and ground salt. More recently, Canadian companies begin operation of the ilmenite in the region of Tolanaro. Beyond this mining and production, the industrial sector has declined in recent decades,
Tourism is a promising sector, thanks to the climate and natural assets of the hinterland (Ifaty, Anakao, Saint Augustin). Calm shallow seas and shallow support scuba diving, and Toliara remains a main destination for tours to southern Madagascar.
The Toliara Sands project, renamed Base Toliara, seeks to exploit ilmenite but encounters strong opposition despite an investment of 700 million dollars.
Toliara is located on a broad coastal plain, surrounded by dunes and mangroves, near the Tropic of Capricorn in the Mozambique Channel. A nearby barrier reef (the Great Reef) is 18 km long and 3 km wide. The beach area is extended by an underwater beach along the continental shelf that slopes gently seaward. To the north lies the Delta Fiherenana.
Toliara is nicknamed the "City of the Sun" because it has a hot climate (24.3 °C average) and is semi-arid (Köppen BSh), with less than 400 mm annual rainfall. The city is constantly swept by a strong prevailing wind, the Tsio Katimo ("South Wind").
|Climate data for Toliara (Tulear), Madagascar (1961–1990, extremes 1951–present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||42.3|
|Average high °C (°F)||32.2|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||27.5|
|Average low °C (°F)||22.9|
|Record low °C (°F)||14.6|
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||94.7|
|Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)||6||6||3||2||2||2||1||1||1||1||2||5||32|
|Average relative humidity (%)||77||77||75||76||75||74||74||72||74||75||75||77||75|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||310.7||271.9||299.9||289.4||296.4||282.5||295.3||315.4||304.4||314.3||316.2||300.6||3,597|
|Source 1: NOAA|
|Source 2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (humidity, 1951–1980), Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)|
The colonial legacy is still visible in the architecture and the urban landscape. Major road works and development were undertaken in 2003 to promote the development of the city.
The University Hospital Centre CHU Mitsinjo Betanimena is located near the city center in the district of Tanambao. Another private health facility, St. Luke's Clinic, is located in the district of Sanfily on the road to the airport.
Toliara Airport is located in the city. Air Madagascar operates scheduled flights to here.
Madagascar is a large island in the Indian Ocean off the eastern coast of Southern Africa, east of Mozambique. It has a total area of 587,040 square kilometres (226,660 sq mi) with 581,540 square kilometres (224,530 sq mi) of land and 5,500 square kilometres (2,100 sq mi) of water. Madagascar is the fourth-largest island and the second-largest island country in the world. The highest point is Maromokotro, in the Tsaratanana Massif region in the north of the island, at 2,876 metres (9,436 ft). The capital Antananarivo is in the Central Highlands near the centre of the island. It has the 25th largest exclusive economic zone of 1,225,259 km2 (473,075 sq mi). Madagascar is 400 kilometres east of mainland Africa.
Antananarivo, also known by its colonial shorthand form Tana, is the capital and largest city of Madagascar. The administrative area of the city, known as Antananarivo-Renivohitra, is the capital of Analamanga region. The city sits at 1,280 m (4,199 ft) above sea level in the center of the island, the highest national capital by elevation among the island countries. It has been the country's largest population center since at least the 18th century. The presidency, National Assembly, Senate and Supreme Court are located there, as are 21 diplomatic missions and the headquarters of many national and international businesses and NGOs. It has more universities, nightclubs, art venues, and medical services than any city on the island. Several national and local sports teams, including the championship-winning national rugby team, also the Makis are based here.
The Toliara Province is a former province of Madagascar with an area of 161,405 square kilometres (62,319 sq mi). It had a population of 2,229,550. Its capital was Toliara. Near Toliara was the "spiny forest".
Fort-Dauphin is a city on the southeast coast of Madagascar. It is the capital of the Anosy Region and of the Taolagnaro District. It has been a port of local importance since the early 1500s. A new port, the Ehoala Port was built in 2006–2009. Fort-Dauphin was the first French settlement in Madagascar.
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Antsirabe is the third largest city in Madagascar and the capital of the Vakinankaratra region, with a population of 265,018 in 2014. In Madagascar, Antsirabe is known for its relatively cool climate, its industry and the high concentration of pulled rickshaws or pousse-pousse. It attracts around 30,000 tourists a year.
Ilakaka is a small town in Ihorombe Region in the south western part of Madagascar. In the early 1990s there were only about 40 residents in the area. After the discovery of one of Earth's largest known alluvial sapphire deposits in the valley of the Ilakaka river in 1998, the population had boomed to nearly 60,000 in 2005. Since high profits are at stake, violence is common in the town.
Ihosy is a city with 283,047 inhabitants (2015) in Ihorombe Region in central south Madagascar.
Androy is the most southerly region of Madagascar. It covers an area of 19,540 km2, and had a population of 903,376 inhabitants in 2018. The administrative capital is Ambovombe-Androy.
Malagasy cuisine encompasses the many diverse culinary traditions of the Indian Ocean island of Madagascar. Foods eaten in Madagascar reflect the influence of Southeast Asian, African, Oceanian, Indian, Chinese and European migrants that have settled on the island since it was first populated by seafarers from Borneo between 100 CE and 500 CE. Rice, the cornerstone of the Malagasy diet, was cultivated alongside tubers and other Southeast Asian and Oceanian staples by these earliest settlers. Their diet was supplemented by foraging and hunting wild game, which contributed to the extinction of the island's bird and mammal megafauna. These food sources were later complemented by beef in the form of zebu introduced into Madagascar by East African migrants arriving around 1,000 CE.
Monja Jaona was a Malagasy politician and early nationalist who significantly drove political events on the island during his lifetime. He was a member of Jiny, a militant nationalist group formed in southern Madagascar in the 1940s that sided with MDRM during the ultimately unsuccessful Malagasy Uprising of 1947 against French rule. The colonial government imprisoned him from 1946 to 1950 for his affiliation with Jiny. He formed the Madagascar for the Malagasy (MONIMA) party in 1958 and successfully campaigned for the seat of mayor in Toliara, a position he held from 1959 to 1961. He came to view president Philibert Tsiranana and his Social Democratic Party (PSD) supporters as unduly favorable to continued French interests on the island after independence in 1960. Jaona instigated the 1971–72 rotaka farmer and student protests that successfully forced Tsiranana's resignation.
Ambararata is a town and commune in Madagascar. It belongs to the district of Befandriana-Nord, which is a part of Sofia Region. The population of the commune was estimated to be approximately 13,000 in 2001 commune census.
Anosy is one of the 22 regions of Madagascar. It is located in the southeast of the country, on the eastern side of what was once the Toliara Province. The name Anosy means "island(s)" in Malagasy.
Saint Augustin is a rural municipality in Madagascar. It belongs to the district of Toliara II, which is a part of Atsimo-Andrefana Region. The population of the commune was estimated to be approximately 15,000 in 2001 commune census. The mouth of the Onilahy River is near the town.
Belalanda is a rural municipality in Madagascar. It belongs to the district of Toliara II, which is a part of Atsimo-Andrefana Region. The population of the commune was estimated to be approximately 7,000 in 2001 commune census.
Malagasy is an Austronesian language and dialect continuum spoken in Madagascar. The standard variety, called Official Malagasy, is an official language of Madagascar, alongside French. Malagasy is the westernmost Malayo-Polynesian language, brought to Madagascar by the settlement of Austronesian peoples from the Sunda islands around the 5th century AD. The Malagasy language is one of the Barito languages and is most closely related to the Ma'anyan language, still spoken on Borneo. Malagasy also includes numerous Malay loanwords, from the time of the early Austronesian settlement and trading between Madagascar and the Sunda Islands. After c. 1000 AD, Malagasy incorporated numerous Bantu and Arabic loanwords brought over by traders and new settlers.
There is a small but recognizable community of French people in Madagascar, of whom the vast majority are born in Madagascar and are descended from former settlers and colonists from France who settled in Madagascar during the 19th and 20th centuries. They constitute a minority ethnic group of Madagascar.
Antsirabe I is a district in, and capital of, Vakinankaratra Region, Madagascar. The borders of the district are identical to those of the city and urban commune of Antsirabe.
Arboretum d'Antsokay or Antsokay Arboretum is a botanical garden near the city of Toliara in Madagascar. About 900 plant species grow in the Arboretum, 90% of these endemic to Madagascar, 80% of them considered to have medicinal value and many threatened with extinction. Lonely Planet and Rough Guides both list the Arboretum as the top attraction in Toliara.
The Tsiokantimo is a strong south wind that blows in the southwest region of Madagascar, usually from August to September. This wind hits the vast stretches of predominantly sandy coastline, causing wind erosion of the soil, and bringing a lot of dust to the city of Toliara in Madagascar, but also the anchovies that are pushed by the current and waves in the Tulear lagoon.