Toliara Province

Last updated
Toliara
Madagascar Toliara Province.svg
Map of Madagascar with Toliara highlighted
Coordinates(Capital): 22°45′S44°15′E / 22.750°S 44.250°E / -22.750; 44.250
CountryFlag of Madagascar.svg  Madagascar
Capital Toliara
Area
  Total161,405 km2 (62,319 sq mi)
Population
 (2001)
  Total2,229,550
  Density14/km2 (36/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+3

The Toliara Province (formerly Toliary or Tuléar) is a former province of Madagascar with an area of 161,405 square kilometres (62,319 sq mi). It had a population of 2,229,550 (July, 2001). Its capital was Toliara. Near Toliara was the "spiny forest".

Contents

Toliara Province bordered the following provinces – Mahajanga Province in the north, Antananarivo Province in the northeast and Fianarantsoa Province in the east. Masikoro Malagasy and Tandroy Malagasy were the chief languages. [1] Sea cucumbers were exported from the province and were an important factor in its economy. [2] The deciduous Andronovory forest was located in the province. [3]

The province was the poorest one in Madagascar. In 1993, 8 in every 10 person of the province was living below the poverty line. Despite the production of export crops the province recorded the highest rural poverty. [4] [5] The average fertility rate per woman was above 5. [6] With 77 percent of its population being illiterate, Tolaira was the most illiterate province of Madagascar. Only 22 percent of the province's population had received primary level education. [7] [8]

The commercially valuable softwood tree Givotia madagascariensis , found in Antananarivo and Toliara provinces was endemic to Madagascar. [9] The oil producing plant moringa drouhardii was endemic to Toliara province. [10] Deforestation was a major issue for the province. [11] In April 1971, a peasant rebellion was organised by MONIMA leader Monja Joana. The peasants refused to pay taxes and the government retaliated by dissolving MONIMA and deporting Joana. [12]

Toliara province offered poor transport and security facilities. [13] [14] Potable water was accessible to only 24.9% of the province's households. [15] It was rich in terms of minerals. [16] [17] Toliara province was in the news in July 2005 for its mining activity. [18]

Abolition

The provinces were abolished following the results of Malagasy constitutional referendum, 2007 which led to the formation of 22 smaller areas (faritra or regions) to facilitate regional development. [19]

Administrative divisions

Toliara div.png

Toliara Province was divided into four regions of Madagascar - Androy, Anosy, Atsimo Andrefana and Menabe. These four regions became the first-level administrative divisions when the provinces were abolished in 2009. They are sub-divided into 21 districts:

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Antananarivo Province</span> Province in Madagascar

Antananarivo Province is a former province of Madagascar with an area of 58,283 square kilometres (22,503 sq mi). It had a population of 5,370,900 in 2004. Its capital was Antananarivo, which is also the capital of the country. Established in 1965, it was the most important province of Madagascar in terms of industrial production. It was one of the most literate provinces and was dominated by the Merina people. Along with the other five provinces, it was abolished in 2007 after a referendum in favour of creation of smaller regions to help in development was approved. It was badly affected by plagues in the 20th century. In 2002 a state of emergency was proclaimed by the then president Didier Ratsiraka. The events that followed led to the other five provinces announcing the creation of a new republic that would have excluded Antananarivo Province. Peace was restored only when Marc Ravalomanana was installed as the country's president.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fianarantsoa Province</span> Province in Madagascar

Fianarantsoa Province is a former province of Madagascar. It has an area of 103,272 km2 and population of 3,366,291. Its capital was Fianarantsoa. The province along with the 5 other was abolished in 2007 in favour of creation of smaller regions to facilitate administration.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mahajanga Province</span> Province in Madagascar

Mahajanga was a former province of Madagascar that had an area of 150,023 km². It had a population of 1,896,000 (2004). Its capital was Mahajanga, the second largest city in Madagascar.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Toamasina Province</span> Province in Madagascar

The Toamasina Province is a former province of Madagascar with an area of 71,911 km². It had a population of 2,855,600 (2004). Its capital was Toamasina, the most important seaport of the country. The province was also known as Tamatave Province.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fort-Dauphin (Madagascar)</span> Place in Anosy, Madagascar

Fort-Dauphin is a city on the southeast coast of Madagascar. It is the capital of the Anosy Region and of the Taolagnaro District. It has been a port of local importance since the early 1500s. A new port, the Ehoala Port was built in 2006–2009. Fort-Dauphin was the first French settlement in Madagascar.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Toliara</span> Place in Atsimo-Andrefana, Madagascar

Toliara is a city in Madagascar.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Valiha</span> Stringed musical instrument

The valiha is a tube zither from Madagascar made from a species of local bamboo; it is considered the "national instrument" of Madagascar. The term is also used to describe a number of related zithers of differing shapes and materials.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Onilahy River</span> River in Anosy, Madagascar

Onilahy is a river in Atsimo-Andrefana and Anosy, southern Madagascar. It flows down from the hills near Betroka to the Mozambique Channel. It empties at St. Augustin, and into the Bay of Saint-Augustin.

Articles related to Madagascar include:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Androy</span> Region in Madagascar

Androy is the most southerly region of Madagascar. It covers an area of 19,540 km2, and had a population of 903,376 inhabitants in 2018. The administrative capital is Ambovombe-Androy, and the chief administrator is Michael Andrianirina.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Atsimo-Atsinanana</span> Region in Madagascar

Atsimo-Atsinanana is a region in Madagascar. Its capital is Farafangana. The region used to be part of the Fianarantsoa Province.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Monja Jaona</span>

Monja Jaona was a Malagasy politician and early nationalist who significantly drove political events on the island during his lifetime. He was a member of Jiny, a militant nationalist group formed in southern Madagascar in the 1940s that sided with MDRM during the ultimately unsuccessful Malagasy Uprising of 1947 against French rule. The colonial government imprisoned him from 1946 to 1950 for his affiliation with Jiny. He formed the Madagascar for the Malagasy (MONIMA) party in 1958 and successfully campaigned for the seat of mayor in Toliara, a position he held from 1959 to 1961. He came to view president Philibert Tsiranana and his Social Democratic Party (PSD) supporters as unduly favorable to continued French interests on the island after independence in 1960. Jaona instigated the 1971–72 rotaka farmer and student protests that successfully forced Tsiranana's resignation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Atsimo-Andrefana</span> Region in Madagascar

Atsimo-Andrefana is a region of Madagascar. It borders Menabe in north, Amoron'i Mania and Haute Matsiatra in northeast, Ihorombe and Anosy in east and Androy in southeast. The capital is Toliara and the population was 1,799,088 in 2018. Atsimo Andrefana is geographically the largest of all Malagasy regions with an area of 66,236 km2 (25,574 sq mi).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Anosy</span> Administrative region of Madagascar

Anosy is one of the 22 regions of Madagascar. It is located in the southeast of the country, on the eastern side of what was once the Toliara Province. The name Anosy means "island(s)" in Malagasy.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Saint Augustin, Madagascar</span> Place in Toliara, Madagascar

Saint Augustin is a town and commune in Madagascar. It belongs to the district of Toliara II, which is a part of Atsimo-Andrefana Region. The population of the commune was estimated to be approximately 15,000 in 2001 commune census. The mouth of the Onilahy River is near the town.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rotaka</span>

The rotaka was a series of farmer and student protests in Madagascar between April 1971 and May 1972 that led to the collapse of the First Republic of Madagascar under President Philibert Tsiranana.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Masikoro</span>

The Masikoro are a group of farmers and herders who inhabit areas surrounding the Mikea Forest, a patch of mixed spiny forest and dry deciduous forest along the coast of southwestern Madagascar in Toliara Province. Along with Vezo and Mikea, the Masikoro are Sakalava people, the difference being that Masikoro are of the land, Vezo are of the sea, and Mikea are of the forest.

Givotia madagascariensis, locally known as farafatsy, is a commercially valuable softwood tree endemic to the southwestern Madagascar province formally known as Toliara Province.

The 2019 THB Champions League is the 53rd season of the THB Champions League, the top-tier football league in Madagascar. The season started on 8 March 2019.

<i>Aganope stuhlmannii</i>

Aganope stuhlmannii is a deciduous tree within the family Fabaceae. It is native to tropical Africa and grows in savanna woodlands.

References

  1. Frawley 2003, p. 205.
  2. Lovatelli & Conand 2004, p. 141.
  3. Collins & Morris 1985, p. 354.
  4. International Monetary Fund 1997, p. 47.
  5. International Monetary Fund 2003, p. 20.
  6. International Monetary Fund 1997, p. 52.
  7. International Monetary Fund 1997, p. 53.
  8. World Bank 2002, p. 50.
  9. Lemmens, Louppe & Oteng-Amoako, p. 364.
  10. van der Vossen & Mkamilo 2007, p. 118.
  11. Cook 2010, p. 84.
  12. Europa Publications 2003, p. 261.
  13. International Monetary Fund 2003, p. 29.
  14. International Monetary Fund 2003, p. 32.
  15. International Monetary Fund 2003, p. 39.
  16. List of minerals
  17. Milisenda & Henn 1996, pp. 177–178.
  18. McKay, David (19 July 2005). "Africa's new mining province". miningmx.com. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
  19. "Initial result shows "Yes" to revision of constitution in Madagascar". People's Daily Online. 7 April 2007. Retrieved 20 September 2014.

Bibliography