Toliara Province

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Madagascar Toliara Province.svg
Map of Madagascar with Toliara highlighted
Coordinates(Capital): 22°45′S44°15′E / 22.750°S 44.250°E / -22.750; 44.250
CountryFlag of Madagascar.svg  Madagascar
Capital Toliara
  Total161,405 km2 (62,319 sq mi)
  Density14/km2 (36/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+3

The Toliara Province (formerly Toliary or Tuléar) is a former province of Madagascar with an area of 161,405 square kilometres (62,319 sq mi). It had a population of 2,229,550 (July, 2001). Its capital was Toliara. Near Toliara was the "spiny forest".


Toliara Province bordered the following provinces – Mahajanga Province in the north, Antananarivo Province in the northeast and Fianarantsoa Province in the east. Masikoro Malagasy and Tandroy Malagasy were the chief languages. [1] Sea cucumbers were exported from the province and were an important factor in its economy. [2] The deciduous Andronovory forest was located in the province. [3]

The province was the poorest one in Madagascar. In 1993, 8 in every 10 person of the province was living below the poverty line. Despite the production of export crops the province recorded the highest rural poverty. [4] [5] The average fertility rate per woman was above 5. [6] With 77 percent of its population being illiterate, Tolaira was the most illiterate province of Madagascar. Only 22 percent of the province's population had received primary level education. [7] [8]

The commercially valuable softwood tree Givotia madagascariensis , found in Antananarivo and Toliara provinces was endemic to Madagascar. [9] The oil producing plant moringa drouhardii was endemic to Toliara province. [10] Deforestation was a major issue for the province. [11] In April 1971, a peasant rebellion was organised by MONIMA leader Monja Joana. The peasants refused to pay taxes and the government retaliated by dissolving MONIMA and deporting Joana. [12]

Toliara province offered poor transport and security facilities. [13] [14] Potable water was accessible to only 24.9% of the province's households. [15] It was rich in terms of minerals. [16] [17] Toliara province was in the news in July 2005 for its mining activity. [18]


The provinces were abolished following the results of Malagasy constitutional referendum, 2007 which led to the formation of 22 smaller areas (faritra or regions) to facilitate regional development. [19]

Administrative divisions

Toliara div.png

Toliara Province was divided into four regions of Madagascar - Androy, Anosy, Atsimo Andrefana and Menabe. These four regions became the first-level administrative divisions when the provinces were abolished in 2009. They are sub-divided into 21 districts:

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  1. Frawley 2003, p. 205.
  2. Lovatelli & Conand 2004, p. 141.
  3. Collins & Morris 1985, p. 354.
  4. International Monetary Fund 1997, p. 47.
  5. International Monetary Fund 2003, p. 20.
  6. International Monetary Fund 1997, p. 52.
  7. International Monetary Fund 1997, p. 53.
  8. World Bank 2002, p. 50.
  9. Lemmens, Louppe & Oteng-Amoako, p. 364.
  10. van der Vossen & Mkamilo 2007, p. 118.
  11. Cook 2010, p. 84.
  12. Europa Publications 2003, p. 261.
  13. International Monetary Fund 2003, p. 29.
  14. International Monetary Fund 2003, p. 32.
  15. International Monetary Fund 2003, p. 39.
  16. List of minerals
  17. Milisenda & Henn 1996, pp. 177–178.
  18. McKay, David (19 July 2005). "Africa's new mining province". Retrieved 27 February 2013.
  19. "Initial result shows "Yes" to revision of constitution in Madagascar". People's Daily Online. 7 April 2007. Retrieved 20 September 2014.