|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||193.246 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
Tolibut, also known as 3-(p-tolyl)-4-aminobutyric acid (or β-(4-methylphenyl)-GABA), is drug that was developed in Russia. It is an analogue of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) (that is, a GABA analogue) and is the 4-methyl analogue of phenibut, and is also an analogue of baclofen where the 4-chloro substitution has been replaced with a 4-methyl substitution. Tolibut has been described as possessing analgesic, tranquilizing, and neuroprotective properties. It is not fully clear as to whether the drug was ever approved or used medically in Russia.
gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid is a naturally occurring neurotransmitter and a depressant drug. It is a precursor to GABA, glutamate, and glycine in certain brain areas. It acts on the GHB receptor and is a weak agonist at the GABAB receptor. GHB has been used in the medical setting as a general anesthetic and as treatment for cataplexy, narcolepsy, and alcoholism. The substance is also used illicitly for various reasons, including as a performance-enhancing drug, date rape drug, and as a recreational drug.
γ-Aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the developmentally mature mammalian central nervous system. Its principal role is reducing neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system.
Depressants, or central depressants, are drugs that lower neurotransmission levels, or depress or reduce arousal or stimulation in various areas of the brain. Depressants are also colloquially referred to as "downers" as they lower the level of arousal when taken. Depressants do not change the mood or mental state of others. Stimulants, or "uppers," increase mental or physical function, hence the opposite drug class from depressants are stimulants, not antidepressants.
The GABA receptors are a class of receptors that respond to the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the chief inhibitory compound in the mature vertebrate central nervous system. There are two classes of GABA receptors: GABAA and GABAB. GABAA receptors are ligand-gated ion channels ; whereas GABAB receptors are G protein-coupled receptors, also called metabotropic receptors.
GABAB receptors (GABABR) are G-protein coupled receptors for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), therefore making them metabotropic receptors, that are linked via G-proteins to potassium channels. The changing potassium concentrations hyperpolarize the cell at the end of an action potential. The reversal potential of the GABAB-mediated IPSP is –100 mV, which is much more hyperpolarized than the GABAA IPSP. GABAB receptors are found in the central nervous system and the autonomic division of the peripheral nervous system.
The GABAA-rho receptor is a subclass of GABAA receptors composed entirely of rho (ρ) subunits. GABAA receptors including those of the ρ-subclass are ligand-gated ion channels responsible for mediating the effects of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. The GABAA-ρ receptor, like other GABAA receptors, is expressed in many areas of the brain, but in contrast to other GABAA receptors, the GABAA-ρ receptor has especially high expression in the retina.
Phenibut, sold under the brand names Anvifen, Fenibut, and Noofen among others, is a central nervous system depressant with anxiolytic effects, and is used to treat anxiety, insomnia, and for a variety of other indications. It is usually taken by mouth as a tablet, but may be given intravenously.
Picamilon is a drug formed by a synthetic combination of niacin and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). It was developed in the Soviet Union in 1969 and further studied in both Russia and Japan as a prodrug of GABA.
A GABA receptor agonist is a drug that is an agonist for one or more of the GABA receptors, producing typically sedative effects, and may also cause other effects such as anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant effects. There are three receptors of the gamma-aminobutyric acid. The two receptors GABA-α and GABA-ρ are ion channels that are permeable to chloride ions which reduces neuronal excitability. The GABA-β receptor belongs to the class of G-Protein coupled receptors that inhibit adenylyl cyclase, therefore leading to decreased cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). GABA-α and GABA-ρ receptors produce sedative and hypnotic effects and have anti-convulsion properties. GABA-β receptors also produce sedative effects. Furthermore, they lead to changes in gene transcription.
Trimeperidine (Promedol) is an opioid analgesic that is an analogue of prodine. It was developed in the early 1950s in the USSR during research into the related drug pethidine.
γ-Amino-β-hydroxybutyric acid (GABOB), also known as β-hydroxy-γ-aminobutyric acid (β-hydroxy-GABA), and sold under the brand name Gamibetal among others, is an anticonvulsant which is used for the treatment of epilepsy in Europe, Japan, and Mexico. It is a GABA analogue, or an analogue of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and has been found to be an endogenous metabolite of GABA.
L-838,417 is an anxiolytic drug used in scientific research. It has similar effects to benzodiazepine drugs, but is structurally distinct and so is classed as a nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic. The compound was developed by Merck, Sharp and Dohme.
Hopantenic acid, also known as N-pantoyl-GABA, is a central nervous system depressant. Formulated as the calcium salt, it is used as a pharmaceutical drug in the Russian Federation for a variety of neurological, psychological and psychiatric conditions and sold as Pantogam.
Arylcyclohexylamines, also known as arylcyclohexamines or arylcyclohexanamines, are a chemical class of pharmaceutical, designer, and experimental drugs.
Quisqualamine is the α-decarboxylated analogue of quisqualic acid, as well as a relative of the neurotransmitters glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). α-Decarboxylation of excitatory amino acids can produce derivatives with inhibitory effects. Indeed, unlike quisqualic acid, quisqualamine has central depressant and neuroprotective properties and appears to act predominantly as an agonist of the GABAA receptor and also to a lesser extent as an agonist of the glycine receptor, due to the facts that its actions are inhibited in vitro by GABAA antagonists like bicuculline and picrotoxin and by the glycine antagonist strychnine, respectively. Mg2+ and DL-AP5, NMDA receptor blockers, CNQX, an antagonist of both the AMPA and kainate receptors, and 2-hydroxysaclofen, a GABAB receptor antagonist, do not affect quisqualamine's actions in vitro, suggesting that it does not directly affect the ionotropic glutamate receptors or the GABAB receptor in any way. Whether it binds to and acts upon any of the metabotropic glutamate receptors like its analogue quisqualic acid however is unclear.
In pharmacology, GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators, also known as GABAkines or GABAA receptor potentiators, are positive allosteric modulator (PAM) molecules that increase the activity of the GABAA receptor protein in the vertebrate central nervous system.
Gabapentinoids, also known as α2δ ligands, are a class of drugs that are derivatives of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) which block α2δ subunit-containing voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs). This site has been referred to as the gabapentin receptor, as it is the target of the drugs gabapentin and pregabalin.
A GABA analogue is a compound which is an analogue or derivative of the neurotransmitter gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA).
4-Fluorophenibut (developmental code name CGP-11130; also known as β-(4-fluorophenyl)-γ-aminobutyric acid or β-(4-fluorophenyl)-GABA) is a GABAB receptor agonist which was never marketed. It is selective for the GABAB receptor over the GABAA receptor (IC50 = 1.70 μM and > 100 μM, respectively). The drug is a GABA analogue and is closely related to baclofen (β-(4-chlorophenyl)-GABA), tolibut (β-(4-methylphenyl)-GABA), and phenibut (β-phenyl-GABA). It is less potent as a GABAB receptor agonist than baclofen but more potent than phenibut.