|Traditional region||Slovenian Littoral|
|• Mayor||Uroš Brežan|
|• Total||1.7 km2 (0.7 sq mi)|
|• Density||1,284/km2 (3,330/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+01 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+02 (CEST)|
Tolmin (pronounced [tɔlˈmiːn] ( listen ); Italian : Tolmino, German Tolmein) is a small town in northwestern Slovenia. It is the administrative centre of the Municipality of Tolmin.
Tolmin stands on the southern rim of the Julian Alps and is the largest settlement in the Upper Soča Valley (Slovene : Zgornje Posočje), close to the border with Italy. It is located on a terrace above the confluence of the Soča and Tolminka rivers, positioned beneath steep mountainous valleys. The old town gave its name to the entire Tolmin area (Slovene : Tolminsko) as its economic, cultural and administrative centre.
The area is located in the historic Goriška region, itself part of the larger Slovene Littoral, about 41 km (25 mi) north of Nova Gorica and 87 km (54 mi) west of the Slovene capital Ljubljana. In the north, the road leads further up the Soča River to Bovec, with an eastern branch-off to Škofja Loka and Idrija.
Early inhabitants were Illyrians in Tolmin area. It was ruled successively by the Roman Empire, Odoacer, the Ostrogoths, the Eastern Roman Empire and part of the Lombard Duchy of Friuli until it was conquered by the Frankish king Charlemagne in 774 and replaced by the Carolingian March of Friuli.
Ancestors of Slovenes had come to this area during the Slavic settlement of the Eastern Alps from about 600 onwards, embattled by Avar raids. It was passed to Middle Francia in 843 after the Treaty of Verdun and in 952 passed to the vast March of Verona, which was initially ruled by the Dukes of Bavaria, from 976 by the Carinthian dukes. King Henry IV of Germany ceded it to the newly established Patria del Friuli in 1077, before it was occupied by the Republic of Venice in 1420. Finally the Tolmin area was conquered by the Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I during the War of the League of Cambrai in 1509.
Tolmin was then ruled with the possessions of the extinct Counts of Gorizia as part of the Inner Austrian territories of the Habsburg Monarchy. In 1713 it was the centre of a peasant revolt against increased taxation and the local Count Coronini.It was part of the Illyrian Provinces, which were part of Napoleonic French Empire between 1809 and 1814 before returning to Austrian rule. Until 1918, the town (under bilingual names Tolmein - Tolmin) was part of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy (Austrian side after the compromise of 1867) and head of the district of the same name, one of the 11 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in the Austrian Littoral province. A post-office was opened in October 1850 under the German name (only).
After World War I it was ruled by the Kingdom of Italy between 1918 and 1943 (nominally to 1947). It was a county (comune) center in Province of Gorizia between 1918 and 1923 and again between 1927 and 1943 (nominally to 1947) and in Province of Friuli between 1923 and 1927 during Italian rule as Tolmino. After the Italian caputilation, it was occupied by Nazi Germany in 1943 and was part of Operational Zone of the Adriatic Littoral before liberation by Yugoslav partisans. After temporary division of Julian March by Morgan Line, Tolmin was part of Zone-B, which was under Yugoslav administrators. It was officially passed from Italy to Yugoslavia in 1947 after the Treaty of Paris. Finally Tolmin was passed to Slovenia after breakup of Yugoslavia in 1991.
Tolmin's main sights are its old town centre, a modern sports park, and thousand-year-old castle ruins at the hill known as Kozlov rob .
The area is home to a multitude of vestiges from World War I. The most significant relic of the time is the Javorca Church, dedicated to the Holy Spirit built above the Polog shepherds outpost in the Tolminka Valley by Austro-Hungarian soldiers to commemorate their deceased comrades.
The museum, library, schools, and the town’s open spaces provide venues for a variety of events, exhibitions, and presentations all year round. The Tolmin region is also a popular destination for artists from Slovenia and abroad.
The parish church in the town is dedicated to the Assumption of Mary and belongs to the Diocese of Koper.
Tolmin is known for the "Metalcamp" festival since 2004, which since 2013 is called Metaldays, which every year attracts about 10,000 people from whole Europe and other parts of world. Other festivals held in Tolmin are Punk Rock Holiday and the Overjam reggae festival.
Notable natives and residents of Tolmin include:
Tolmin is twinned with:
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Cerkno is a small town in the Littoral region of Slovenia. It has around 2,000 inhabitants and is the administrative centre of the Cerkno Hills. It is the seat of the Municipality of Cerkno.
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Venezia Giulia, traditionally called Julian March or Julian Venetia is an area of southeastern Europe which is currently divided among Croatia, Italy and Slovenia. The term was coined in 1863 by the Italian linguist Graziadio Isaia Ascoli, a native of the area, to demonstrate that the Austrian Littoral, Veneto, Friuli and Trentino shared a common Italian linguistic identity. Ascoli emphasized the Augustan partition of Roman Italy at the beginning of the Empire, when Venetia et Histria was Regio X.
Bovec is a town in the Littoral region in northwestern Slovenia, close to the border with Italy. It is the central settlement of the Municipality of Bovec.
Goriška is a historical region in western Slovenia on the border with Italy. It comprises the northern part of the wider traditional region of the Slovenian Littoral (Primorska). The name Goriška is an adjective referring to the city of Gorizia, its historical and cultural centre.
The Austrian Littoral was a crown land (Kronland) of the Austrian Empire, established in 1849. It consisted of three regions: the Istria peninsula, Gorizia and Gradisca, and the Imperial Free City of Trieste. Throughout history, the region has been frequently contested, with parts of it controlled at various times by the Republic of Venice, Austria-Hungary, Italy, and Yugoslavia among others.
The Slovene Littoral is one of the five traditional regions of Slovenia. Its name recalls the former Austrian Littoral, the Habsburg possessions on the upper Adriatic coast, which the Slovene Littoral was part of.
The Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca, historically sometimes shortened to and spelled "Goritz", was a crown land of the Habsburg dynasty within the Austrian Littoral on the Adriatic Sea, in what is now a multilingual border area of Italy and Slovenia. It was named for its two major urban centers, Gorizia and Gradisca d'Isonzo.
The Vipava Valley is a valley in the Slovenian Littoral, roughly between the village of Podnanos to the east and the border with Italy to the west. The main towns are Ajdovščina and Vipava.
The Slovene lands or Slovenian lands is the historical denomination for the territories in Central and Southern Europe where people primarily spoke Slovene. The Slovene lands were part of the Illyrian provinces, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary. They encompassed Carniola, southern part of Carinthia, southern part of Styria, Istria, Gorizia and Gradisca, Trieste, and Prekmurje. Their territory more or less corresponds to modern Slovenia and the adjacent territories in Italy, Austria, Hungary, and Croatia, where autochthonous Slovene minorities live. In the areas where present-day Slovenia borders to neighboring countries, they were never homogeneously ethnically Slovene.
Ljubinj is a settlement southeast of Tolmin in the Littoral region of Slovenia.
Poljubinj is a settlement east of Tolmin in the Littoral region of Slovenia.
Josip Ferfolja was a Slovene lawyer and Social democratic politician, and human rights activist from the Province of Gorizia. Although he was an Italian citizen for most of his life, he considered himself foremost a Slovenian.
Slovene Istria is a region in southwest Slovenia. It comprises the northern part of the Istrian peninsula, and it is part of the wider geographical-historical region known as the Slovene Littoral. Its largest urban center is Koper. Other large settlements are Izola, Piran, and Portorož. The entire region has around 120 settlements. In its coastal area, both Slovene and Italian are official languages.
The Municipality of Tolmin is a municipality in northwestern Slovenia. Its seat and largest settlement is Tolmin.
Slovene minority in Italy, also known as Slovenes in Italy is the name given to Italian citizens who belong to the autochthonous Slovene ethnic and linguistic minority living in the Italian autonomous region of Friuli – Venezia Giulia. The vast majority of members of the Slovene ethnic minority live in the Provinces of Trieste, Gorizia, and Udine. Estimates of their number vary significantly; the official figures show 52,194 Slovenian speakers in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, as per the 1971 Census, but Slovenian estimates speak of 83,000 to 100,000 people.
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