The Tolmin dialect (Slovene : tolminsko narečje, tolminščina ) is a Slovene dialect in the Rovte dialect group. It is spoken in the watersheds of the Bača and lower Idrijca rivers, as well as the reaches of the Soča River in that area, bounded on the west by a line west of Tolmin and Most na Soči. Other settlements in the dialect area include Grahovo ob Bači.
The Tolmin dialect lacks pitch accent, except in Čiginj, where this is partially retained. It has short vowels resulting from accentual retraction of the type nàga < nogà 'foot', vowel reduction as in the central Slovene dialects, b < v (known as betacizem in Slovene), and innovative Slovenian palatalization (e.g., ščìra < sekira 'axe'). Long i and u have shortened, restricting the long vowel inventory to ie, uo, and a. The dialect has undergone complete akanye and the lenition of g > [ɦ].
Slovene dialects are the regional spoken varieties of Slovene, a South Slavic language. Spoken Slovene is often considered to have at least 48 dialects (narečja) and subdialects (govori). The exact number of dialects is open to debate, ranging from as many as 50 to merely 7. The various dialects are so different from each other that a speaker of one dialect may have a very difficult time understanding a speaker of another, particularly if they belong to different regional groups. Speakers of dialects that strongly differ accommodate each other by gravitating toward standard Slovene. Slovene dialects are part of the South Slavic dialect continuum, transitioning into Serbo-Croatian to the south and bordering Friulian and Italian to the west, German to the north, and Hungarian to the east.
The Rovte dialect group is a group of closely related dialects of Slovene. The Rovte dialects are spoken in the mountainous areas of west-central Slovenia, on the border between the Slovenian Littoral, Upper Carniola, and Inner Carniola, in a triangle between the towns of Tolmin, Škofja Loka, and Vrhnika.
The Lower Carniolan dialect is a major Slovene dialect in the Lower Carniolan dialect group. It is one of the two central Slovene dialects and was the original foundation for standard Slovene along with the Ljubljana urban dialect. It is spoken in most of Lower Carniola as far west as Cerknica and including the settlements of Grosuplje and Ribnica, and encompassing the area of the Eastern Lower Carniolan subdialect.
The Selca dialect is a Slovene dialect in the Upper Carniolan dialect group. It is spoken in the Selca Sora Valley, north of a line from Porezen to Mount Lubnik, and south of a line running west of Zgornje Bitnje to north of Dražgoše to west of Zgornja Sorica.
The Rižana subdialect is a Slovene subdialect of the Istrian dialect in the Littoral dialect group. It is spoken in Italy in most of the municipalities of San Dorligo della Valle and Muggia south of Trieste, as well as in some southern suburbs of Trieste ; in Slovenia, it is spoken in the northern part of the Slovenian Istria, in the Rižana Valley east and north of Koper, including the settlements of Bertoki, Dekani, Osp, Črni Kal, Presnica, Podgorje, and Zazid.
The Upper Carniolan dialect is a major Slovene dialect in the Upper Carniolan dialect group. It is spoken in most of Upper Carniola. It is one of the two central Slovene dialects and was also used as a written language from the 17th century onwards, and especially in the second half of the 18th century.
The Central Styrian dialect is a Slovene dialect in the Styrian dialect group. It is spoken in the watersheds of the Voglajna and upper Sotla rivers in the south and the Central Dravinja Valley in the north, extending from Štore in the west to Rogatec in the east, and from Spodnja Polskava and Pragersko in the north to Podčetrtek in the south.
The Slovene Hills dialect is a Slovene dialect in the Pannonian dialect group. It is spoken in the Slovene Hills between the Drava and Mura rivers east of a line from Maribor to Šentilj v Slovenskih Goricah and west of a line from Radenci to Gradišče.
The Prlekija dialect is a Slovene dialect in the Pannonian dialect group. It is spoken in the Prlekija region, southwest of the Mura River, bounded on the north by a line from Radenci to Zlatoličje to Spodnja Polskava, on the west from there to Majšperk, and then on the south along the Dravinja and Drava rivers to the Croatian border.
The Mežica dialect is a Slovene dialect in the Carinthian dialect group. It is spoken in the triangle bounded by Črna na Koroškem, Dravograd, and Mislinja. Major settlements in the dialect area are Slovenj Gradec, Ravne na Koroškem, Prevalje, and Mežica.
The Jaun Valley dialect is a Slovene dialect in the Carinthian dialect group. It is primarily spoken in the Jaun Valley of Austria as well as in Strojna and Libeliče, Slovenia. It is spoken west of a line from Diex to Völkermarkt to Eberndorf, east of Sittersdorf, and north of the Ebriach dialect. Major settlements in the dialect area are Griffen, Kühnsdorf, Globasnitz, Bleiburg, and Lavamünd.
The Ebriach dialect is a Slovene dialect in the Carinthian dialect group. It is spoken in Austrian Carinthia around Bad Eisenkappel, in the watershed of the Vellach River and Ebriach Creek, and Jezersko.
The Gail Valley dialect is the westernmost Slovene dialect in the Carinthian dialect group, spoken in parts of southern Carinthia in Austria, in the northeasternmost part of the Province of Udine in Italy, and in northeastern Upper Carniola in Slovenia.
The Rosen Valley dialect is a Slovene dialect in the Carinthian dialect group. It is spoken in the Rosen Valley of Austria, west of a line from Villach to Faak am See and east of a line from Sittersdorf and Lake Klopein to Brückl, excluding the Ebriach dialect area to the southeast. Settlements in the dialect area include Wernberg, Köstenberg, Velden am Wörthersee, Ludmannsdorf, Köttmannsdorf, Viktring, Grafenstein, Tainach, and Rosegg, and Sankt Jakob im Rosental, Feistritz im Rosental, Windisch Bleiberg, Ferlach, Zell, and Gallizien.
The Soča dialect is a Slovene dialect in the Littoral dialect group. It includes the subdialects of Borjana, Kobarid, and Bovec in the Upper Soča Valley.
The Natisone Valley dialect is a Slovene dialect in the Littoral dialect group. It is spoken in Italy, in Venetian Slovenia along the Natisone River, bounded by the Torre Valley dialect to the northwest, the Gorizia Hills dialect to the southeast, and the Soča dialect to the northeast.
The Bača subdialect is a Slovene subdialect of the Tolmin dialect in the Rovte dialect group. It is spoken around Podbrdo in the triangular area bounded by Bača pri Podbrdu, Porezen, and Mount Rodica.
The Cerkno dialect is a Slovene dialect in the Rovte dialect group. It is spoken in mostly in the municipalities of Cerkno and Idrija in western Slovenia. Unlike many other dialects from the same dialect group, which have suffered a loss in the number of speakers due to emigration and urbanization, the Cerkno dialect remains widely spoken and it is recognized in the wider Slovenian Littoral region for its distinctive phonetic features.
The Poljane dialect is a Slovene dialect in the Rovte dialect group. It is spoken in the watershed of the Poljane Sora River almost as far east as a line from Mount Lubnik near Škofja Loka to Črni Vrh. Major settlements in the area include Žiri, Sovodenj, Gorenja Vas, Javorje, Poljane nad Škofjo Loko, Lučine, and Šentjošt nad Horjulom.
The Horjul dialect is a Slovene dialect in the Rovte dialect group. It is spoken southwest of Ljubljana in the settlements of Horjul, Polhov Gradec, Log pri Brezovici, Vrhnika, Verd, Logatec, and Kalce.