|Tololo 1247-232 (T1247)|
|Observation data (J2000 epoch)|
|Right ascension||12h 50m 18.80s|
|Declination||−23° 33′ 57.0″|
|Apparent magnitude (V)||−21|
|Notable features||Lyman Continuum leaker|
|Tol 1247, EC 12476-2317, To 1247,|
Tololo 1247-232 (Tol 1247 or T1247) is a small galaxy at a distance of 652 million light-years (200 million parsecs ) (redshift z=0.0480). It is situated in the southern equatorial constellation of Hydra. Visually, Tol 1247 appears to be an irregular or possibly a barred spiral galaxy. Tol 1247 is named after the surveys that were carried at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO), the first of which was in 1976. It is one of nine galaxies in the local universe known to emit Lyman continuum photons.
Tol 1247-232 (T1247) was first described in 1985.It was observed in the infrared using the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) 4m telescope, as part of a study of regions of intense star formation.
Six years later, T1247 was identified as an HII galaxy in the paper 'A spectrophotometric catalogue of HII galaxies', a study of 425 emission-line galaxies.T1247 has also been classified as a starburst galaxy, a blue compact dwarf and a Wolf–Rayet galaxy.
T1247 is one of nine galaxies in the local universe that have been identified as leaking Lyman continuum (LyC) photons.The first published detection of Lyman continuum photons from T1247 was made in 2013 by Leitet et al. using data from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). It was the second-known LyC-leaking source in the local universe.
LyC leakage is crucial to the process known as reionization which is believed to have occurred within the first 10% of the age of the universe.The cosmic reionization is, after recombination, the second major phase-change of hydrogen in the universe. The epoch of reionization began when the first sources appeared which produced photons capable of ionizing the surrounding medium, and ended when all of the intergalactic medium (IGM) was ionized. LyC photons are responsible for this process. However, to date it is unclear which physical mechanisms effectively produce large amounts of LyC photons, such that the reionization of the universe could be powered. Two processes are currently discussed and under evaluation: active galactic nuclei (AGN) and starbursts in dwarf galaxies. AGNs are known to produce large amounts of LyC emission, but in the early universe the number of AGNs is unknown, and often believed to be too small to power the reionization. On the other side, dwarf starbursts are known to be numerous in the early universe, but their LyC emission is unknown. For that reason local galaxies such as TOL1247 are studied in detail, in order to understand physical processes that produce escaping LyC photons. In TOL1247 it was found that bulk of the LyC photons emerges from two massive stellar clusters located in the central region of the galaxy. The escape is supported by the structure of the interstellar medium of the galaxy, which appears to be clumpy and highly ionized. Although Puschnig et al. (2017) could verify that LyC indeed escapes from TOL1247, their new spectroscopic data obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph of the Hubble Space Telescope indicates a relatively low number of escaping LyC photons (only 1.5% escape fraction). Thus, if galaxies in the early universe were similar to TOL1247, they would indeed contribute to reionization, but not sufficiently to explain the second major phase-change in the universe.
A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter. The word is derived from the Greek galaxias (γαλαξίας), literally "milky", a reference to the Milky Way. Galaxies range in size from dwarfs with just a few hundred million stars to giants with one hundred trillion stars, each orbiting its galaxy's center of mass.
An active galactic nucleus (AGN) is a compact region at the center of a galaxy that has a much-higher-than-normal luminosity over at least some portion of the electromagnetic spectrum with characteristics indicating that the luminosity is not produced by stars. Such excess non-stellar emission has been observed in the radio, microwave, infrared, optical, ultra-violet, X-ray and gamma ray wavebands. A galaxy hosting an AGN is called an "active galaxy". The non-stellar radiation from an AGN is theorized to result from the accretion of matter by a supermassive black hole at the center of its host galaxy.
A starburst galaxy is a galaxy undergoing an exceptionally high rate of star formation, as compared to the long-term average rate of star formation in the galaxy or the star formation rate observed in most other galaxies. For example, the star formation rate of the Milky Way galaxy is approximately 3 M☉/yr; however, starburst galaxies can experience star formation rates that are more than a factor of 33 times greater. In a starburst galaxy, the rate of star formation is so large that the galaxy will consume all of its gas reservoir, from which the stars are forming, on a timescale much shorter than the age of the galaxy. As such, the starburst nature of a galaxy is a phase, and one that typically occupies a brief period of a galaxy's evolution. The majority of starburst galaxies are in the midst of a merger or close encounter with another galaxy. Starburst galaxies include M82, NGC 4038/NGC 4039, and IC 10.
In the fields of Big Bang theory and cosmology, reionization is the process that caused matter in the universe to reionize after the lapse of the "dark ages".
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In astronomy, a Lyman-alpha blob (LAB) is a huge concentration of a gas emitting the Lyman-alpha emission line. LABs are some of the largest known individual objects in the Universe. Some of these gaseous structures are more than 400,000 light years across. So far they have only been found in the high-redshift universe because of the ultraviolet nature of the Lyman-alpha emission line. Since Earth's atmosphere is very effective at filtering out UV photons, the Lyman-alpha photons must be redshifted in order to be transmitted through the atmosphere.
A low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER) is a type of galactic nucleus that is defined by its spectral line emission. The spectra typically include line emission from weakly ionized or neutral atoms, such as O, O+, N+, and S+. Conversely, the spectral line emission from strongly ionized atoms, such as O++, Ne++, and He+, is relatively weak. The class of galactic nuclei was first identified by Timothy Heckman in the third of a series of papers on the spectra of galactic nuclei that were published in 1980.
Lyman continuum photons, shortened to Ly continuum photons or Lyc photons, are the photons emitted from stars at photon energies above the Lyman limit. Hydrogen is ionized by absorbing LyC. Working from Victor Schumann's discovery of ultraviolet light, from 1906 to 1914, Theodore Lyman observed that atomic hydrogen absorbs light only at specific frequencies and the Lyman series is thus named after him. All the wavelengths in the Lyman series are in the ultraviolet band. This quantized absorption behavior occurs only up to an energy limit, known as the ionization energy. In the case of neutral atomic hydrogen, the minimum ionization energy is equal to the Lyman limit, where the photon has enough energy to completely ionize the atom, resulting in a free proton and a free electron. Above this energy, all wavelengths of light may be absorbed. This forms a continuum in the energy spectrum; the spectrum is continuous rather than composed of many discrete lines, which are seen at lower energies.
A Lyman-alpha emitter (LAE) is a type of distant galaxy that emits Lyman-alpha radiation from neutral hydrogen.
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