|Olatz Peón (PNV)
|37.39 km2 (14.44 sq mi)
|75 m (246 ft)
|520/km2 (1,400/sq mi)
|• Summer (DST)
Tolosa (Spanish and Basque: [toˈlosa]) is a town and municipality in the Basque province of Gipuzkoa, in northern Spain. It is located in the valley of the river Oria, next by Uzturre, a local mountain topped by a white cross.
Its economy relies primarily on the industrial sector, specifically papermaking.
Iurre, Berazubi, Bidebieta, San Esteban, Izaskun, San Blas, Amarotz, Usabal, Santa Lutzia, Montezkue, Belate, Belabieta, Alde Zaharra (Parte Vieja), Auzo Txikia, Alliri, Arramele, Iparragirre, Urkizu, Aldaba, Larramendi, Aldaba Txiki and Bedaio.
One of Europe's tallest Douglas fir trees can be found in the fir plantation in Tolosa.
A 9000-year-old human settlement was discovered in the neighbourhood of San Esteban. From the tools and remains of flint carvings found, it would be a group whose economy was based on hunting and fruit gathering.
From the Bronze Age, about 4000 years old, are the dolmens of Belabieta and Añi, burial constructions that bear witness to the first religious manifestations.
In the Iron Age, about 2300 years ago, the first settlements appear. They settled on medium-high mountains, such as Intxur in Aldaba, and protected themselves by surrounding themselves with walls. In addition to their knowledge of iron, they were farmers and ranchers.
The whole of antiquity, including Romanization and until at least 1025, when Gipuzkoa entered history, is an obscure period about which little is known.
The territory of Gipuzkoa was incorporated to Castile in 1200. In 1256, King Alfonso X the Wise of Castile granted the charter to Tolosa, naming it after Toulouse, France. In this charter, the inhabitants of Tolosa were granted privileges that were not granted to the inhabitants of nearby villages, nor to those of other provinces. It also provided for the fortification of Tolosa, Ordizia and Segura, border points with Navarre. The original city was built on an island separated by an arm of the Oria that passed through the current Calle de la Rondilla (previously named after Pablo Gorosábel) and is completely walled, with six gates equipped with defense towers (gates of Castile, Arramele, Navarre, Casa de las Damas, Matadero and Our Lady of Help).
In 1282 it suffered a fire that destroyed it. Sancho IV of Castile granted new privileges to encourage its reconstruction and the arrival of new inhabitants, including freeing those who were to settle there of all tribute to the Crown (Vitoria-Gasteiz, 20 April 1290), privileges later confirmed by Ferdinand IV of Castile and Alfonso XI of Castile.
However, maintaining these privileges was problematic at times, as when in 1463 the tax collector Jacob Gaón demanded payment of the tax called pedido from the Tolosans. They replied that they were exempt from payment because of the provisions approved by the king. Gaón threatened them, and several of them killed him, beheaded him, and put his head on a pillory as punishment for having put Tolosa at the top of his list of collections. King Henry IV of Castile went to Tolosa to avenge his death, but the perpetrators fled the village. The king ordered the house where the crime was committed to be demolished. He did not execute the perpetrators, since before catching them he received a petition from the Junta of Gipuzkoa requesting pardon for the Tolosans, and presented their arguments, and Henry IV acknowledged that they were exempt from payment.
The prevailing insecurity since the 14th century means that over two centuries, several towns and villages joined and separated from the council of Tolosa, including Abaltzisketa, Aduna, Albiztur, Alegia, Alkiza, Altzo, Amasa, Amezketa, Andoain, Anoeta, Asteasu, Baliarrain, Belauntza, Berastegi, Berrobi, Zizurkil, Elduain, Ezama, Gaztelu, Hernialde, Ibarra, Ikaztegieta, Irura, Laskoain, Leaburu, Lizartza, Orendain, Orexa and Igorre. Tolosa is committed to the defense of the towns, which remain under the jurisdiction of the mayor, and are usually ascribed the privileges and charters of Tolosa. During the fourteenth century there were various disagreements with these cities and a conflict with San Sebastián over the cases of Andoain, Aduna and Alkiza, which was settled in 1479 with the transfer of these three towns to the jurisdiction of San Sebastian.
In 1469 it underwent another important fire, and another major one in 1503 that affected even the parish church, despite being isolated. In both cases it was granted new privileges to aid in its reconstruction, and the Catholic Monarchs issued an order for the mayor of the province to reside in Tolosa when not visiting other towns.
After the uprising of the Count of Salvatierra in 1520, during the Revolt of the Comuneros, Tolosa was on the communal side,and the royalist army defeated the resistance of Tolosa and other Basque communal towns after the defeat of the army of the Count of Salvatierra, Pedro López de Ayala, in the battle of Miñano Mayor on 19 April 1521.
On 9 August 1794, during the War of the Pyrenees, French troops occupied Tolosa. During the Peninsular War it was occupied again. While it was dominated by the Napoleonic army it suffered attacks from area guerrillas.
From 1844 to 1854 under the government of the Progressives, Tolosa was the capital of Gipuzkoa for two years, later returning to San Sebastián, which had been declared the capital city in the decrees of 1822and 1833, with the consequent transfer of the regional council and all management to the new capital of the province.
Tolosa was one of the most important cities of the territory controlled by the Carlists in the civil war of 1872–1876, and was one of the headquarters of the newspaper El Cuartel Real.
On 11 August 1936 Tolosa was captured by rebel Nationalist troops under Major Latorre.
On 29 March 1939, there was a fatal accident to the overnight Sud Express train between Paris and Lisbon.
Jacob Gaón was a Jewish Basque tax collector.
Alkiza is a rural municipality in the centre of Gipuzkoa, northwest of the Tolosaldea County, in the Basque Country. It is 27 kilometres south of San Sebastian. In 2019 it had 373 inhabitants, of which 88.8% were Basque speakers. Alkiza is an independent municipality since 1731; previously it depended on Tolosa and San Sebastian.
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Usurbil is a town and region located in the province of Gipuzkoa in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country, in the North of Spain.
Zarautz is a coastal town located in central Gipuzkoa, Basque Country, in Spain. It is bordered by Aia to the east and the south and Getaria to the west, located about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) west of San Sebastián. It has four enclaves limiting the aforementioned municipalities: Alkortiaga, Ekano, Sola, and Arbestain. As of 2014, Zarautz has a population of 22,890, which usually swells to about 60,000 in the summer.
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Getaria is a coastal town located in the province of Gipuzkoa, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, in the North of Spain. This coastal village is located on the Urola Coast, with Zarautz to the east and Zumaia to the west.
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Etxeberria (Basque pronunciation: [etʃeβeri.a], modern Basque spelling) is a Basque language placename and surname from the Basque Country in Spain and France, meaning 'the new house'. It shows one meaningful variant, Etxeberri (no Basque article –a, 'the'), and a number of later spelling variants produced in Spanish and other languages. Etxebarri(a) is a western Basque dialectal variant, with the same etymology. Etxarri (Echarri) is attested as stemming from Etxaberri.
San Sebastian, officially known by the bilingual name Donostia / San Sebastián, is a city and municipality located in the Basque Autonomous Community, Spain. It lies on the coast of the Bay of Biscay, 20 km from the France–Spain border. The capital city of the province of Gipuzkoa, the municipality's population is 188,102 as of 2021, with its metropolitan area reaching 436,500 in 2010. Locals call themselves donostiarra (singular), both in Spanish and Basque. It is also a part of Basque Eurocity Bayonne-San Sebastián.
The Oria[ˈoɾja] is a river in the Basque Country at the north of the Iberian Peninsula. It's one of a series of Basque rivers flowing into the Bay of Biscay and the main river of the province Gipuzkoa in volume, length (75 km) and basin (882.5 km2), the main feature of these rivers aligned south to north being their shortness. The maximum elevation at the source is 1,260 m, while at its lowest height the tidal influence extends inland up to Usurbil (estuary). On this final stretch, many marsh and wetland strips dotted the banks of the Oria, although some of them have been drained for agricultural and building purposes.
A sagardotegi is a type of cider house found in the Basque Country where Basque cider and traditional foods such as cod omelettes are served. Modern sagardotegis can broadly be described as a cross between a steakhouse and a cider house.
The Palacio de los Reyes de Navarra, also called the Palacio de los Duques de Granada de Ega, is a historical building in Estella, Navarre, Spain; it is the Romanesque former royal palace of the Kings and Queens of Navarre from the late 12th century to the mid-15th. In the twentieth century the building, which had fallen into disrepair, was restored and in 1991 converted into the Museo Gustavo de Maeztu, housing the work of the painter Gustavo de Maeztu y Whitney and open to the public. The building is important in the history of architecture in Navarre, since it is the only civil building extant from the Romanesque period. In 1931, it was declared a national monument by the Spanish government.
The Convento de San Esteban is a Dominican monastery situated in the Plaza del Concilio de Trento in the Spanish city of Salamanca.
Old Town of Cáceres is a historic walled city in Cáceres, Spain.
José Luis López de Lacalle Arnal was a Spanish journalist and trade unionist. A columnist for El Mundo newspaper, he was killed by ETA.
The Arrabal of Saint Martin was a medieval arrabal (neighborhood) that sat outside the Christian Walls of Madrid. It was located around the location of the current Plaza of San Martín, and occupied the space between Calle del Arenal, the Plaza de las Descalzas, Plaza del Callao, and Calle de las Navas de Tolosa. It grew as a population center around the Monastery of Saint Martin, neighboring San Martín was the Arrabal of San Ginés, and both were absorbed by the growth of the city in the 17th century.