|94 km2 (36 sq mi)
|285 m (935 ft)
|22/km2 (57/sq mi)
|• Summer (DST)
Tolox is a town and municipality in the province of Málaga in the autonomous community of Andalusia in southern Spain. The municipality has a population of 2,317 (2006). It is situated in the centre of the Sierra de las Nieves Nature Park at the foot of the Sierra Blanca and the Sierra Parda. In addition to La Torrecilla peak (1,919 m.), there are ancient woodlands of Spanish Fir and gall oak. The municipality covers 94 km2, has a mean elevation of 285 m. and mean geographical coordinates of 36° 41' 11" N, 4° 54' 16" E. The channel of the Rio Grande flows through the town from northeast to south.
The village of Tolox has winding streets, with white-washed houses and doors and window boxes overflowing with flowers in season.
While the area was inhabited in Paleolithic times, the village of Tolox bears a Phoenician name and a Phoenician origin is confirmed by archaeological evidence. It was occupied by Rome and considerable rebuilding was done under Roman rule. Later it fell to the Visigoths and then to the Umayyad Arab invaders. Tolox was freed from Córdoba rule in 883 by Umar ibn Hafsun, who developed it to one of his main bases in the Serranía de Ronda. It did not fall until 921 when his son Süleyman surrendered it to Abd-ar-Rahman III.
After the fall of the Caliphate of Córdoba, Tolox came under the Kingdom of Granada and it was not turned over to Ferdinand and Isabella, Los Reyes Católicos ("The Catholic Monarchs") until 1485 by Sancho de Angula. Tolox continued to have a large Moorish population and at Christmas 1539 there was civil strife between the predominantly moorish peasants and the Christian landholders. Each year during Carnival Tolox commemorates these events with the "Dia de los polvos" , ("Day of the Powder"). In 1568-1571 Tolox took part in the Moorish rebellion. As a result, Tolox was almost entirely depopulated first by the war, and then any remaining moors were relocated in small groups to Valencia. Philip II then called for Christian settlers from Seville, Córdoba, and as far away as Galicia.
In the War of Independence Tolox fought under the command of Francisco Javier de Abadía (commander of the Campo de Gibraltar) against the invading Napoleonic troops. Later soldiers from Cártama and Tolox under the command of General Don Francisco Ballesteros conducted guerrilla warfare out of the mountains against the French.
Aside from the mountain vistas and hiking that Tolox offers, it has a famous spa "Fuente Amargosa", which is visited for respiratory and allergic afflictions.
Andalusia is the southernmost autonomous community in Peninsular Spain. It is the most populous and the second-largest autonomous community in the country. It is officially recognised as a "historical nationality". The territory is divided into eight provinces: Almería, Cádiz, Córdoba, Granada, Huelva, Jaén, Málaga, and Seville. Its capital city is Seville. The seat of the High Court of Justice of Andalusia is located in the city of Granada.
The province of Málaga is located in Andalusia, Spain. It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south and by the provinces of Cádiz to the west, Seville to the northwest, Córdoba to the north, and Granada to the east.
Córdoba, also called Cordova in English, is one of the 50 provinces of Spain, in the north-central part of the autonomous community of Andalusia. It is bordered by the Andalusian provinces of Málaga, Seville, Jaén, and Granada, the Extremaduran province of Badajoz and the province of Ciudad Real, which is part of the autonomous community of Castile-La Mancha. Its area is 13,769 km2.
Málaga is a municipality of Spain, capital of the Province of Málaga, in the autonomous community of Andalusia. With a population of 578,460 in 2020, it is the second-most populous city in Andalusia after Seville and the sixth most populous in Spain. It lies on the Costa del Sol of the Mediterranean, about 100 kilometres east of the Strait of Gibraltar and about 130 km (80.78 mi) north of Africa.
Marbella is a city and municipality in southern Spain, belonging to the province of Málaga in the autonomous community of Andalusia. It is part of the Costa del Sol and is the headquarters of the Association of Municipalities of the region; it is also the head of the judicial district that bears its name.
Fuengirola, in ancient times known as Suel and then Suhayl, is a large town and municipality on the Costa del Sol in the province of Málaga in the autonomous community of Andalusia in southern Spain. It is located on the central coast of the province and integrated into the region of the Costa del Sol and the Commonwealth of Municipalities of the Costa del Sol Occidental.
Benalmádena is a town in Andalusia in southern Spain, 12 km west of Málaga, on the Costa del Sol between Torremolinos and Fuengirola.
Ronda is a town in the Spanish province of Málaga. It is located about 105 km (65 mi) west of the city of Málaga, within the autonomous community of Andalusia. Its population is about 35,000. Ronda is known for its cliff-side location and a deep chasm that carries the Guadalevín River and divides the town.
Álora is a town and municipality in southern Spain in the province of Málaga, in the autonomous community of Andalusia. Located c. 40 km from Málaga, on the right bank of the river Guadalhorce and on the Córdoba-Málaga railway, within the comarca of Valle del Guadalhorce. It is a typical pueblo blanco, a whitewashed village nestled between three rocky spurs topped by the ruins of the castle.
Antequera is a city and municipality in the Comarca de Antequera, province of Málaga, part of the Spanish autonomous community of Andalusia. It is known as "the heart of Andalusia" because of its central location among Málaga, Granada, Córdoba, and Seville. The Antequera Dolmens Site is a UNESCO World Heritage site.
Sierra de las Nieves is a mountain range of the Penibaetic System in Málaga Province, Andalusia, Spain with its highest point being La Torrecilla
Alhaurín de la Torre is a town in the province of Málaga, Andalusia, in southern Spain. The town is part of Málaga Metropolitan Area and of the comarca of Valle del Guadalhorce. It sits at the entrance to the Guadalhorce valley on the slopes of the Sierra de Mijas mountains, some 17 km from Málaga.
Cabra is a rural town in Córdoba province, Andalusia, Spain and the site of former bishopric Egabro. It lies along the route between Córdoba and Málaga in the south of Spain. It is an entrance point to the Parque Natural de las Sierras Subbéticas.
Canillas de Aceituno is a municipality in the province of Málaga in the autonomous community of Andalusia in southern Spain. It is located in the east of the province and is one of the municipalities comprising the comarca of Axarquia and the judicial district of Vélez-Málaga. It is a small village, located at the foot of the "La Maroma" mountains in Spain.
Istán is a town and municipality in the province of Málaga in Andalusia in southern Spain with an estimated population in 2005 of 1400 people. It lies beneath the Sierra Blanca in the valley of the Rio Verde about 15 km to the northwest from Marbella and the Mediterranean coast. It is situated on the southern slope of the Sierra de las Nieves. It is also near the large reservoir created by the Presa de la Concepción dam, built in 1972 to provide drinking water to towns all along the Costa del Sol.
Alozaina is a town and municipality in the province of Málaga, part of the autonomous community of Andalusia in southern Spain. It is located between Tolox, Casarabonela and Yunquera and in the foothills of the Sierra de las Nieves in its transition to the Hoya de Málaga. The municipality is situated approximately 52 kilometers from Málaga and 41 from the city of Ronda. It has a population of approximately 2,200 residents. Its surface area is 33.85 km2 and has a density of 66.23 inhabitants/km2. It is one of eight pueblo blancos that "guard the Sierra de las Nieves". In the past ten years a transformation has taken place, from a dusty somewhat shabby rural village to a lively community proud of its traditions and enhanced by many new amenities.
Cártama is a town and municipality in the province of Málaga, part of the autonomous community of Andalusia, southern Spain. The municipality is situated approximately 17 km (11 mi) from Málaga. It is one of the most extensive towns in the province, covering c. 150 km2 (58 sq mi). Cártama has a population of approximately 15,000 residents.
The Sierra de las Nieves National Park is a national park in the Sierra de las Nieves range, Andalusia, southern Spain. It is located behind Marbella and to the east of the road to Ronda from the Costa del Sol. In 2019 it was approved to become the sixteenth Spanish national park, the third in Andalusia. On July, 1st, 2021 it was declared National Park.
Sierra Blanca is a mountain range of the Penibaetic System in Málaga Province, Andalusia, Spain. Its highest point is the 1,275 m high Pico del Lastonar. It is the closest mountain to Marbella.
The geostrategic position of Andalusia at the southernmost tip of Europe, between Europe and Africa, between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, as well as its mineral and agricultural riches and its large surface area of 87 268 km², formed a combination of factors that made Andalusia a focus of attraction for other civilizations since the beginning of the Metal Age.