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|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||487.40 g·mol−1|
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Tolufazepam is a drug that is a benzodiazepine derivative.Studies have shown tolufazepam to have anticonvulsant and anxiolytic activity in animal subjects, including convulsions elicited by pentylenetetrazol.
Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that acts as an anxiolytic. It is commonly used to treat a range of conditions, including anxiety, seizures, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, muscle spasms, insomnia, and restless legs syndrome. It may also be used to cause memory loss during certain medical procedures. It can be taken by mouth, inserted into the rectum, injected into muscle, injected into a vein or used as a nasal spray. When given into a vein, effects begin in one to five minutes and last up to an hour. By mouth, effects begin after 15 to 60 minutes.
Clonazepam, sold under the brand names Klonopin and Rivotril, is a medication used to prevent and treat anxiety disorders, seizures, bipolar mania, agitation associated with psychosis, and akathisia. It is a tranquilizer of the benzodiazepine class. It possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, sedative, hypnotic, and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. It is typically taken by mouth. Effects begin within one hour and last between six and twelve hours.
Medazepam is a drug that is a benzodiazepine derivative. It possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, sedative, and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. It is known by the following brand names: Azepamid, Nobrium, Tranquirax, Rudotel, Raporan, Ansilan and Mezapam. Medazepam is a long-acting benzodiazepine drug. The half-life of medazepam is 36–200 hours.
Prazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative drug developed by Warner-Lambert in the 1960s. It possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. Prazepam is a prodrug for desmethyldiazepam which is responsible for the therapeutic effects of prazepam.
Nimetazepam is an intermediate-acting hypnotic drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. It was first synthesized by a team at Hoffmann-La Roche in 1964. It possesses powerful hypnotic, anxiolytic, sedative, and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. Nimetazepam is also a particularly potent anticonvulsant. It is marketed in 5 mg tablets known as Erimin, which is the brand name manufactured and marketed by the large Japanese corporation Sumitomo. Japan is the sole manufacturer of nimetazepam in the world. Outside of Japan, Erimin is available in much of East and Southeast Asia and was widely prescribed for the short-term treatment of severe insomnia in patients who have difficulty falling asleep or maintaining sleep. Sumitomo has ceased manufacturing Erimin since November 2015. It is still available as a generic drug or as Lavol.
Camazepam is a benzodiazepine psychoactive drug, marketed under the brand names Albego, Limpidon and Paxor. It is the dimethyl carbamate ester of temazepam, a metabolite of diazepam. While it possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, skeletal muscle relaxant and hypnotic properties it differs from other benzodiazepines in that its anxiolytic properties are particularly prominent but has comparatively limited anticonvulsant, hypnotic and skeletal muscle relaxant properties.
Fludiazepam, marketed under the brand name Erispan (エリスパン) is a potent benzodiazepine and 2ʹ-fluoro derivative of diazepam, originally developed by Hoffman-La Roche in the 1960s. It is marketed in Japan and Taiwan. It exerts its pharmacological properties via enhancement of GABAergic inhibition. Fludiazepam has 4 times more binding affinity for benzodiazepine receptors than diazepam. It possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, sedative, hypnotic and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. Fludiazepam has been used recreationally.
Chlordiazepoxide, trade name Librium among others, is a sedative and hypnotic medication of the benzodiazepine class; it is used to treat anxiety, insomnia and symptoms of withdrawal from alcohol and other drugs.
Cyprazepam is a drug which is a sedative-hypnotic benzodiazepine derivative. It has anxiolytic properties, and presumably also has hypnotic, skeletal muscle relaxant, anticonvulsant and amnestic properties.
Oxazolam is a drug that is a benzodiazepine derivative. It has anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, sedative, and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. It is a prodrug for desmethyldiazepam.
Pipequaline (INN) is an anxiolytic drug that was never marketed. It possesses a novel chemical structure that is not closely related to other drugs of this type. The drug has a similar pharmacological profile to the benzodiazepine family of drugs, but with mainly anxiolytic properties and very little sedative, amnestic or anticonvulsant effects, and so is classified as a nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic.
Sulazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative. It is the thioamide derivative of diazepam. It is metabolised into diazepam, desmethyldiazepam and oxydiazepam. It has sedative, muscle relaxant, hypnotic, anticonvulsant and anxiolytic properties like those of other benzodiazepines. It was never marketed.
Loreclezole is a sedative and an anticonvulsant which acts as a GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator. The binding site of loreclezole has been shown experimentally to be shared by valerenic acid, an extract of the root of the valerian plant. Structurally, loreclezole is a triazole derivative. In animal seizure models, loreclezole is protective against pentylenetetrazol seizures but is less active in the maximal electroshock test. In addition, at low, nontoxic doses, the drug has anti-absence activity in a genetic model of generalized absence epilepsy. Consequently, loreclezole has a profile of activity similar to that of benzodiazepines. A potential benzodiazepine-like interaction with GABA receptors is suggested by the observation that the anticonvulsant effects of loreclezole can be reversed by benzodiazepine receptor inverse agonists. The benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil, however, fails to alter the anticonvulsant activity of loreclezole, indicating that loreclezole is not a benzodiazepine receptor agonist. Using native rat and cloned human GABA-A receptors, loreclezole strongly potentiated GABA-activated chloride current. However, activity of the drug did not require the presence of the γ-subunit and was not blocked by flumazenil, confirming that loreclezole does not interact with the benzodiazepine recognition site.
CL-218,872 is a sedative and hypnotic drug used in scientific research. It has similar effects to sedative-hypnotic benzodiazepine drugs such as triazolam, but is structurally distinct and so is classed as a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic.
Y-23684 is an anxiolytic drug with a novel chemical structure, which is used in scientific research. It has similar effects to benzodiazepine drugs, but is structurally distinct and so is classed as a nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic.
Triflunordazepam is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative with high GABAA receptor affinity, and has anticonvulsant effects.
CP-1414S is an experimental drug first made by a team in Germany. It is a benzodiazepine derivative. CP-1414S is a 1,5-benzodiazepine, with the nitrogen atoms located at positions 1 and 5 of the diazepine ring, and so is most closely related to other 1,5-benzodiazepines such as clobazam.
FG-8205 (L-663,581) is an imidazobenzodiazepine derivative related to bretazenil, which acts as a partial agonist at GABAA receptors, with slight selectivity for the α1-containing subtype. In animal tests it has anxiolytic and anticonvulsant effects but with little sedation or ataxia produced.
Ro20-8065 (8-Chloronorflurazepam) is a benzodiazepine derivative with anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant effects, which has been sold as a designer drug.
Ro07-5220 (6'-Chlorodiclazepam) is a benzodiazepine derivative with sedative, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant effects, which has been sold as a designer drug.