Tomás António Gonzaga
A drawing of Gonzaga
|Born||11 August 1744|
Miragaia, Porto, Portugal
|Died||1810 (aged 65–66)|
Island of Mozambique, Portuguese Colony of Mozambique
|Occupation||Poet, jurist, activist|
|Alma mater||University of Coimbra|
|Notable works||Marília de Dirceu , Cartas Chilenas|
|Spouse||Juliana de Sousa Mascarenhas|
|Children||Ana Mascarenhas Gonzaga, Alexandre Mascarenhas Gonzaga|
Tomás António Gonzaga (11 August 1744 –c. 1810) was a Portuguese-born Brazilian poet. One of the most famous Neoclassic colonial Brazilian writers, he was also the ouvidor and the ombudsman of the city of Ouro Preto (formerly "Vila Rica"), as well as the desembargador of the appeal court in Bahia. He wrote under the pen name Dirceu.
He is patron of the 37th chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters.
Gonzaga was born in the freguesia (or parish) of Miragaia, in Porto, to João Bernardo Gonzaga and Tomásia Isabel Clark, who was of British descent. Tomásia died when Gonzaga was 1 year old, and soon after his mother's death, he and his father moved to Recife, and then to Bahia, where João Bernardo served at the magistrature and was desembargador of the appeal court, and Gonzaga studied at a Jesuit school. Gonzaga was sent back to Portugal as a teenager, to the University of Coimbra, to finish his studies and, at 24 years old, he finished his Law course.He presented himself as a candidate for a chair at the University, with the thesis Tratado de Direito Natural, heavily influenced by Enlightenment ideals.
Gonzaga became the juiz de fora of the city of Beja in 1778, until 1781. In the following year, he returned to Brazil, becoming the ouvidor of the city of Vila Rica (nowadays Ouro Preto). He held this post until 1789, when he was accused of being involved with the Minas Conspiracy. Arrested, he was sent to a prison in Ilha das Cobras, Rio de Janeiro. He spent three years in prison, and although he asserted his innocence, the authorities were influenced by his friendship with the conspirators. In 1792 he was sentenced to perpetual exile in Angola, later commuted to a ten-year exile on the Island of Mozambique.By that time, he was engaged to a woman named Maria Doroteia Joaquina de Seixas Brandão, possibly the "Marília" of his verses. His hope of being freed from his prison in order to see his beloved again is a prominent theme of the second part of his poetry book Marília de Dirceu .
Arriving at Mozambique, he fell ill and was charitably received by a wealthy Portuguese gentleman. He then married his daughter, Juliana de Sousa Mascarenhas, having with her two children: Ana and Alexandre.
Gonzaga lived the rest of his life in exile, having a wealthy and happy life and becoming a lawyer. He would die of a tropical disease he contracted; his date of death is unknown, although it is commonly accepted to be in 1810. His remains are currently interred at the Museu da Inconfidência in Ouro Preto.
His reputation rests on Marilia, which contains all his published verses and is organized into two parts, corresponding with the stages of his life, the second having been written in prison.
Ouro Preto, formerly Vila Rica, is a city in and former capital of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, a former colonial mining town located in the Serra do Espinhaço mountains and designated a World Heritage site by UNESCO because of its outstanding Baroque Portuguese colonial architecture.
Joaquim José da Silva Xavier, known as Tiradentes, was a leading member of the Brazilian revolutionary movement known as Inconfidência Mineira, whose aim was full independence from Portuguese colonial power and creation of a Brazilian republic.
Marília is a Brazilian municipality in the midwestern region of the state of São Paulo. Its distance from the state capital São Paulo is 443 km (275 mi) by highway, 529 km (329 mi) by railway and 376 km (234 mi) in a straight line. It is located at an altitude of 675 meters. The population is 240,590 in an area of 1170 km2.
Antônio Francisco Lisboa, more commonly known as Aleijadinho, was a sculptor and architect of Colonial Brazil, noted for his works on and in various churches of Brazil. His works are considered some of the best examples of Portuguese colonial architecture in Brazil.
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Inácio José de Alvarenga Peixoto (1744–1793) was a Colonial Brazilian Neoclassic poet and lawyer. He wrote under the pen name Eureste Fenício.
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Marília de Dirceu is a poetry book written by Luso-Brazilian Neoclassic poet Tomás António Gonzaga. It is divided in three parts — all of them published in different years. The first part, published in 1792, has 33 "lyres", and they tell mostly about Gonzaga's love by a woman named Marília. The second part, published in 1799, was written when Gonzaga was serving time in Ilha das Cobras because of his involvement with the unsuccessful Minas Conspiracy. Its 38 lyres focus now on Gonzaga's longing for freedom. The third part, published in 1802, has 9 lyres and 13 sonnets, and its authorship is disputed.
Cartas Chilenas is an unfinished series of satirical poems whose authorship is attributed to Luso-Brazilian Neoclassic poet Tomás António Gonzaga. The poems circulated in the city of Vila Rica via pamphlets for several years before the 1789 Minas Conspiracy, but were discontinued after the Conspiracy was dismantled, as Gonzaga was sent to exile in the Island of Mozambique. It is said that the Cartas Chilenas were loosely based on and inspired by Montesquieu's Persian Letters.
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Beatriz Francisca de Assis Brandão was a Neoclassical or Arcadian Brazilian poet, translator, musician, educator and early feminist. One of the few prominent female intellectuals and artists in Brazil during the reign of Pedro II, she became well-known for her poetry, frequently published in Brazilian newspapers. Through her life and work, she challenged the dominant societal roles for women at the time and played an important part in Brazilian social, political and cultural history.
Maria Doroteia Joaquina de Seixas Brandão (1767-1853), also called Marília, was a Brazilian heroine. She is famous for her participation in the failed Inconfidência Mineira for Brazilian independence from Portugal in 1789. She is also known for her engagement to Neoclassical poet Tomás António Gonzaga and his Marília de Dirceu, in which he immortalized her as the object of his love.
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|Portuguese Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
Brazilian Academy of Letters - Patron of the 37th chair
José Júlio da Silva Ramos (founder)