Tomás António Gonzaga

Last updated
Tomás António Gonzaga
Thomaz Antonio Gonzaga.jpg
A drawing of Gonzaga
Born(1744-08-11)11 August 1744
Miragaia, Porto, Portugal
Died1810 (aged 6566)
Island of Mozambique, Portuguese Colony of Mozambique
Pen nameDirceu
OccupationPoet, jurist, activist
Alma mater University of Coimbra
Literary movement Neoclassicism
Notable works Marília de Dirceu , Cartas Chilenas
SpouseJuliana de Sousa Mascarenhas
ChildrenAna Mascarenhas Gonzaga, Alexandre Mascarenhas Gonzaga

Tomás António Gonzaga (11 August 1744 c. 1810) was a Portuguese-born Brazilian poet. One of the most famous Neoclassic colonial Brazilian writers, he was also the ouvidor and the ombudsman of the city of Ouro Preto (formerly "Vila Rica"), as well as the desembargador of the appeal court in Bahia. He wrote under the pen name Dirceu.

Contents

He is patron of the 37th chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters.

Biography

Gonzaga was born in the freguesia (or parish) of Miragaia, in Porto, to João Bernardo Gonzaga and Tomásia Isabel Clark, who was of British descent. Tomásia died when Gonzaga was 1 year old, and soon after his mother's death, he and his father moved to Recife, and then to Bahia, where João Bernardo served at the magistrature and was desembargador of the appeal court, and Gonzaga studied at a Jesuit school. Gonzaga was sent back to Portugal as a teenager, to the University of Coimbra, to finish his studies and, at 24 years old, he finished his Law course. [1] He presented himself as a candidate for a chair at the University, with the thesis Tratado de Direito Natural, heavily influenced by Enlightenment ideals.

Gonzaga became the juiz de fora of the city of Beja in 1778, until 1781. In the following year, he returned to Brazil, becoming the ouvidor of the city of Vila Rica (nowadays Ouro Preto). He held this post until 1789, when he was accused of being involved with the Minas Conspiracy. Arrested, he was sent to a prison in Ilha das Cobras, Rio de Janeiro. He spent three years in prison, and although he asserted his innocence, the authorities were influenced by his friendship with the conspirators. In 1792 he was sentenced to perpetual exile in Angola, later commuted to a ten-year exile on the Island of Mozambique. [1] By that time, he was engaged to a woman named Maria Doroteia Joaquina de Seixas Brandão, possibly the "Marília" of his verses. His hope of being freed from his prison in order to see his beloved again is a prominent theme of the second part of his poetry book Marília de Dirceu .

Arriving at Mozambique, he fell ill and was charitably received by a wealthy Portuguese gentleman. He then married his daughter, Juliana de Sousa Mascarenhas, having with her two children: Ana and Alexandre.

Gonzaga lived the rest of his life in exile, having a wealthy and happy life and becoming a lawyer. He would die of a tropical disease he contracted; his date of death is unknown, although it is commonly accepted to be in 1810. His remains are currently interred at the Museu da Inconfidência in Ouro Preto.

Works

His reputation rests on Marilia, which contains all his published verses and is organized into two parts, corresponding with the stages of his life, the second having been written in prison. [1]

Related Research Articles

Ouro Preto Municipality in Southeast, Brazil

Ouro Preto, formerly Vila Rica, is a city in and former capital of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, a former colonial mining town located in the Serra do Espinhaço mountains and designated a World Heritage site by UNESCO because of its outstanding Baroque Portuguese colonial architecture.

Tiradentes

Joaquim José da Silva Xavier, known as Tiradentes, was a leading member of the Brazilian revolutionary movement known as Inconfidência Mineira, whose aim was full independence from Portuguese colonial power and creation of a Brazilian republic.

Marília Municipality in Southeast, Brazil

Marília is a Brazilian municipality in the midwestern region of the state of São Paulo. Its distance from the state capital São Paulo is 443 km (275 mi) by highway, 529 km (329 mi) by railway and 376 km (234 mi) in a straight line. It is located at an altitude of 675 meters. The population is 240,590 in an area of 1170 km2.

Aleijadinho

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, more commonly known as Aleijadinho, was a sculptor and architect of Colonial Brazil, noted for his works on and in various churches of Brazil. His works are considered some of the best examples of Portuguese colonial architecture in Brazil.

Inconfidência Mineira Unsuccessful 18th century separatist movement in Brazil

Inconfidência Mineira was an unsuccessful separatist movement in Brazil in 1789. It was the result of a confluence of external and internal causes in what was then a Portuguese colony. The external inspiration was the independence of thirteen of the British colonies in North America following the American Revolutionary War, a development that impressed the intellectual elite of particularly the captaincy of Minas Gerais. The main internal cause of the conspiracy was the decline of gold mining in that captaincy. As gold became less plentiful, the region's gold miners faced increasing difficulties in fulfilling tax obligations to the crown, the tax over gold was one-fifth. When the captaincy could not satisfy the royal demand for gold, it was burdened with an additional tax on gold, called derrama.

Inácio José de Alvarenga Peixoto (1744–1793) was a Colonial Brazilian Neoclassic poet and lawyer. He wrote under the pen name Eureste Fenício.

Cláudio Manuel da Costa

Cláudio Manuel da Costa was a Brazilian poet and musician, considered to be the introducer of Neoclassicism in Brazil. He wrote under the pen name Glauceste Satúrnio, and his most famous work is the epic poem Vila Rica, that tells the history of the homonymous city, nowadays called Ouro Preto.

Bernardo Guimarães

Bernardo Joaquim da Silva Guimarães was a Brazilian poet and novelist. He is the author of the famous romances A Escrava Isaura and O Seminarista. He also introduced to Brazilian poetry the verso bestialógico, also referred to as pantagruélico — poems whose verses are very nonsensical, although very metrical. Under the verso bestialógico, he wrote polemical erotic verses, such as "O Elixir do Pajé" and "A Origem do Mênstruo". A non-erotic poem written in verso bestialógico is "Eu Vi dos Polos o Gigante Alado".

<i>Marília de Dirceu</i>

Marília de Dirceu is a poetry book written by Luso-Brazilian Neoclassic poet Tomás António Gonzaga. It is divided in three parts — all of them published in different years. The first part, published in 1792, has 33 "lyres", and they tell mostly about Gonzaga's love by a woman named Marília. The second part, published in 1799, was written when Gonzaga was serving time in Ilha das Cobras because of his involvement with the unsuccessful Minas Conspiracy. Its 38 lyres focus now on Gonzaga's longing for freedom. The third part, published in 1802, has 9 lyres and 13 sonnets, and its authorship is disputed.

Cartas Chilenas is an unfinished series of satirical poems whose authorship is attributed to Luso-Brazilian Neoclassic poet Tomás António Gonzaga. The poems circulated in the city of Vila Rica via pamphlets for several years before the 1789 Minas Conspiracy, but were discontinued after the Conspiracy was dismantled, as Gonzaga was sent to exile in the Island of Mozambique. It is said that the Cartas Chilenas were loosely based on and inspired by Montesquieu's Persian Letters.

Ouro Fino Municipality in Southeast, Brazil

Ouro Fino is a city situated in the state of Minas Gerais in the Southeastern Region of Brazil.

José Carlos Mayrink da Silva Ferrão was a Brazilian politician and landowner. Son of Captain Baltazar João Mayrink and Maria Dorotéia Joaquina de Seixas, was also brother of Maria Dorotéia Joaquina de Seixas Brandão, also known as "Marilia de Dirceu". He adopted the name of Silva Ferrão family.

Joaquim Silvério dos Reis Montenegro Leiria Grutes was a conspirator who betrayed the Inconfidência Mineira in exchange for having his taxes waived. Was husband of Bernardina Quitéria de Oliveira Belo, in turn, cousin of Francisco Antônio de Oliveira Lopes and aunt of Duque de Caxias and Conde de Tocantins.

Heinrich Halfeld

Heinrich Wilhelm Ferdinand Halfeld, also known in Portuguese as Henrique Guilherme Fernando Halfeld, was a German engineer.

Beatriz Francisca de Assis Brandão was a Neoclassical or Arcadian Brazilian poet, translator, musician, educator and early feminist. One of the few prominent female intellectuals and artists in Brazil during the reign of Pedro II, she became well-known for her poetry, frequently published in Brazilian newspapers. Through her life and work, she challenged the dominant societal roles for women at the time and played an important part in Brazilian social, political and cultural history.

Maria Doroteia Joaquina de Seixas Brandão

Maria Doroteia Joaquina de Seixas Brandão (1767-1853), also called Marília, was a Brazilian heroine. She is famous for her participation in the failed Inconfidência Mineira for Brazilian independence from Portugal in 1789. She is also known for her engagement to Neoclassical poet Tomás António Gonzaga and his Marília de Dirceu, in which he immortalized her as the object of his love.

Bernardo Pereira de Vasconcelos

Bernardo Pereira de Vasconcelos was a Brazilian politician, journalist, judge and law expert of the Imperial era.

Marília is a Brazilian municipality in the state of São Paulo.

Antônio Luís Pereira da Cunha Brazilian politician

Antônio Luís Pereira da Cunha, first and only viscount of Inhambupe de Cima and marquis of Inhambupe, was a Brazilian magistrate, appellate judge (desembargador) and politician.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Prestage, Edgar (1911). "Gonzaga, Thomaz Antonio"  . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica . 12 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 236.
Preceded by
New creation
Olivenkranz.png
Brazilian Academy of Letters - Patron of the 37th chair
Succeeded by
José Júlio da Silva Ramos (founder)