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|Birth name||Tomás Joseph Harris|
|Born||10 April 1908|
Hampstead, United Kingdom
|Died||27 January 1964 55) (aged|
Llucmajor, Mallorca, Spain
Tomás "Tommy" Joseph Harris (10 April 1908 – 27 January 1964) was a Spanish-speaking MI6 officer who worked with Juan Pujol García, an important double agent for the British during World War II, in what became known as the Garbo deception.
Born of a Spanish mother, Enriqueta Rodriguez, and an English father, Lionel Harris, an art dealer specialising in Spanish paintings, he grew up in a Jewish household in Hampstead, his mother having converted to Judaism at the time of the marriage, Harris continued his father's successful art dealing business, and was an essentially amateur artist himself. Harris had an important collection of Spanish prints, especially those of Goya, which was mostly acquired by the British Museum after his death. In fact, Harris, while still alive, had placed his collection on indefinite loan in the British Museum. The British Museum has 708 objects formerly in his collection, including 22 prints he made himself, and in 1981 published Juliet Wilson Bareau's, Goya's Prints, The Tomás Harris Collection in the British Museum.
He had five siblings: William, Morris, Violeta, Conchita, and Enriqueta Harris (1910—2006), an art historian specializing in Spanish art.
In 1962, Flora Solomon – a friend of Kim Philby – told Victor Rothschild, who had worked with MI6 during World War II, that she thought that Philby and Tomás Harris had been Soviet spies, [ incomplete short citation ] since the 1930s. "Those two were so close as to give me an intuitive feeling that Harris was more than a friend."
As a result of this information, MI5 sought to interview Harris. However, Harris was killed in a motor accident at Llucmajor, Mallorca, before an interview could occur.[ citation needed ] It has been suggested that Harris was murdered. [ incomplete short citation ] For example, Chapman Pincher suggested that Harris was killed by Soviet agents to prevent him speaking to MI5:
The police could find nothing wrong with the car, which hit a tree, but Harris's wife, who survived the crash, could not explain why the vehicle had gone into a sudden slide. It is considered possible, albeit remotely, that the KGB might have wanted to silence Harris before he could talk to the British security authorities, as he was an expansive personality, when in the mood, and was outside British jurisdiction. The information, about which MI5 wanted to question him and would be approaching him in Majorca [a.k.a. Mallorca], could have leaked to the KGB from its source inside MI5.
Pincher pointed out that the most likely source of any leak was Roger Hollis, then director-general of MI5 who Pincher controversially claimed was a Soviet agent.[ citation needed ]
According to Bill Bristow, Tomas Harris's godson, his father, Desmond Bristow, was a very close friend of Tomas Harris and interviewed Juan Pujol (Garbo) before Tommy became Garbo's case officer. He reveals reveals the fact that Tomas Harris funded Philly's book which he never wrote. Bill Bristow believes Tommy would have known Philby was a KGB operative, but was never involved himself, although possible.
Together they made up a fictional team of 27 fake sub-agents, who were created in order to convince German intelligence that Garbo was a reliable spy. This resulted in what became known as the Garbo deception.
|Agent ONE -------------------------|J(2) KLM pilot and courier |KLM steward | |-resigned in 1943 |J(3) Head of Section | | | |J(4) Censor in MOI | | | |J(5) Secretary in Cabinet Office | |Agent TWO -------------------------|2(I) WIDOW |William Gerbers | Mrs. Gerbers |-died in , in 1942 | |Agent THREE -----------------------|3(I) Pilot Officer |BENEDICT | |-"Carlos", a n student |3(2) Officer in | in Glasgow, Scotland | | |3(3) Greek seaman and deserter | GARBO/ARABEL --|Agent FOUR ------------------------|4(I) ALMURA (Juan Pujol) |CHAMILLUS | radio operator |-ian waiter based | | in Chislehurst (London), England |4(2) Guard based in Chislehurst | | | |4(3) US NCO based in London | |Agent FIVE ------------------------|5(I) Agent FIVE's cousin in Buffalo, USA |MOONBEAM |-a Venezuelan based in , | Canada |-brother of "BENEDICT" | |Agent SIX |Field Security NCO |-died in 1943 | |Agent SEVEN -----------------------|7(I) Soldier in British 9th Armoured Division |DAGOBERT | |-Ex-seaman in , |7(2) DONNY | Leader of World Aryan Order | |7(3) Wren in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) | |7(4) DICK | Indian fanatic | |7(5) DRAKE in Exeter, England | |7(6) Welsh fascist in South Wales | |7(7) DORICK in Harwich, England
Harold Adrian Russell "Kim" Philby was a British intelligence officer and a double agent for the Soviet Union. In 1963 he was revealed to be a member of the Cambridge Five, a spy ring which passed information to the Soviet Union during World War II and in the early stages of the Cold War. Of the five, Philby is believed to have been most successful in providing secret information to the Soviets.
The Double-Cross System or XX System was a World War II counter-espionage and deception operation of the British Security Service. Nazi agents in Britain – real and false – were captured, turned themselves in or simply announced themselves, and were then used by the British to broadcast mainly disinformation to their Nazi controllers. Its operations were overseen by the Twenty Committee under the chairmanship of John Cecil Masterman; the name of the committee comes from the number 20 in Roman numerals: "XX".
Juan Pujol García, also known as Joan Pujol Garcia, was a Spanish spy who acted as a double agent loyal to Great Britain against Nazi Germany during World War II, when he relocated to Britain to carry out fictitious spying activities for the Germans. He was given the codename Garbo by the British; their German counterparts codenamed him Alaric and referred to his non-existent spy network as "Arabal".
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Sir Roger Henry Hollis, KBE, CB was a British journalist and intelligence officer who served with MI5 from 1938 to 1965. He was Director General of MI5 from 1956 to 1965.
Anatoliy Mikhaylovich Golitsyn CBE was a Soviet KGB defector and author of two books about the long-term deception strategy of the KGB leadership. He was born in Pyriatyn, Ukrainian SSR. He provided "a wide range of intelligence to the CIA on the operations of most of the 'Lines' (departments) at the Helsinki and other residencies, as well as KGB methods of recruiting and running agents." He was an Honorary Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) and, as late as 1984, was an American citizen.
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Henry Chapman Pincher was an English journalist, historian, and novelist whose writing mainly focused on espionage and related matters, after some early books on scientific subjects.
Arnold Deutsch (1903–1942?), variously described as Austrian, Czech or Hungarian, was an academic who worked in London as a Soviet spy, best known for having recruited Kim Philby. Much of his life remains unknown or disputed.
Flora Solomon, OBE was an influential Zionist. She was the first woman hired to improve working conditions at Marks & Spencer in London. She was the mother of Peter Benenson, founder of Amnesty International.
The Eldorado Network is a 1979 espionage novel by Derek Robinson, published by Hamish Hamilton. Three sequels followed, Artillery of Lies in 1991, Red Rag Blues in 2006, and Operation Bamboozle in 2009. The novel, like all of Robinson's work, is based on fact, in this case a genuine double-agent known as "Garbo".
This is worse is an etching and wash drawing by the Spanish artist Francisco Goya (1746–1828). Completed between 1812–1815, though not published until 1863, it forms part of his Disasters of War series, which Goya created as a visual protest against the violence of the 1808 Dos de Mayo Uprising and subsequent Peninsular War of 1808–1814.
Garbo: The Spy is a Spanish documentary about Juan Pujol Garcia's role in the Second World War, directed by Edmon Roch.
The United States Army created a large number of notional deception formations that were used in a number of World War II deception operations. The most notable fictional US formation was the First U.S. Army Group (FUSAG); this field army was originally intended as the main invasion force for the Invasion of Normandy, however that was renamed to the 12th Army Group. FUSAG remained in existence on paper and was used during Operation Fortitude South to divert Axis attention to the Pas de Calais area.
Kathleen Maria Margaret Sissmore, MBE (1898–1982), was known as Jane Sissmore and then Jane Archer after her marriage in 1939. In 1929 she became the first female officer in Britain's Security Service, MI5, and was still their only woman officer at the time of her dismissal for insubordination in 1940. She had been responsible for investigations into Soviet intelligence and subversion. She then joined the Secret Intelligence Service (MI6), but when Kim Philby, later to be exposed as a double agent, became her boss he reduced her investigative work because he feared she might uncover his treachery.
Enriqueta Harris Frankfort was a British art historian and writer who specialised in Spanish art. Born into a family with an English father and a Spanish mother, she attended the University College London to read modern languages and later studied a Doctor of Philosophy art degree under Tancred Borenius. Harris travelled to Spain to research Caravaggio's influence on 17th-century Spanish paintings and her first book was published in 1938. She billeted Basque child refugees during the Spanish Civil War and worked with the Ministry of Information to keep Spain neutral during World War II. After the war ended she worked in the Warburg Institute and was offered the post in their photographic collection in 1947. Harris worked there until her retirement albeit for two years when she was married to the institution's director Henri Frankfort. Her work on Spanish paintings earned her widespread recognition in the country and received multiple awards and honours.