Tomás de Cardona, a native of Venice and living in Seville, was a rich explorer, trader, and teacher of Spanish royal palace from the 17th century, who invested a fortune in a company to exploit the pearl banks in California.
Venice is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Seville is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville, Spain. It is situated on the plain of the river Guadalquivir. The inhabitants of the city are known as sevillanos or hispalenses, after the Roman name of the city, Hispalis. Seville has a municipal population of about 690,000 as of 2016, and a metropolitan population of about 1.5 million, making it the fourth-largest city in Spain and the 30th most populous municipality in the European Union. Its Old Town, with an area of 4 square kilometres (2 sq mi), contains three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Alcázar palace complex, the Cathedral and the General Archive of the Indies. The Seville harbour, located about 80 kilometres from the Atlantic Ocean, is the only river port in Spain. Seville is also the hottest major metropolitan area in the geographical Southwestern Europe, with summer average high temperatures of above 35 °C (95 °F).
Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information or resources. Exploration occurs in all non-sessile animal species, including humans. In human history, its most dramatic rise was during the Age of Discovery when European explorers sailed and charted much of the rest of the world for a variety of reasons. Since then, major explorations after the Age of Discovery have occurred for reasons mostly aimed at information discovery.
In 1611 he was granted an "encomienda" from Philip III of Spain to create a company to exploit the pearl banks of California by committing to: certain important company in the service God, if the result was positive, make the evangelization of the whole southern part and the vast kingdom of the Californias ". In 1612 he signed an agreement with the viceroy to find new banks of pearls, look for the lost galleons from general Luis Fernandez de Cordoba, and explore the rich kingdom of the California.
Encomienda was a Spanish labor system. It rewarded conquerors with the labor of particular groups of subject people. It was first established in Spain following the Christian conquest of Muslim territories. It was applied on a much larger scale during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and the Philippines. Conquered peoples were considered vassals of the Spanish monarch. The Crown awarded an encomienda as a grant to a particular individual. In the conquest era of the sixteenth century, the grants were considered to be a monopoly on the labor of particular groups of Indians, held in perpetuity by the grant holder, called the encomendero, and his descendants.
Philip III was King of Spain. He was also, as Philip II, King of Portugal, Naples, Sicily and Sardinia and Duke of Milan from 1598 until his death.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U.S. state and the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento. The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 8.8 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, and the country's second most populous, after New York City. California also has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs.
He offered the male members of his family to enter the company, and sent six ships from Cadiz. His nephew Nicolas de Cardona concluded the trip, returning to California in 1623, making a report to the king that has survived up to our days.
Tomas Cardona succeeded Francisco Velázquez Guillamas the 31 December 1622 as a teacher of chamber of the court.In 1633 Felipe IV of Spain issued a decree forcing treasurers of the houses of the king and queen to present its accounts to the Royal accountancy. In March 1634, the Royal accountancy demanded Tomas Cardona, chamber master and captain, to submit his accounts for the period 1629-1633. Cardona he could not accomplish it until the autumn of that year, being in a bad position until then.
The 17th century was the century that lasted from January 1, 1601, to December 31, 1700, in the Gregorian calendar. It falls into the Early Modern period of Europe and in that continent was characterized by the Baroque cultural movement, the latter part of the Spanish Golden Age, the Dutch Golden Age, the French Grand Siècle dominated by Louis XIV, the Scientific Revolution, and according to some historians, the General Crisis. The greatest military conflicts were the Thirty Years' War, the Great Turkish War, and the Dutch-Portuguese War. It was during this period also that European colonization of the Americas began in earnest, including the exploitation of the silver deposits, which resulted in bouts of inflation as wealth was drawn into Europe.
1703 (MDCCIII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1703rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 703rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 3rd year of the 18th century, and the 4th year of the 1700s decade. As of the start of 1703, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In the Swedish calendar it was a common year starting on Thursday, one day ahead of the Julian and ten days behind the Gregorian calendar.
1611 (MDCXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1611th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 611th year of the 2nd millennium, the 11th year of the 17th century, and the 2nd year of the 1610s decade. As of the start of 1611, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
1633 (MDCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1633rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 633rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 33rd year of the 17th century, and the 4th year of the 1630s decade. As of the start of 1633, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
Anne of Austria, a Spanish princess of the House of Habsburg, was queen of France as the wife of Louis XIII, and regent of France during the minority of her son, Louis XIV, from 1643 to 1651. During her regency, Cardinal Mazarin served as France's chief minister. Accounts of French court life of her era emphasize her difficult marital relations with her husband, her closeness to her son Louis XIV, and her disapproval of her son's marital infidelity to her niece and daughter-in-law Maria Theresa.
The Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, The Catholic University of the Philippines, or simply the University of Santo Tomas (UST), is a private, Roman Catholic research university in Manila, Philippines. Founded on April 28, 1611 by Miguel de Benavides, Archbishop of Manila, it has the oldest extant university charter in the Philippines and in Asia, and is one of the world's largest Catholic universities in terms of enrollment found on one campus. The university is run by the Order of Preachers. UST is the only university to have been visited by three popes four times: once by Pope Paul VI on November 28, 1970, twice by Pope John Paul II on February 18 1981 and January 13, 1995, and once by Pope Francis on January 18, 2015. The patron of the university is St. Thomas Aquinas, while St. Catherine of Alexandria is the patroness.
Pedro Téllez-Girón, 3rd Duke of Osuna was a Spanish nobleman and politician. He was the 2nd Marquis of Peñafiel, 7th Count of Ureña, Spanish Viceroy of Sicily (1611–1616), Viceroy of Naples (1616–1620), a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece since 1608, Grandee of Spain, member of the Spanish Supreme Council of War, and the subject of several poems by his friend, counselor and assistant, Francisco de Quevedo.
A lady-in-waiting or court lady is a female personal assistant at a court, royal or feudal, attending on a royal woman or a high-ranking noblewoman. Historically, in Europe, a lady-in-waiting was often a noblewoman, but of lower rank than of the woman on whom she attended. Although she may either have been a retainer or may not have received compensation for the service she rendered, a lady-in-waiting was considered more of a courtesan or companion to her mistress than a servant.
Diego Columbus (1479/1480-1526) was a Portuguese navigator and explorer under the Kings of Castile and Aragón. He served as the 2nd Admiral of the Indies, 2nd Viceroy of the Indies and 4th Governor of the Indies as a vassal to the Kings of Castile and Aragón. He was the elder son of Christopher Columbus and his wife Filipa Moniz Perestrelo.
Bartolomé Ferrer, also known as Bartolomé Ferrelo, born in 1499 in the region of Levante, Spain, or in Bilbao, Biscay, died 1550 in Mexico.
Tomás de la Cerda y Aragón, 3rd Marquess of la Laguna, GE, KOA, , was a Spanish nobleman, viceroy of Galicia and of New Spain from 1680 to 1686. He is better known as the Count of Paredes, though he held this title only as consort.
Archduchess Maria of Austria was Holy Roman Empress and queen consort of Bohemia and Hungary as the spouse of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia and Hungary. She served as regent of Spain in the absence of her father Emperor Charles V from 1548 until 1551, and in the absence of her brother Philip II, from 1558 to 1561.
Nicolás de Cardona was a Spanish entrepreneur and adventurer with residence in Seville, who was involved in the exploration of the Western coast of the North American continent
Duke of Medinaceli is a title of the Spanish nobility. The Catholic Monarchs, Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, created the title and awarded it to Luis de la Cerda y de la Vega on 31 October 1479. Luis also held the title of 5th Count of Medinaceli, which title was first awarded in 1368 to his ancestor, Bernal de Foix.
The Duke of Orléans was the second son and fourth child of Henry IV of France and his Italian queen Marie de' Medici. Although he is commonly given the first name Nicolas or Nicolas Henri, he was never solemnly baptized and so never had a Christian name.
The Royal University Militias were eighteenth-century Spanish military units in the Philippines.
Robert Brandon was an English goldsmith and jeweller to Queen Elizabeth I of England. A prominent member of the Goldsmiths' Company, Brandon was elected Chamberlain or treasurer of the City of London in 1583, a position he held until his death in 1591.
Juan Francisco de la Cerda Enríquez de Ribera, 8th Duke of Medinaceli, 7th Marquis de Cogolludo, 4th Marquis of Alcalá de la Alameda, 6th Duke of Alcalá de los Gazules, 9th Count of Los Molares, 9th Marquis of Tarifa, 8th Count of El Puerto de Santa María, was a Spanish noble and politician, and valido of King Charles II of Spain.
The Camarera mayor de Palacio was the Official of the Royal Household and Heritage of the Crown of Spain, who was in charge of the person and the rooms of the Queen of Spain.
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.