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Tom C. Keogh (1922 – 15 February 1980) was an international fashion illustrator, graphic artist, and set and costume designer who married dancer and novelist Theodora Keogh, née Roosevelt, the granddaughter of President Theodore Roosevelt. Born in San Francisco, Tom Keogh studied at the California School of Fine Arts and the Chouinard School of Painting (Los Angeles). In 1944 he moved to New York to work as an illustrator for Barbara Karinska, the theatre, ballet and film designer. After their wedding the Keoghs moved to Paris.
Tom Keogh was featured on the cover of French Vogue's Christmas issue in December 1947, and for the next four years he created many more covers for Vogue Paris as well as multiple illustrations within its pages. He drew sketches of clothes by couturiers Jeanne Lanvin, Nina Ricci, Jacques Griffe, Pierre Balmain, Schiaparelli, Christian Dior, Marcel Rochas, Jacques Heim and Edward Molyneux, as well as perfumes by Elizabeth Arden and Jean Dessès.[ citation needed ]
Keogh's work reflected a new spirit and panache and a simplified outline with a confident, nonchalant flick of the brush.[ citation needed ] But it was his use of vibrant primary colours twinned with black that set him apart from all other graphic artists of the period.[ citation needed ] He illustrated Mad Carpentier in 1948, Balenciaga in 1949, and a double picture of Lanvin and Balmain gowns in 1950. He also created covers for paperbacks for Barron's Educational Series, the Algerian Society's Dictionnaire des Femmes (1961, 1962) and James Leo Herlihy's The Sleep of Baby Flibertson (1958). He illustrated the covers for penguin books and novels by his wife Theodora Keogh: Meg (1951); Street Music (1951); The Double Door (1952); The Tattooed Heart (1952); and The Fascinator (1955).[ citation needed ]
During the late 1940s and early 1950s Keogh designed the annual Christmas windows for Galeries Lafayette department store in Paris.
After his divorce the couple remained lifelong friends but he eventually returned to New York, and there began to make fashion illustrations for New York Magazine. He also illustrated an edition of the poems of William Butler Yeats and designed the Berlin production of Jesus Christ Superstar.
Keogh designed the set and costumes for Le Portrait de Don Quichotte, choreographed by Aurel Miloss in 1947 for Les Ballets des Champs-Élysées (see French Wikipedia) and starring Jean Babilée in the title role. In the fertile post-war environment, the Ballet des Champs-Élysées company was a short lived crucible of cutting-edge, modernist work of the highest quality, ambition and energy, completely independent of the traditionalist Ballet de l'Opera (and distinct from an eponymous company subsequently set up by Roland Petit). At the Ballets des Champs-Elysées, Keogh was designing alongside Christian Bérard, Cecil Beaton and Christian Dior, and stories for new ballets were often written by Jean Cocteau. The artistic director was Boris Kochno and the company was built by Roland Petit. In 1950 Tom Keogh designed Till Eulenspiegel at the Ballets des Champs-Élysées, choreographed by and starring Jean Babilée.
Keogh's costume sketches are signed with a bold black hand, often in the top left hand corner.[ citation needed ] Moving from stage to screen, Keogh was responsible for the costumes for Marlene Dietrich when she starred with Ronald Colman in the 1944 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film production of Kismet, and designed Mae West's costumes for the Broadway production of Catherine was Great. In 1947, he also designed the film costumes for Judy Garland, Gene Kelly, and Gladys Cooper in The Pirate at MGM.
In 1955 Leslie Caron, with whom he had worked previously at the Ballet Des Champs Elysees in Paris, recommended him to design the costumes for the ballet sequences in the 20th Century-Fox musical Daddy Long Legs, which he did.[ citation needed ] In 1957, also on Caron's recommendation, Keogh designed costumes for a production of Tennessee Williams's "Camino Real" directed by her husband Peter Hall at the Phoenix Theatre, London. More recently, he designed the Berlin production of Jesus Christ Superstar .
On 8 June 1945 Keogh married Theodora Roosevelt (b. 1919), the daughter of Lt. Col. Archibald B. Roosevelt and a granddaughter of the late President Theodore Roosevelt. They did not have children and his marriage terminated in divorce. He had an affair with Marie-Laure de Noailles, society hostess, patron of the arts and close friend of Jean Cocteau. His wife Theodora responded by having an affair with her chauffeur. There are also references, in his wife's biography, of his affair with Nathalie Philippart, the dancer wife of Jean Babilée. The affair produced a son, Yann. He is now an actor working in French film and TV under the name of Yann Babilée Keogh. His daughter Lou Gutmann Keogh is a director of photography working in the French film industry.[ citation needed ]
Tom Keogh features heavily in the book "Masters of Fashion Illustration" by David Downton and is considered by many to be on a parr with artists such as Marcel Vertès and Christian Bérard - but possibly due to his alleged alcoholism and uncertain private life he has been somewhat neglected by history.[ citation needed ]
Tom Keogh died in Mount Sinai Hospital in New York after a long illness on 15 February 1980.
Parade is a ballet choreographed by Leonide Massine, with music by Erik Satie and a one-act scenario by Jean Cocteau. The ballet was composed in 1916–17 for Sergei Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. The ballet premiered on Friday, May 18, 1917, at the Théâtre du Châtelet in Paris, with costumes and sets designed by Pablo Picasso, choreography by Léonide Massine, and the orchestra conducted by Ernest Ansermet.
The Théâtre des Champs-Élysées is an entertainment venue standing at 15 avenue Montaigne in Paris. It is situated near Avenue des Champs-Élysées, from which it takes its name. Its eponymous main hall may seat up to 1,905 people, while the smaller Comédie and Studio des Champs-Élysées above the latter may seat 601 and 230 people respectively.
Valentine Hugo (1887–1968) was a French artist and writer. She was born Valentine Marie Augustine Gross, only daughter to Auguste Gross and Zélie Démelin, in Boulogne-sur-Mer. She is best known for her work with the Russian ballet and with the French Surrealists. Hugo died in Paris.
Roland Petit was a French ballet company director, choreographer and dancer. He trained at the Paris Opera Ballet school, and became well known for his creative ballets.
Jean Babilée (real name Jean Gutman(n); 3 February 1923 – 30 January 2014) was a prominent French dancer and choreographer of the latter half of the 20th century. He is considered to have been one of modern ballet's greatest performers, and the first French dancer to gain international acclaim. Babilée has been called the "enfant terrible of dance."
Varvara Jmoudsky, better known as Barbara Karinska or simply Karinska, was the Oscar-winning costumier of cinema, ballet, musical and dramatic theatre, lyric opera and ice spectacles. Over her 50 year career, that began at age 41, Karinska earned legendary status time and again through her continuing collaborations with stage designers including Christian Bérard, André Derain, Irene Sharaff, Raoul Pêne du Bois and Cecil Beaton; performer-producers Louis Jouvet and Sonja Henie; ballet producers René Blum, Colonel de Basil and Serge Denham. Her longest and most renown collaboration was with choreographer George Balanchine for more than seventy ballets — the first known to be “The Celebrated Popoff Porcelain,” a one act ballet for Nikita Balieff's 1929 La Chauve-Souris with music by Tchaikovsky for which Karinska executed the costumes design by Sergey Tchekhonin. She began to design costumes for Balanchine ballets in 1949 with Emmanuel Chabrier's “Bourrèe Fantasque,” for the newly founded New York City Ballet. Their final collaboration was the 1977 "Vienna Waltzes.” Balanchine and Karinska together developed the American tutu ballet costume which became an international costume standard.
Christian Bérard , also known as Bebè, was a French artist, fashion illustrator and designer.
The Eagle with Two Heads is a 1948 French drama film directed by Jean Cocteau. It was adapted from his own play L'Aigle à deux têtes which was first staged in Paris in October 1946, retaining the principal actors Edwige Feuillère and Jean Marais from the original theatre production.
Le Jeune Homme et la Mort is a ballet by Roland Petit, choreographed in 1946 to Bach's Passacaglia and Fugue in C Minor, BWV 582, with a one-act libretto by Jean Cocteau. It tells the story of a young man driven to suicide by his faithless lover. Sets were by Georges Wakhévitch and costumes variously reported as being by Karinska or Cocteau. Petit is purported to have created Le Jeune Homme et la Mort for his wife-to-be Zizi Jeanmaire, but it was danced by Jean Babilée and Nathalie Philippart at its 25 June 1946 premiere at the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées with costumes by Tom Keogh.
Theodora Roosevelt Keogh O'Toole Rauchfuss was an American novelist writing under her first married name, Theodora Keogh, in the 1950s and 1960s.
Lila De Nobili was an Italian stage designer, costume designer, and fashion illustrator. She was noted for her collaborations with leading stage and opera directors such as Luchino Visconti and Franco Zeffirelli, as well as her early work on fashion illustration at French Vogue magazine.
Pablo Picasso and the Ballets Russes collaborated on several productions. Pablo Picasso's Cubist sets and costumes were used by Sergei Diaghilev in the Ballets Russes's Parade, Le Tricorne, Pulcinella, and Cuadro Flamenco. Picasso also drew a sketch with pen on paper of La Boutique fantasque, and designed the drop curtain for Le Train Bleu, based on his painting Two Women Running on the Beach, 1922.
Jean Hugo was a painter, illustrator, theatre designer and author. He was born in Paris and died in his home at the Mas de Fourques, near Lunel, France. Brought up in a lively artistic environment, he began teaching himself drawing and painting and wrote essays and poetry from a very early age. His artistic career spans the 20th century, from his early sketches of the First World War, through the creative ferment of the Parisian interwar years, and up to his death in 1984. He was part of a number of artistic circles that included Jean Cocteau, Raymond Radiguet, Pablo Picasso, Georges Auric, Erik Satie, Blaise Cendrars, Marie-Laure de Noailles, Paul Eluard, Francis Poulenc, Charles Dullin, Louis Jouvet, Colette, Marcel Proust, Jacques Maritain, Max Jacob, Carl Theodor Dreyer, Marie Bell, Louise de Vilmorin, Cecil Beaton and many others.
Les mariés de la tour Eiffel is a ballet to a libretto by Jean Cocteau, choreography by Jean Börlin, set by Irène Lagut, costumes by Jean Hugo, and music by five members of Les Six: Georges Auric, Arthur Honegger, Darius Milhaud, Francis Poulenc and Germaine Tailleferre. The score calls for two narrators. The ballet was first performed in Paris in 1921.
Lucienne Bogaert was a French actress. She started her career in theatre, but later also worked in film. After she divorced her husband Robert Bogaert, she retained his name for professional purposes.
Le train bleu is a one-act ballet choreographed by Bronislava Nijinska to music by Darius Milhaud for Serge Diaghilev's Ballets Russes, based on a scenario by Jean Cocteau. The title was taken from the night train called Le Train Bleu, which transported wealthy passengers from Calais to the Mediterranean Sea.
The Années folles was the decade of the 1920s in France. It was coined to describe the social, artistic, and cultural collaborations of the period. The same period is also referred to as the Roaring Twenties or the Jazz Age in the United States. In Germany, it is sometimes referred to as the Golden Twenties because of the economic boom that followed World War I.
La belle excentrique is a dance suite for small orchestra by French composer Erik Satie. A parody of music hall clichés, it was conceived as a choreographic stage work and by modern standards can be considered a ballet. Satie gave it the whimsical subtitle "fantaisie sérieuse". It was premiered at the Théâtre du Colisée in Paris on June 14, 1921, conducted by Vladimir Golschmann. The composer later arranged it for piano four hands.
Pierre Clayette was a French painter, etcher and lithographer, illustrator and scenographer. Active for five decades, much of his work was architectural in style.
The Art Deco movement of architecture and design appeared in Paris in about 1910–12, and continued until the beginning of World War II in 1939. It took its name from the International Exposition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts held in Paris in 1925. It was characterized by bold geometric forms, bright colors, and highly stylized decoration, and it symbolized modernity and luxury. Art Deco architecture, sculpture, and decoration reached its peak at 1939 Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne, and in movie theaters, department stores, other public buildings. It also featured in the work of Paris jewelers, graphic artists, furniture craftsmen, and jewelers, and glass and metal design. Many Art Deco landmarks, including the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées and the Palais de Chaillot, can be seen today in Paris.