| United States Senator |
November 9, 1938 – January 3, 1949
|Preceded by||George L. Berry|
|Succeeded by||Estes Kefauver|
|Died||October 10,1972 80) (aged|
Arthur Thomas Stewart (January 11,1892 –October 10,1972),more commonly known as Tom Stewart,was a Democratic United States Senator from Tennessee from 1939 to 1949.
Stewart was born in Dunlap,Tennessee. Stewart also had a sister called Lydia. He attended the former Pryor Institute,a private school,in Jasper,Tennessee and Emory College (now Emory University). He returned to Tennessee and attended Cumberland School of Law at Cumberland University in Lebanon. Upon admission to the bar in 1913,he set up practice in Birmingham,Alabama. He moved back to Jasper,Tennessee in 1915 and practised there until 1919,then moved to Winchester,Tennessee.
In private practice in Winchester,he was elected district attorney for the former 18th Circuit for a term beginning in 1923. He served in this position until 1939. As a consequence,in 1925 Stewart was the chief prosecutor in the Scopes Trial. Stewart designed the prosecution's argument to preserve political control over the schools exclusively within the state legislature,thereby keeping the trial to the narrow,legal matters and forestalling attempts by the defense to introduce scientific testimony or to show there was not a conflict between evolution and the story of divine creation set forth in Genesis . Except for the willingness of William Jennings Bryan (hired by a Christian fundamentalist group to assist with the prosecution) to be cross-examined by Clarence Darrow,Stewart's positions controlled the trial and the Scopes defense had no recourse but to ask the jury to convict the defendant so the case could be appealed to the Tennessee Supreme Court (which overturned the conviction on a legal technicality but upheld the constitutionality of the Butler Act).
In 1938 Stewart entered the race for the balance of the unexpired term of the late Senator Nathan L. Bachman,who had died in office. In the August Democratic primary he defeated labor union leader George L. Berry,who had been appointed to the seat upon Bachman's death by Governor Gordon Browning,and was elected Senator on November 8. Eligible to begin serving immediately,he instead waited until the expiry of his term as district attorney on January 16,1939 to take his Senate seat.
Stewart was somewhat typical of the Democratic Party's Southern wing of that era. He has been considered to be at least somewhat an ally of Memphis political boss E. H. Crump,but less so than Tennessee's other Senator of the time,Memphian Kenneth McKellar. Unlike some of the other Southern Senators,however,Stewart was also a staunch pro-Roosevelt New Dealer and was the only successful Senator to win a primary and purge an incumbent Senator whom Roosevelt targeted in the 1938 midterm election "purge."Stewart was reelected in 1942. In that year,shortly after the beginning of Japanese internment,he introduced a bill in the Senate to revoke citizenship from all American-born persons of Japanese ancestry. In 1948,he was challenged for renomination by Estes Kefauver,a progressive East Tennessean who defeated him. Edward J. Meeman,the influential editor of the Memphis Press-Scimitar ,supported Kefauver to undermine the Crump machine,with which Meeman had long been at odds. After he defeated Stewart,Kefauver then handily prevailed over the Republican nominee,B. Carroll Reece.
Stewart returned to the private practice of law. He died in Nashville and was interred at Winchester's Memorial Park Cemetery.
Brazilla Carroll Reece was an American Republican Party politician from Tennessee. He represented eastern Tennessee in the United States House of Representatives for all but six years from 1921 to 1961 and served as the Chair of the Republican National Committee from 1946 to 1948.
Carey Estes Kefauver was an American politician from Tennessee. A member of the Democratic Party,he served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1939 to 1949 and in the Senate from 1949 until his death in 1963.
Francis Beverley Biddle was an American lawyer and judge who was the US Attorney General during World War II. He also served as the primary American judge during the postwar Nuremberg Trials as well as a United States Circuit Judge of the Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit.
Cumberland School of Law is an ABA accredited law school at Samford University in Birmingham,Alabama,United States. It was founded in 1847 at Cumberland University in Lebanon,Tennessee and is the 11th oldest law school in the United States and has more than 11,000 graduates. Its alumni include two United States Supreme Court Justices;Nobel Peace Prize recipient Cordell Hull,"the father of the United Nations";over 50 U.S. representatives;and numerous senators,governors,and judges.
Frank Goad Clement was an American lawyer and politician who served as Governor of Tennessee from 1953 to 1959 and from 1963 to 1967. Inaugurated for the first time at age 32,he was the state's youngest and longest-serving governor in the 20th century. Clement owed much of his rapid political rise to his ability to deliver rousing,mesmerizing speeches. His sermon-like keynote address at the 1956 Democratic National Convention has been described as both one of the best and one of the worst keynote addresses in the era of televised conventions.
Gordon Weaver Browning was an American politician who served as Governor of Tennessee from 1937 to 1939,and again from 1949 to 1953. He also served six terms in the U.S. House of Representatives,from 1923 to 1935,and was Chancellor of Tennessee's Eighth Chancery District in the 1940s. As governor,he stabilized state finances,doubled the state's mileage of paved roads,and enacted legislation to curb voter fraud. His victory in the hard-fought 1948 gubernatorial campaign helped break the power of Memphis political boss E. H. Crump.
Edward Hull "Boss" Crump Jr. was an American politician from Memphis,Tennessee. Representing the Democratic Party,he was the dominant force in the city's politics for most of the first half of the 20th century,during which the city had a commission form of government. He also usually dominated Tennessee politics from the 1920s to the 1940s. He was elected and served as mayor of Memphis from 1910 to 1915 and again briefly in 1940. However,he effectively appointed every mayor who was elected from 1915 to 1954.
Harry Hill McAlister was an American politician who served as Democratic Governor of Tennessee from 1933 to 1937. He also served as Nashville's city attorney in the early 1900s,and as Tennessee's state treasurer in the 1920s and early 1930s. Inaugurated as governor at the height of the Great Depression,McAlister enacted massive spending cuts in an attempt to stabilize state finances. He coordinated federal programs in the state aimed at providing Depression-era relief.
Kenneth Douglas McKellar was an American politician from Tennessee who served as a United States Representative from 1911 until 1917 and as a United States Senator from 1917 until 1953. A Democrat,he served longer in both houses of Congress than anyone else in Tennessee history.
Herbert Sanford Walters was a Democratic United States Senator from Tennessee from 1963 to 1964.
Nathan Lynn Bachman was a United States Senator from Tennessee from 1933 until his death. He was a member of the Democratic Party.
George Leonard Berry was president of the International Pressmen and Assistants' Union of North America from 1907 to 1948 and a Democratic United States Senator from Tennessee from 1937 to 1938.
Thomas Clarke Rye was an American politician who served as Governor of Tennessee from 1915 to 1919. An ardent supporter of prohibition of alcoholic beverages,he helped reunify the state's Democratic Party,which had been divided over the issue for nearly a decade. Rye is perhaps best remembered for enacting the "Ouster Law," which was aimed at curbing the power of political boss E. H. Crump.
Luke Lea was an American attorney,politician and newspaper publisher. A Democrat,he was most notable for his service as a United States Senator from Tennessee from 1911 to 1917. Lea was the longtime publisher of The Tennessean newspaper in Nashville,and a United States Army veteran of World War I. In 1919 he led an unauthorized and unsuccessful attempt to kidnap the recently exiled German Kaiser Wilhelm II.
Walter "Clift" Chandler was an American politician from Tennessee and a Representative for the ninth district of Tennessee.
Joseph "Holy Joe" Wingate Folk was an American lawyer,reformer,and politician from St. Louis,Missouri. He was Governor of Missouri from 1905 to 1909.
Bert Henry Miller was an American politician from Idaho and a member of the Democratic Party.
Leslie Rogers Darr was a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Tennessee and the United States District Court for the Middle District of Tennessee.
Lambert Estes Gwinn was a Tennessee educator,politician,and attorney. He served as a state senator (1919–1921) and ran for governor in the Democratic primaries in 1922 and 1930. As a prominent criminal and appellate lawyer,he represented many clients before the Tennessee Supreme Court,the United States Circuit Court of Appeals,and the United States Supreme Court.
Joseph Cordell Carr,Sr.,commonly known as "Joe C. Carr," was a Democratic Party politician in the state of Tennessee who served almost 27 years as Tennessee Secretary of State.