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Tomasz Krzysztof Sommer (born 16 October 1972 in Puławy, Poland) is a Polish writer, journalist and publisher, Editor-in-chief of weekly magazine Najwyższy Czas!. Sommer graduated from the University of Warsaw Department of Journalism and Political Science, and received his Ph.D. in Sociology at the School of Social Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences Institute of Philosophy and Sociology.
Sommer begun his career writing for Warsaw daily Express Wieczorny. Later, he worked as journalist for Academic Weekly "Auditorium" and newspapers Nowy Świat, and Życie. In 1995 he became a contributing writer to weekly magazines Najwyższy CZAS, and Lux. In the following year, Sommer became the Editor-in-chief of Lux and subsequently, a deputy chief of Najwyższy CZAS (1996–1999 and 2004–2007); and its Editor-in-chief (in 1999-2003 and, from 2007 until now).He also writes for the Foreign Department of Super Express. In 2002 Sommer co-founded 2S Media group which owns the monthly GIGA Sport, published also in German since 2004 as the GIGA Sport - Deutschland. In 2007, along with business partners, Sommer took over the weekly magazine Najwyższy CZAS.
Sommer is the vice-president of the Globalization Institute, a free-market think tank based in Gliwice.
In 2009 Sommer ran in European Parliament elections, on the list of KW Libertas for Gdańsk constituency, and in 2010 became involved with political party Wolność i Praworządność (Freedom and Lawfulness) during elections for Warsaw city hall.
Sommer is a climate change denier who also compares german scientists to Nazis.He is also an investor in a right wing disinformation network and affiliated with Janusz Korwin-Mikke according to research conducted by nonprofit group EU DisinfoLab and POLITICO.
Sommer wrote a book entitled Rozstrzelać Polaków. Ludobójstwo Polaków w Związku Sowieckim w latach 1937-1938. Dokumenty z Centrali (Execute the Poles: The Genocide of Poles in the Soviet Union (1937–1938). Documents from Headquarters"), devoted the Polish Operation of the NKVD.
Zygmunt Wojciechowski was a Polish historian and nationalist politician. Born in 1900 in then-Austria, he obtained a doctorate from medieval history at Lviv University. In 1925 he moved to Poznań, where he became a full professor in 1929. In 1934-1939 he became politically involved with the nationalist party Endecja. During occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany he worked in Polish underground opposing German genocide of Poles by providing underground teaching, which was banned by German state and worked on future concept of Polish borders that would provide Poland with safety against any further German aggression. He supported an alliance with Soviet Union and after the war he continued to work as historian in People's Republic of Poland and headed Western Institute that studied former Polish territories recovered from Germany and history of Polish-German relations. He was a recipient of Commander's Cross and Officer's Cross of Order of Polonia Restituta.
The Polish Operation of the NKVD in 1937–1938 was an anti-Polish mass ethnic cleansing operation of the NKVD carried out in the Soviet Union against Poles during the period of the Great Purge. It was ordered by the Politburo of the Communist Party against the so-called "Polish spies" and customarily interpreted by the NKVD officials as relating to 'absolutely all Poles'. It resulted in the sentencing of 139,835 people, and summary executions of 111,091 Poles living in or near the Soviet Union. The operation was implemented according to NKVD Order No. 00485 signed by Nikolai Yezhov. The majority of the shooting victims were ethnically Polish, but not all these groups in the Soviet worldview had some element of Polish culture or heritage, and were therefore also "Polish". The remainder were 'suspected' of being Polish, without further inquiry, or classed as possibly having pro-Polish sympathies. In order to speed up the process, the NKVD personnel reviewed local telephone books and arrested persons with Polish-sounding names.
The Soviet NKVD Order № 00485 was an anti-Polish ethnic cleansing campaign issued on August 11, 1937 which laid the foundation for the systematic elimination of the Polish minority in the Soviet Union between 1937 and 1938. The order was called "On the liquidation of Polish sabotage and espionage groups and units of the POW". It is dated August 9, 1937, was issued by the Central Committee Politburo, and signed by Nikolai Yezhov, the People's Commissar for Internal Affairs. The operation was at the center of the national operations of the NKVD, and the largest ethnically-motivated shooting action of the Great Terror.
Polonophobia, also referred to as anti-Polonism,, and anti-Polish sentiment are terms for a variety of negative attitudes, prejudices, and actions against Poland, its people and its culture. These include ethnic prejudice against Poles and persons of Polish descent, other forms of discrimination, and state-sponsored mistreatment of Poles and the Polish diaspora.
Barcin is a town in Poland, in Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, in Żnin County. It has 7,714 inhabitants (2014).
Stanisław Żaryn (1913–1964) was an architect, urbanist, historian and academic teacher who significantly contributed to process of reconstruction of Polish historical architecture after its destruction by Germans during WW2. He was born in Warsaw to Eugenia and Franciszek Zaryn.
The Polish minority in Belarus numbers officially 287,693 according to 2019 census. However, according to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Poland the number is as high as 1,100,000. It forms the second largest ethnic minority in the country after the Russians, at around 3.1% of the total population. An estimated 205,200 Belarusian Poles live in large agglomerations and 82,493 in smaller settlements, with the number of women exceeding the number of men by 33,905. Some estimates by Polish non-governmental sources in the U.S. are higher, citing the previous poll held in 1989 under the Soviet authorities with 413,000 Poles recorded.
Władysław Siemaszko is a Polish publicist and lawyer, former member of the Polish resistance Armia Krajowa (AK), author of numerous publications focusing on the massacres of Poles in Volhynia. He is the father of writer Ewa Siemaszko, co-author of Ludobójstwo dokonane przez nacjonalistów ukraińskich na ludności polskiej Wołynia 1939–45 consisting of two volumes of 1500 pages of research.
Ewa Siemaszko is a Polish writer, publicist and lecturer; collector of oral accounts and historical data regarding the Massacres of Poles in Volhynia. An engineer by profession with Master's in technological studies from the Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Siemaszko worked in public health education and also as a school teacher following graduation. She is a daughter of writer Władysław Siemaszko with whom she collaborates and shares strong interest in Polish World War II history.
The Intelligenzaktion Pommern was a Nazi German operation aimed at the eradication of the Polish intelligentsia in Pomeranian Voivodeship and the surrounding areas at the beginning of World War II. It was part of a larger genocidal Intelligenzaktion, that took place across most of Nazi-occupied western Poland in the course of Operation Tannenberg, purposed to install Nazi officials from Sipo, Kripo, Gestapo and SD at the helm of a new administrative machine.
The Congress of the New Right is an economically libertarian, socially conservative and Eurosceptic political party in Poland. The party was founded on 25 March 2011 by Janusz Korwin-Mikke, from the merger of the Liberty and Lawfulness (WiP) with several members of the Real Politics Union (UPR). The former leader Korwin-Mikke was ousted from the party in 2015. The party assumed the official name Congress of the New Right on 12 May 2011.
Ghettos were established by Nazi Germany in hundreds of locations across occupied Poland after the German invasion of Poland. Most ghettos were established between October 1939 and July 1942 in order to confine and segregate Poland's Jewish population of about 3.5 million for the purpose of persecution, terror, and exploitation. In smaller towns, ghettos often served as staging points for Jewish slave-labor and mass deportation actions, while in the urban centers they resembled walled-off prison-islands described by some historians as little more than instruments of "slow, passive murder", with dead bodies littering the streets.
Anti-Katyn is a propaganda historical negationist(considering all the sources that prove otherwise) campaign intended to reduce and obscure the impact of the Katyn massacre of 1940 — when approximately 22,000 Polish citizens were murdered by the Soviet NKVD on the orders of Joseph Stalin — by referencing the deaths of thousands of Russian and Red Army soldiers at Polish internment camps from 1919–1924 during the Interwar era.
Prof. Dr. hab. Andrzej Gąsiorowski is a research scientist at the Stutthof concentration camp Museum in Sztutowo, Professor in the Institute of Politology, Faculty of Social Sciences of the Gdańsk University, awarded the title of profesor zwyczajny by the President of Poland Bronisław Komorowski. He served as President of the Regional Commission of the Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) in Gdańsk and, at present, is the President of the Scientific Advisory to Instytut Bałtycki. Gąsiorowski specializes in World War II history of Poland, with focus on the anti-Nazi resistance in Pomerania. He is the author of books and monographs on this subject including genocidal operations against Poles by Nazi Germany such as the Intelligenzaktion and the massacres in Piaśnica.
The Małopolska Institute of Culture is a regional cultural institution engaged in promoting and supporting the culture of Małopolska. The Institute was founded in 2002 and is located in Kraków. Its main focus is integrating diverse small regional cultural institutions - museums, archives or local cultural centres.
MCI Capital SA - private equity fund listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange active in the Central and Eastern Europe. According to the Wall Street Journal MCI is one of Poland’s leading venture capital and private equity companies. The company was founded by Tomasz Czechowicz, according to the Polish edition of Forbes magazine one of the richest Poles, with an estimated wealth of 520 million PLN.
Soviet leaders and authorities officially condemned nationalism and proclaimed internationalism, including the right of nations and peoples to self-determination. While the Soviet Union did not practice "racial politics" and was supportive of self-determination and rights of many minorities and colonized peoples, it significantly marginalized people of certain ethnic groups designated as "enemies of the people", pushed assimilation of, and promoted chauvinistic Russian nationalistic and settler-colonialist activities their lands, in stark contrast to earlier Leninist policies. While Lenin supported and implemented policies of korenization, Stalin reversed much of his predecessor's previous internationalist policies, signing off on orders for exiling multiple distinct ethnic-linguistic groups brandished as "traitors", including the Balkars, Crimean Tatars, Chechens, Ingush, Karachays, Kalmyks, Koreans, and Meskhetian Turks, who were collectively deported to Siberia and Central Asia where they were legally designated "special settlers", meaning that they were officially second-class citizens with few rights and were confined within a small perimeter. After the death of Stalin, Khrushchev criticized the deportations based on ethnicity of in closed section of his Report to the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, describing them as "monstrous acts" and "rude violations of the basic Leninist principles of the nationality policy of the Soviet state." Soon thereafter in the mid to late 1950's most deported peoples were fully rehabilitated, having been allowed the full right of return and their national republics were restored — except for the Koreans, Crimean Tatars, and Meskhetian Turks, who were not allowed such right of return and were kept tethered to Central Asia. The government subsequently took a variety of measures to prevent such deported peoples from returning to their native villages, ranging from denying residence permits to people of certain ethnic groups in specific areas, referring to people by incorrect denonyms to minimize ties to their homeland, arresting protesters for requesting return to Leninist policies with right of return, and spreading racist propaganda demonizing
Bogusław Wolniewicz was a Polish philosopher. He was a professor at University of Warsaw from 1963 to 1998. In scholarly circles, he is known as a translator and commentator of Ludwig Wittgenstein. From the 1990s, he became a publicist mostly affiliated with the Radio Maryja community.
The 2018 Polish Athletics Championships was the 94th edition of the national championship in outdoor track and field for athletes in Poland. It was held between 20 and 22 July 2018 in Lublin.