|Born||September 11, 1930|
|Died||October 16, 2004 74) (aged|
|Alma mater||Warsaw University|
|Subject||World War II history|
|Notable works||Rzeczpospolita podziemna|
|Notable awards||Custodian of National Memory Prize|
Tomasz Strzembosz (11 September 1930 – 16 October 2004) was a Polish historian and writer who specialized in the World War II history of Poland. He was a professor at the Polish Academy of Sciences Institute of Political Studies, in Warsaw; and, from 1991, at the John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin. Strzembosz was a resident of Warsaw, Poland.
After World War II, Tomasz Strzembosz was persecuted by the Polish People's Republic government's Urząd Bezpieczeństwa (Security Office). In mid-1950s, Stalinist Poland he was prevented from obtaining a master's degree and was repeatedly laid off from work.
Strzembosz was one of the few Polish People's Republic historians who refused to write Soviet-inspired falsehoods about Poland's history. His main areas of research included the history of the World War II Polish Underground State, with special emphasis on German-occupied Warsaw; the Polish partisan movement in the Kresy macroregion between 1939 and 1941, following the Soviet invasion of Poland; and the 1944–46 anti-communist resistance in Poland.
In the 1980s, Strzembosz was an activist in the anti-communist Solidarity movement. In 1989–93, he was president of the Polish Scouting Association (photo).
Strzembosz authored a dozen books and over 100 scholarly papers. He also edited or reviewed over a dozen works by other authors. In 2002, he received Poland's Custodian of National MemoryPrize.
Marek Ney-Krwawiczhas described Strzembosz's research on the Soviet occupation of Poland as "having contributed much valuable material and helping to verify the current state of knowledge... from a novel perspective."
Marek Wierzbicki has described him as "one of the leading scholars of Polish World War II resistance".
Łukasz Kamiński likewise called him "one of the most important Polish historians of the second half of the 20th century". He has also been described as starting an entire new school of Polish history.
Since 2008, a Tomasz Strzembosz Award for books on modern Polish history by young historians is jointly awarded by the Tomasz Strzembosz Foundation and the Political Studies Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences.
According to a more critical view expressed by Joanna Michlic, Strzembosz belonged to a Polish "ethno-nationalist" school of thought that also includes Marek Jan Chodakiewicz and Bogdan Musiał.In Shared History, Divided Memory, Michlic writes that this school treats Żydokomuna (Judeo-Communism) not as an antisemitic canard but as a historically rooted reality.
Also in Shared History, Divided Memory, Kai Struve, assessing Strzembosz's historiography, writes that, while Strzembosz had difficulty accepting Jan T. Gross' account of the Jedwabne massacre and used some antisemitically-tinged sources in describing alleged widespread Jewish collaboration with the Soviets, he did valuable pioneering research into Poles' resistance against the ruthless Soviet occupation of their country in 1939-41. While Strzembosz initially minimized the participation of Poles in the Jedwabne massacre, emphasizing the role of the Germans, he did not deny Polish involvement and described it as unjustifiable. Struve writes that in Strzembosz's last book, published shortly before his death in 2004, he did not repeat his earlier thesis regarding a marginal Polish role in the Jedwabne massacre, but indeed added evidence that anti-Soviet resistors played a central role in it. Struve concludes his assessment of Strzembosz's historiography with praise for its professionalism, high quality, and sense of patriotic duty.
Tomasz Strzembosz was one of a set of triplets, with Roman-Catholic activist Teresa and law-professor-judge Adam Strzembosz, who served as chief justice of Poland's Supreme Court. Tomasz married Maria (Maryla) Dawidowska, sister of anti-Nazi underground scouting hero Maciej Aleksy Dawidowski.
Badania Tomasza Strzembosza nad tą tematyką przynosiły wiele wartościowego materiału i weryfikowały dotychczasowy stan wiedzy, ukazując nowe spojrzenie na opór i walkę społeczeństwa polskiego pod okupacją radziecką.
Aktywna i nowatorska działalność naukowa oraz opublikowanie jej wyników w postaci wartościowych monografii ugruntowały pozycję prof. Strzembosza jako czołowego badacza dziejów polskiego oporu w czasie II wojny światowej
"Profesor Tomasz Strzembosz niewątpliwie należy do grona najważniejszych polskich historyków, aktywnych w drugiej połowie XX wieku. ... Badacze poruszą m.in. kwestię szkoły historycznej Tomasza Strzembosza.
The Home Army was the dominant resistance movement in German-occupied Poland during World War II. The Home Army was formed in February 1942 from the earlier Armed Resistance established in the aftermath of the German and Soviet invasions in September 1939. Over the next two years, the Home Army absorbed most other Polish underground forces. Its allegiance was to the Polish Government-in-Exile in London, and it constituted the armed wing of what came to be known as the "Polish Underground State".
The Jedwabne pogrom was a massacre of Polish Jews in the town of Jedwabne, German-occupied Poland, on 10 July 1941, during World War II and the early stages of the Holocaust. At least 340 men, women and children were murdered, some 300 of whom were locked in a barn which was then set on fire. About 40 non-Jewish Poles were implicated as being perpetrators of the massacre. German military police were present in the town at the time.
Jedwabne is a town in northeast Poland, in Łomża County of Podlaskie Voivodeship, with 1,942 inhabitants (2002). It is notable for the Jedwabne pogrom of 10 July 1941, during the World War II German occupation of Poland.
Marek Jan Chodakiewicz is a Polish-American historian specializing in Central European history of the 19th and 20th centuries. He teaches at the Patrick Henry College and at the Institute of World Politics. He has been described as conservative and nationalistic, and his attitude towards minorities has been widely criticized.
Jan Tomasz Gross is a Polish-American sociologist and historian. He is the Norman B. Tomlinson '16 and '48 Professor of War and Society, emeritus, and Professor of History, emeritus, at Princeton University.
Żydokomuna is an anti-communist and antisemitic canard or a pejorative stereotype suggesting that most Jews collaborated with the Soviet Union in importing communism into Poland, or that there was an exclusively Jewish conspiracy to do so. A Polish language term for "Jewish Bolshevism", or more literally "Jewish communism", Żydokomuna is related to the "Jewish world conspiracy" myth.
Skidzyelʹ is a town in the Grodno Region of Belarus located 31 kilometers from Grodno.
The Kraków pogrom was a violent incident that occurred on 11 August 1945 in the Soviet-occupied city of Kraków, Poland. It formed part of a period of renewed anti-Jewish violence in Poland in the aftermath of World War II. Rumors spread that Jews in the city had killed up to 80 children over the course of weeks, which led to violence against them in the Kazimierz quarter of the city and the burning of the Kupa Synagogue. At least one person was killed and an unknown number were injured.
The Wąsosz pogrom was the World War II mass murder of Jewish residents of Wąsosz in German-occupied Poland, on 5 July 1941.
In the aftermath of the German and Soviet invasion of Poland, which took place in September 1939, the territory of Poland was divided in half between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. The Soviets had ceased to recognise the Polish state at the start of the invasion. Since 1939 German and Soviet officials coordinated their Poland-related policies and repressive actions. For nearly two years following the invasion, the two occupiers continued to discuss bilateral plans for dealing with the Polish resistance during Gestapo-NKVD Conferences until Germany's Operation Barbarossa against the Soviet Union, in June 1941.
Neighbors: The Destruction of the Jewish Community in Jedwabne, Poland is a 2000 book by Princeton University historian Jan T. Gross exploring the July 1941 Jedwabne massacre committed against Polish Jews by their non-Jewish neighbors in the village of Jedwabne in Nazi-occupied Poland.
Joanna Beata Michlic is a Polish social and cultural historian specializing in Polish-Jewish history and the Holocaust in Poland. An honorary senior research associate at the Centre for Collective Violence, Holocaust and Genocide Studies at University College London (UCL), she focuses in particular on the collective memory of traumatic events, particularly as it relates to gender and childhood.
Jarosław Marek Rymkiewicz is a Polish poet, essayist, dramatist and literary critic.
Tomasz Szarota is a Polish historian and publicist. As a historian, his areas of expertise relate to history of World War II, and everyday life in occupied Poland, in particular, in occupied Warsaw and other occupied major European cities.
The Communist Party of Western Belorussia was a banned political party in the Interwar Poland, active in the territory of present-day West Belarus from 1923 until 1939; in Polesie (1932–1933) Słonim county (1934) and Vilnius.
The Skidel Revolt or Skidal Uprising was an anti-state and anti-Polish sabotage action perpetrated by the Jewish and Belarusian inhabitants of the Polish town of Skidel near Nowogródek at the onset of World War II. It started on the second day of the Soviet invasion of Poland in an attempt to assist the external attack.
Anna Bikont is a Polish journalist for the Gazeta Wyborcza newspaper in Warsaw. She is the author of several books, including My z Jedwabnego (2004) about the 1941 Jedwabne pogrom, which was published in English as The Crime and the Silence: Confronting the Massacre of Jews in Wartime Jedwabne (2015). The French edition, Le crime et le silence, won the European Book Prize in 2011.
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