Tomb of Dai Anga

Last updated

Tomb of Dai Anga
مقبرہ دائی انگہ
Southern view of Dai Anga Tomb.jpg
Lahore Map.PNG
Red pog.svg
Location in Lahore
Pakistan location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Tomb of Dai Anga (Pakistan)
Coordinates 31°34′43″N74°21′50″E / 31.57861°N 74.36389°E / 31.57861; 74.36389 Coordinates: 31°34′43″N74°21′50″E / 31.57861°N 74.36389°E / 31.57861; 74.36389
Location Lahore, Punjab Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan
TypeMausoleum
Material brick and marble
Completion dateGateway in 1655 C.E.; mausoleum in 1671 C.E.
Dedicated to Dai Anga

The Tomb of Dai Anga (Urdu : مقبرہ دائی انگہ), also known as the Gulabi Bagh (Urdu : گلابی باغ), is a 17th-century Mughal tomb complex located in the Mughal-era suburb of Begampura, outside the Walled City of Lahore, Pakistan.

Contents

Background

The gateway to the tomb predates the mausoleum by 16 years, is embellished with kashi kari, or Kashan-style tile work. Gulabi Darwaza.JPG
The gateway to the tomb predates the mausoleum by 16 years, is embellished with kashi kari, or Kashan-style tile work.

The mausoleum was built in honour of Dai Anga, the wet nurse of Shah Jahan, and wife of Murad Khan of Bikaner. It is located along the Grand Trunk Road on one of the former routes between Lahore and Delhi. It is also located close to the 17th century tomb of Hazrat Ishaan, and the 18th century Cypress Tomb.

History

The underside of the tomb's dome still features some Mughal-era frescoes. Ghulabi Bagh 10.jpg
The underside of the tomb's dome still features some Mughal-era frescoes.
The facade of the structure still has some kashi kari tile work. Dai Anga4.JPG
The façade of the structure still has some kashi kari tile work.

The tomb of Dai Anga features a gateway that predates the tomb's construction. Built in 1655 C.E. by the Persian nobleman Mirza Sultan Baig, the gateway was originally the entrance to a pleasure garden. The original garden was square in shape, and had measured 250 Guz on each side. [1]

In 1671 C.E., the pleasure garden was repurposed into a tomb for the wet-nurse of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, and wife to Murad Khan, magistrate of Bikaner under the Emperor Jehangir. A new mausoleum was constructed in the centre of the garden, which over the centuries has been encroached upon by neighbouring structures, with only a narrow strip of garden between the tomb and gateway remaining. [2]

Architecture

The mausoleum is rectangular in shape with eight rooms encircling the perimeter of a central chamber. The entire mausoleum is on a raised plinth. A dome with frescoes is directly above the central chamber. The chamber itself is empty, as the actual tomb of Dai Anga lies below in a subterranean crypt. She is buried next to her daughter Sultana Begum. Both cenotaphs have been removed, and the subterranean chamber is no longer accessible to the public.

The central change is richly decorated with carved inscriptions from the Quran, as well as elegant frescoes made by the renowned calligrapher Muhammad Saleh. [3] The exterior of the tomb was also once covered in rich kashi kari, or Qashani tile-work, though much of the tiles have been lost through the centuries. [4]

Conservation

The tomb complex is listed on the Protected Heritage Monuments of the Archaeology Department of Punjab. [5]

Impact of Metro construction

The tomb is situated along the planned route of the Orange Line of the Lahore metro. Heritage campaigners submitted a petition to the Lahore High Court as the planned metro line will pass close to the tomb, Shalimar Gardens, and nine other sites in the city in violation of the Punjab Special Premises Ordinance, 1985 and Antiquity Act, 1975. [6] In August 2016, the Court halted construction of the metro within 200 feet of any heritage site, including the tomb in order to prevent what UNESCO termed as potentially "irreversible damage," were the line to be constructed in its present form. [7] [8]

Related Research Articles

Lahore city in Punjab, Pakistan

Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and is the country's 2nd largest city after Karachi, as well as the 26th largest city in the world. Lahore is one of Pakistan's wealthiest cities with an estimated GDP (PPP) of $65.14 billion as of 2017. Lahore is the largest city and historic cultural centre of the wider Punjab region, and is one of Pakistan's most socially liberal, progressive, and cosmopolitan cities.

Lahore Fort Citadel in the city of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan

The Lahore Fort is a citadel in the city of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. The fortress is located at the northern end of walled city Lahore, and spreads over an area greater than 20 hectares. It contains 21 notable monuments, some of which date to the era of Emperor Akbar. The Lahore Fort is notable for having been almost entirely rebuilt in the 17th century, when the Mughal Empire was at the height of its splendour and opulence.

Walled City of Lahore Municipality in Punjab, Pakistan

The Walled City of Lahore, also known as Old City, forms the historic core of Lahore, Pakistan. The city was established around 1000 CE in the western half of the Walled City, which was fortified by a mud wall during the medieval era.

Architecture of Lahore

The Architecture of Lahore reflects the history of Lahore and is remarkable for its variety and uniqueness. There are buildings left from the centuries ago rule of the Mughal Dynasty, the Sikh Empire, as well as from the era of the British Raj, whose style is a mixture of Victorian and Islamic architecture often referred to as Indo-Gothic. In addition, there are newer buildings which are very modern in their design. An interesting point about Lahore's architecture is that unlike the emphasis on functional architecture in the west, much of Lahore's architecture has always been about making a statement as much as anything else. Lahore art has always been popular worldwide and thus it lures tourists from all over the world.

Wazir Khan Mosque

The Wazir Khan Mosque is 17th century mosque located in the city of Lahore, capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab. The mosque was commissioned during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan as part of an ensemble of buildings that also included the nearby Shahi Hammam baths. Construction of Wazir Khan Mosque began in 1634 C.E., and was completed in 1641. It is on the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List.

Mughal architecture Indo-Islamic architecture from 16th to 18th century India

Mughal architecture is the type of Indo-Islamic architecture developed by the Mughals in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries throughout the ever-changing extent of their empire in the Indian subcontinent. It developed the styles of earlier Muslim dynasties in India as an amalgam of Islamic, Persian, Turkic and Indian architecture. Mughal buildings have a uniform pattern of structure and character, including large bulbous domes, slender minarets at the corners, massive halls, large vaulted gateways, and delicate ornamentation; Examples of the style can be found in modern-day India, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, and Pakistan.

Tomb of Allama Iqbal

The Tomb of Allama Muhammad Iqbal, or Mazaar-e-Iqbal is a mausoleum located within the Hazuri Bagh, in the Pakistani city of Lahore, capital of Punjab province.

Dai Anga Mosque

Dai Anga Mosque is a mosque situated to southeast of the Lahore Railway Station, in the city of Lahore in Pakistan's Punjab province. The mosque is said to have been built in 1635 in honour of the wetnurse of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, Dai Anga.

Chauburji

Chauburji is a Mughal era monument in the city of Lahore, capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab. The monument was built in 1646 C.E. during the reign of the emperor Shah Jahan. It previously acted as a gateway to a large garden.

Tomb of Jahangir 1637 mausoleum for Mughal Emperor Jahangir in Lahore, Pakistan

The Tomb of Jahangir is a 17th-century mausoleum built for the Mughal Emperor Jahangir. The mausoleum dates from 1637, and is located in Shahdara Bagh in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan, along the banks of the Ravi River. The site is famous for its interiors that are extensively embellished with frescoes and marble, and its exterior that is richly decorated with pietra dura. The tomb, along with the adjacent Akbari Sarai and the Tomb of Asif Khan, are part of an ensemble currently on the tentative list for UNESCO World Heritage status.

Shah Jahan Mosque, Thatta

The Shah Jahan Mosque, also known as the Jamia Masjid of Thatta, is a 17th-century building that serves as the central mosque for the city of Thatta, in the Pakistani province of Sindh. The mosque is considered to have the most elaborate display of tile work in South Asia, and is also notable for its geometric brick work - a decorative element that is unusual for Mughal-period mosques. It was built during the reign of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan, who bestowed it to the city as a token of gratitude, and is heavily influenced by Central Asian architecture - a reflection of Shah Jahan's campaigns near Samarkand shortly before the mosque was designed.

Pakistani architecture is intertwined with the architecture of the broader Indian subcontinent. With the beginning of the Indus civilization around the middle of the 3rd millennium BC, for the first time in the area which encompasses today's Pakistan an advanced urban culture developed with large structural facilities, some of which survive to this day. This was followed by the Gandhara style of Buddhist architecture that borrowed elements from Ancient Greece. These remnants are visible in the Gandhara capital of Taxila.

Chini Ka Rauza

Chini ka Rauza is a funerary monument, rauza in Agra, India, containing the tomb of Afzal Khan Shirazi, a scholar and poet who was the Prime Minister of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan. The tomb was built in 1635. Chini ka Rauza is situated just 1 kilometer north of Itmad-Ud-Daulah Tomb, on the eastern bank of Yamuna river in Agra.

Badshahi Mosque

The Badshahi Mosque is a Mughal era mosque in Lahore, capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab, Pakistan. The mosque is located west of Lahore Fort along the outskirts of the Walled City of Lahore, and is widely considered to be one of Lahore's most iconic landmarks.

Tomb of Nur Jahan

The Tomb of Nur Jahan is a 17th-century mausoleum in Lahore, Pakistan, that was built for the Mughal empress Nur Jahan. The tomb's marble was plundered during the Sikh era in 18th century for use at the Golden Temple in Amritsar. The red sandstone mausoleum, along with the nearby tomb of Jahangir, tomb of Asif Khan, and Akbari Sarai, forms part of an ensemble of Mughal monuments in Lahore's Shahdara Bagh.

Akbari Sarai

The Akbari Sarai is a large caravan inn ("sarai") that is located in Shahdara Bagh in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. Dating from 1637, the sarai was originally built for travelers, as well as for caretakers of the Tomb of Jahangir. The sarai is most notable for being the best-preserved example in Pakistan, as well as for its large gateway that is richly embellished with pietra dura that serves as a portal to the tomb of Jahangir.

Tomb of Asif Khan

The Tomb of Asif Khan is a 17th-century mausoleum located in Shahdara Bagh, in the city of Lahore, Punjab. It was built for the Mughal statesman Mirza Abul Hassan Jah, who was titled Asif Khan. Asif Khan was brother of Nur Jahan, and brother-in-law to the Mughal Emperor Jahangir. Asif Khan's tomb is located adjacent to the Tomb of Jahangir, and near the Tomb of Nur Jahan. Asif Khan's tomb was built in a Central Asian architectural style, and stands in the centre of a Persian-style Charbagh garden.

Tomb of Ali Mardan Khan

The Tomb of Ali Mardan Khan is a Mughal era tomb in the city of Lahore, Pakistan that was built in the 1630s.

Cypress Tomb

Cypress Tomb, also known as Saruwala Maqbara, is an early 18th century tomb located in Begumpura, Lahore, Pakistan

Dai Anga

Born as Zeb-un-Nisa, Dai Anga, was the wet-nurse of the Mughal Emperor, Shah Jahan. Her family was closely associated with the Mughal empire. Her husband Murad Khan served in the court of Emperor Jahangir as Magistrate of Bikaner, and her son Muhammad Rashid Khan, was the best archers in the kingdom, and died fighting in the service of Shah Jahan's eldest son Dara Shikoh.

References

  1. "Begumpura". Gardens of the Mughal Empire. Retrieved 23 August 2016.
  2. "Gulabi Bagh Gateway". Oriental Architecture. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
  3. "Dai Anga's Tomb" . Retrieved 22 August 2016.
  4. "Gulabi Bagh Gateway". Oriental Architecture. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
  5. Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency. "Guidelines for Critical & Sensitive Areas" (PDF). Government of Pakistan. pp. 12, 47, 48. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  6. "LHC suspended construction of Orange Line Metro Train". Pakistan Tribune. 19 August 2016. Retrieved 23 August 2016.
  7. "Lahore court backs heritage challenge over metro plans". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 August 2016.
  8. "Chauburji" Wikipedia. Accessed 22 August 2016.