Tomb of Mariam-uz-Zamani

Last updated

Tomb of Mariam-uz-Zamani, Sikandra, Agra Mariam's Tomb, Sikandra, Agra.JPG
Tomb of Mariam-uz-Zamani, Sikandra, Agra

The Tomb of Mariam-uz-Zamani is the mausoleum of Mariam-uz-Zamani, the Queen consort of the Mughal Emperor Akbar. [1] [2] [3] The tomb was built by Jahangir, in memory of his mother Mariam-uz-Zamani. [1] [4] [5] The tomb is located in Sikandra, a suburb of Agra. [6]



Mariam-uz-Zamani was born a Rajput princess named Jodha Bai, the eldest daughter of Raja Bharmal of Amer. [2] [3] [7] She was married to Emperor Akbar in 1562 CE. [2] [3] She was honoured with the title Mariam-uz-Zamani ("Mary of the Age") after she gave birth to Jahangir. [8] She died in Agra in 1623[ citation needed ] and her son Jahangir built a tomb for her in between 1623 and 1627 CE. [9] [10] [11] The tomb is just next to the Tomb of Akbar the Great, the only nearest of all the tombs of his other wives. [12] [13]


The structure was originally an open baradari (pleasure pavilion) under Sikander Lodi, who built it in 1495 AD. It was adopted by the Mughals in 1623 AD and was converted into a tomb by making a crypt below the central compartment and remodelling it substantially.

The mausoleum contains three tombstones: one in the underground mortuary chamber, which is the grave itself; the cenotaph above it; and another cenotaph on the terrace. [11]

The ground floor consists of some forty chambers built by Sikander Lodi, which bears faint traces of paintings on plastered walls. The centre of the ground floor houses the cenotaph of Mariam. [6]

This square tomb stands in the centre of the Mughal garden. It is built on a raised platform with stairs on its northern and southern sides. The two corridors running from east to west and from north to south divide the structure into nine sections that are further subdivided into smaller compartments. [10] The largest one is at the centre, four smaller square ones at the corners and four oblong ones in their middle. Massive piers have been used to support the broad arches and vaulted ceilings. The tomb is built of brick and mortar, and finished with stucco. [9]

The facades (exterior) of the building were reconstructed with red sandstone panels and a chhajja with the addition of duchhati (mezzanine floors) at the corners by the Mughals. On each facade there is a rectangular structure which projects forward and has a pointy arch in it. It is flanked on either sides by wings, which consists of three arches and a set of double arches, one over the other, thus accommodating a duchhatti at each corner of the building. The wings are protected by chhajjas. [11] [9] The duchhatti are accessible by stairways. [10]

The tomb also contains the work of the Mughals, who remodelled them by adding chhatris and chhaparkhats. The tomb has four massive octagonal chhatris on its four corners, and four oblong chhaparkhats in the centre of the four sides. Each chhatri is made out of red sandstone with a white dome and stands on a square platform. The domes are crowned with an inverted lotus or 'padma kosha'. Brackets have been used to support the internal lintels and external chhajja, five on each pillar, making a total of 40 brackets in one chhatri. Each chhaparkhat is rectangular and has eight pillars with a similar cluster of brackets and a white roof. These chhatris and chhaparkhats are the most important ornament of the whole composition. The rectangular chhaparkhats with eight pillars and a cluster of brackets resemble the corner cupolas.The tomb doesn't have a dome. The mausoleum is of architectural importance in the category of Mughal tombs without a dome. [9] [11] [10]

Another important aspect of the tomb is that it is identical both in the front and the rear. Unlike other Mughal era structures, the back entrance is not a dummy but an actual entrance. [14]


The red sandstone facade and panels with a variety of decorative designs, such as floral patterns, tell a lot about the former splendor of this tomb. There are chevron patterns in the nook shafts, wine-vases within sunk niches and geometrical floral designs gracing the piers between the arches. The chhatris have beautiful carved columns with hexagonal bases. The stone brackets occupy the spaces just below the chajja, while beautifully carved friezes are above it. And white marble is inlaid underneath the dome. The friezes of the chhaparkhats were originally covered with glazed tiles and have pyramidal roof. Traces of floral paintings can still be seen in the corners that tell about the former beauty of the tomb. [10]

See also

Related Research Articles

Fatehpur Sikri Town in Uttar Pradesh, India

Fatehpur Sikri is a town in the Agra District of Uttar Pradesh, India. The city itself was founded as the capital of Mughal Empire in 1571 by Emperor Akbar, serving this role from 1571 to 1585, when Akbar abandoned it due to a campaign in Punjab and was later completely abandoned in 1610.

Orchha town in Madhya Pradesh, India

Orchha is a town in Niwari district of Madhya Pradesh state, India. The town was established by Rudra Pratap Singh some time after 1501, as the seat of an eponymous former princely state of covering parts of central & north India, in the Bundelkhand region. Orchha lies on the Betwa River, 80 km from Tikamgarh & 15 km from Jhansi in Uttar Pradesh.

Humayuns Tomb Tomb of the Mughal Emperor Humayun in Delhi, India

Humayun's tomb is the tomb of the Mughal Emperor Humayun in Delhi, India. The tomb was commissioned by Humayun's first wife and chief consort, Empress Bega Begum, in 1558, and designed by Mirak Mirza Ghiyas and his son, Sayyid Muhammad, Persian architects chosen by her. It was the first garden-tomb on the Indian subcontinent, and is located in Nizamuddin East, Delhi, India, close to the Dina-panah Citadel, also known as Purana Qila, that Humayun found in 1533. It was also the first structure to use red sandstone at such a scale. The tomb was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1993, and since then has undergone extensive restoration work, which is complete. Besides the main tomb enclosure of Humayun, several smaller monuments dot the pathway leading up to it, from the main entrance in the West, including one that even pre-dates the main tomb itself, by twenty years; it is the tomb complex of Isa Khan Niyazi, an Afghan noble in Sher Shah Suri's court of the Suri dynasty, who fought against the Mughals, constructed in 1547 CE.

Mughal architecture Indo-Islamic architecture from 16th to 18th century India

Mughal architecture is the type of Indo-Islamic architecture developed by the Mughals in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries throughout the ever-changing extent of their empire in the Indian subcontinent. It developed the styles of earlier Muslim dynasties in India as an amalgam of Islamic, Persian, Turkic and Indian architecture. Mughal buildings have a uniform pattern of structure and character, including large bulbous domes, slender minarets at the corners, massive halls, large vaulted gateways, and delicate ornamentation; Examples of the style can be found in modern-day India, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, and Pakistan.

Tomb of Itimād-ud-Daulah

Tomb of I'timād-ud-Daulah is a Mughal mausoleum in the city of Agra in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Often described as a "jewel box", sometimes called the "Bachcha Taj", the tomb of I'timād-ud-Daulah is often regarded as a draft of the Taj Mahal.

Mariam-uz-Zamani Wife of Mughal emperor Akbar

Mariam-uz-Zamani was a wife of the third Mughal emperor, Akbar. In subsequent centuries, she has been referred to with several other names, including Hira Kunwari, Harkha Bai and Jodha Bai.

Buland Darwaza

Buland Darwaza, or the "Door of victory", was built in 1602 A.D. by Mughal emperor Akbar to commemorate his victory over Gujarat. It is the main entrance to the Jama Masjid at Fatehpur Sikri, which is 43 km from Agra, India.

Bibi Ka Maqbara

The Bibi Ka Maqbara is a tomb located in Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India. It was commissioned in 1660 by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in the memory of his first and chief wife Dilras Banu Begum and is considered to be a symbol of Aurangzeb's 'conjugal fidelity'. It bears a striking resemblance to the Taj Mahal, the mausoleum of Aurangzeb's mother, Mumtaz Mahal. Aurangzeb was not much interested in architecture though he had commissioned the small, but elegant, Pearl Mosque at Delhi. Bibi Ka Maqbara is the largest structure that Aurangzeb has to his credit.

Tomb of Jahangir 1637 mausoleum for Mughal Emperor Jahangir in Lahore, Pakistan

The Tomb of Jahangir is a 17th-century mausoleum built for the Mughal Emperor Jahangir. The mausoleum dates from 1637, and is located in Shahdara Bagh in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan, along the banks of the Ravi River. The site is famous for its interiors that are extensively embellished with frescoes and marble, and its exterior that is richly decorated with pietra dura. The tomb, along with the adjacent Akbari Sarai and the Tomb of Asif Khan, are part of an ensemble currently on the tentative list for UNESCO World Heritage status.

Ibadat Khana Meeting house built in 1575 by Mughal Emperor Akbar for interfaith dialogue

The Ibādat Khāna was a meeting house built in 1575 CE by the Mughal Emperor Akbar at Fatehpur Sikri to gather spiritual leaders of different religious grounds so as to conduct a discussion on the teachings of the respective religious leaders.

Akbars tomb

Akbar's tomb is the tomb of the Mughal emperor Akbar. This tomb is an important Mughal architectural masterpiece. It was built in 1605–1613 by his son Jahangir and is situated in 119 acres of grounds in Sikandra, a sub of Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Origins and architecture of the Taj Mahal History and construction of the Taj Mahal

The Taj Mahal represents the finest and most sophisticated example of Indo-Islamic architecture. Its origins lie in the moving circumstances of its commission and the culture and history of an Islamic Mughal empire's rule of large parts of India. The distraught Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan commissioned the project upon the death of one of his favorite wives Mumtaz Mahal.

Begum Shahi Mosque

Begum Shahi Mosque, officially The Mosque ofMariyam Zamani Begum, is an early 17th-century mosque situated in the Walled City of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. The mosque was built between 1611 and 1614 during the reign of Mughal Emperor Jahangir in honour of his mother. It is Lahore's earliest surviving example of a Mughal-era mosque, and influenced construction of the larger Wazir Khan Mosque a few decades later. This mosque was turned in name of most celebrated Sikh hero Bhai Mani Singh ji, as Shaheed Ganj Bhai Mani Singh, under Sikh rule.

Jama Mosque, Agra

Jama Masjid in Agra is opposite the Agra fort and overlooking the Agra Fort Railway Station. The Jama Masjid is also popularly known as the Jami Masjid or "Friday Mosque". It is one of the largest mosques in India.

Jama Mosque, Fatehpur Sikri

The Jama Masjid is a 17th-century mosque in the World Heritage Site of Fatehpur Sikri in India. The Mughal emperor Akbar personally directed the building of the Jāmiʿ Masjid, which stretches some 540 feet in length. The mosque also known as the "Friday Mosque" is one of the largest mosques in India and is a most sought after pilgrimage site by the devotees. It is also one of the most visited tourist destinations in Agra district. Some of the designs of the mosque reflect beautiful Iranian architecture.

Jagat Gosain Wife of Mughal emperor Jahangir

Jagat Gosain was Empress consort of the Mughal Empire as the wife of Mughal emperor Jahangir and the mother of his successor, the fifth Mughal emperor, Shah Jahan. She is also known as Jodh Bai and was given the posthumous title of Bilqis Makani. She should not be confused with Mariam-uz-Zamani, who was also wrongly named "Jodha Bai" by European historians.

Lal Bangla

Lal Bangla are two imperial late-Mughal mausoleums located in Delhi, India, that are that protected monument under the Archaeological Survey of India.

<i>Jodha Akbar</i> Indian television series

Jodha Akbar is an Indian historical fiction drama romantic television series that premiered on 18 June 2013 on Zee TV. The show was produced by Ekta Kapoor under Balaji Telefilms. It starred Rajat Tokas and Paridhi Sharma.

Tomb of Nur Jahan

The Tomb of Nur Jahan is a 17th-century mausoleum in Lahore, Pakistan, that was built for the Mughal empress Nur Jahan. The tomb's marble was plundered during the Sikh era in 18th century for use at the Golden Temple in Amritsar. The red sandstone mausoleum, along with the nearby tomb of Jahangir, tomb of Asif Khan, and Akbari Sarai, forms part of an ensemble of Mughal monuments in Lahore's Shahdara Bagh.


  1. 1 2 Lal, Ruby (2005). Domesticity and power in the early Mughal world. Cambridge University Press. p. 170. ISBN   9780521850223.
  2. 1 2 3 Smith, Vincent Arthur (1917). Akbar the Great Mogul. Oxford, Clarendon Press. p.  58. ISBN   0895634716. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  3. 1 2 3 Eraly, Abraham (2000). Emperors of the Peacock Throne, The Saga of the Great Mughals. Penguin Books India. p. 136. ISBN   0141001437.
  4. Smith, Vincent Arthur (1917). Akbar the Great Mogul. Oxford, Clarendon Press. p.  102. ISBN   0895634716. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  5. Eraly, Abraham (2000). Emperors of the Peacock Throne, The Saga of the Great Mughals. Penguin Books India. p. 171. ISBN   0141001437.
  6. 1 2 "Mariam's Tomb, Sikandara, Agra - Ticketed Monument - Archaeological Survey of India". Archived from the original on 16 September 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  7. Metcalf, Barbara, Thomas (2006). A Concise History of Modern India. Cambridge University Press. p. 17. ISBN   978-0-521-86362-9.
  8. Frances Pritchett. "16fatahpursikri". Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  9. 1 2 3 4 "Mariam Tomb Mariam Tomb Agra Mariam Tomb Agra India Fatehpur Sikri Agra India". Archived from the original on 15 December 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 "Mariam-Zamani Tomb - Mariam-Zamani Tomb Agra - Mariam-Zamani Tomb Agra India". Archived from the original on 23 May 2008. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  11. 1 2 3 4 "Tomb of Mariam Zamani". Agra Redco. Archived from the original on 17 March 2014. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  12. The Fatehpur Sikri Chronicles
  13. "Was it really a romance Jodha-Akbar?". The Times of India. 1 May 2010. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2013.
  14. "Mariam Zamani's tomb: Jodha's rest - Economic Times". 6 March 2008. Archived from the original on 16 November 2019. Retrieved 8 December 2013.

Coordinates: 27°12′55″N77°56′34″E / 27.21528°N 77.94278°E / 27.21528; 77.94278