The Tomb of Thutmose is a small, decorated rock-cut tomb in Saqqara in Egypt that dates to the time shortly after the Amarna Period (about 1350–1330 BC). The tomb is of special importance as one of the tomb owners was the sculptor Thutmose, often presumed to be the person who made the famous Nefertiti Bust. Another of the persons buried here was a certain Kenana.
Saqqara, also spelled Sakkara or Saccara in English, is a vast, ancient burial ground in Egypt, serving as the necropolis for the Ancient Egyptian capital, Memphis. Saqqara features numerous pyramids, including the world-famous Step pyramid of Djoser, sometimes referred to as the Step Tomb due to its rectangular base, as well as a number of mastabas. Located some 30 km (19 mi) south of modern-day Cairo, Saqqara covers an area of around 7 by 1.5 km.
Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, and across the Mediterranean lie Greece, Turkey and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt.
The Amarna Period was an era of Egyptian history during the later half of the Eighteenth Dynasty when the royal residence of the pharaoh and his queen was shifted to Akhetaten in what is now Amarna. It was marked by the reign of Amenhotep IV, who changed his name to Akhenaten in order to reflect the dramatic change of Egypt's polytheistic religion into one where the sun disc Aten was worshipped over all other gods. Aten was not solely worshipped, but the other gods were worshipped to a significantly lesser degree. The Egyptian pantheon of the equality of all gods and goddesses was restored under Akhenaten's successor, Tutankhamun.
The burial place was found on 24 November 1996 by the Mission Archeologique Francaise de Bubaseion, under the direction of Alain Zivie. It received the number I.19 and lies directly next to the much larger tomb of Maya, nurse of Tutankhamun. The entrance to the tomb chapel is cut into the rocks at Saqqara and faces south. The whole tomb chapel consists of an entrance corridor, the main chamber, and a large niche on the western side where there opens a shaft to the underground burial chambers. The whole tomb is approximately 4.20 meter long. The main chamber is approximately 2.60 by 2 m big. A pillar stands in the middle of the main chamber.The burial chambers had been looted previously.
Tutankhamun was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty, during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom or sometimes the New Empire Period. He has, since the discovery of his intact tomb, been referred to colloquially as King Tut. His original name, Tutankhaten, means "Living Image of Aten", while Tutankhamun means "Living Image of Amun". In hieroglyphs, the name Tutankhamun was typically written Amen-tut-ankh, because of a scribal custom that placed a divine name at the beginning of a phrase to show appropriate reverence. He is possibly also the Nibhurrereya of the Amarna letters, and likely the 18th dynasty king Rathotis who, according to Manetho, an ancient historian, had reigned for nine years—a figure that conforms with Flavius Josephus's version of Manetho's Epitome.
All walls of the tomb chapel were decorated with paintings or sunken relief. The facade of the tomb chapel is undecorated. The short corridor to the main chamber is decorated on both sides with reliefs, showing Osiris on the western side. On the opposite side only the figure of a woman is preserved. Next to the figure of Osiris on the western wall, two figures are painted. These are the draughtsman at the place of Truth Kenana and his son Pay who had the same title. The southern wall of the main chamber is occupied by the door. On the western side of it is shown Amenemwia, or Raemwia, who was the father of Thutmose. On the western wall are shown Thutmose and his wife standing in front of a priest. The northern wall has a relief showing Osiris and two people in front of him. Perhaps they represent Thutmose and his father, but captions are not preserved. The whole eastern wall is dedicated to Kenana and his family. Kenana and his wife are sitting on the left side. In front of them is depicted their whole family. 16 people are shown in two registers, divided by gender with men in the top and women below. The niche on the western side also is decorated. On the southern wall are shown the coffins of Thutmose and his wife Ineni, remarkably depicted from the front. On the western wall are shown the son of Thutmose, Itju and his wife and on the northern wall appear Kenena and his wife.
Osiris is the god of the afterlife, the underworld, and rebirth in ancient Egyptian religion. He was classically depicted as a green-skinned deity with a pharaoh's beard, partially mummy-wrapped at the legs, wearing a distinctive atef crown, and holding a symbolic crook and flail. Osiris was at times considered the eldest son of the god Geb and the sky goddess Nut, as well as being brother and husband of Isis, with Horus being considered his posthumously begotten son. He was also associated with the epithet Khenti-Amentiu, meaning "Foremost of the Westerners", a reference to his kingship in the land of the dead. As ruler of the dead, Osiris was also sometimes called "king of the living": ancient Egyptians considered the blessed dead "the living ones". Through syncretism with Iah, he is also the god of the Moon.
Thutmose, also known as "The King's Favourite and Master of Works, the Sculptor Thutmose" was an Ancient Egyptian sculptor. He flourished around 1350 BC, and is thought to have been the official court sculptor of the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten in the latter part of his reign. A German archaeological expedition digging in Akhenaten's deserted city of Akhetaton, at Amarna, found a ruined house and studio complex in early December 1912; the building was identified as that of Thutmose based on an ivory horse blinker found in a rubbish pit in the courtyard inscribed with his name and job title. Since it gave his occupation as "sculptor" and the building was clearly a sculpture workshop, the determination seemed logical and has proven to be accurate.
Meritaten, also spelled Merytaten or Meryetaten, was an ancient Egyptian royal woman of the Eighteenth dynasty. Her name means "She who is beloved of Aten", Aten being the sun-deity whom her father, Pharaoh Akhenaten, worshipped. She held several titles, performing official roles for her father and becoming the Great Royal Wife to Pharaoh Smenkhkare, who may have been a brother or son of Akhenaten. Meritaten also may have served as pharaoh in her own right under the name, Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten.
Deir el-Bahari or Dayr al-Bahri is a complex of mortuary temples and tombs located on the west bank of the Nile, opposite the city of Luxor, Egypt. This is a part of the Theban Necropolis.
Maya was an important figure during the reign of Pharaohs Tutankhamun, Ay and Horemheb of the eighteenth dynasty of Ancient Egypt. Maya's titles include: fan bearer on the King's right hand, overseer of the treasury, chief of the works in the necropolis, and leader of the festival of Amun in Karnak.
QV66 is the tomb of Nefertari, the Great Wife of Pharaoh Ramesses II, in Egypt's Valley of the Queens. It was discovered by Ernesto Schiaparelli in 1904. It is called the Sistine Chapel of Ancient Egypt. Nefertari, which means "beautiful companion", was Ramesses II's favorite wife; he went out of his way to make this obvious, referring to her as "the one for whom the sun shines" in his writings, built the Temple of Hathor to idolize her as a deity, and commissioned portraiture wall paintings. In the Valley of the Queens, Nefertari's tomb once held the mummified body and representative symbolisms of her, like what most Egyptian tombs consisted of. Now, everything had been looted except for two thirds of the 5,200 square feet of wall paintings. For what still remains, these wall paintings characterized Nefertari's character. Her face was given a lot of attention to emphasize her beauty, especially the shape of her eyes, the blush of her cheeks, and her eyebrows. Some paintings were full of lines and color of red, blue, yellow, and green that portrayed exquisite directions to navigating through the afterlife to paradise.
Tomb KV9 in Egypt's Valley of the Kings was originally constructed by Pharaoh Ramesses V. He was interred here, but his uncle, Ramesses VI, later reused the tomb as his own. The layout is typical of the 20th dynasty – the Ramesside period – and is much simpler than that of Ramesses III's tomb (KV11). The workmen accidentally broke into KV12 as they dug one of the corridors.
The Red Chapel of Hatshepsut or the Chapelle Rouge originally was constructed as a barque shrine during the reign of Hatshepsut. She was the fifth pharaoh of the eighteenth dynasty of Ancient Egypt and ruled from approximately 1479 to 1458 BC.
The Pyramid of Unas is a smooth-sided pyramid built in the 24th century BC for the Egyptian pharaoh Unas, the ninth and final king of the Fifth Dynasty. It is the smallest Old Kingdom pyramid, but significant due to the discovery of Pyramid Texts, spells for the king's afterlife incised into the walls of its subterranean chambers. Inscribed for the first time in Unas's pyramid, the tradition of funerary texts carried on in the pyramids of subsequent rulers, through to the end of the Old Kingdom, and into the Middle Kingdom through the Coffin Texts which form the basis of the Book of the Dead.
The Tomb of Perneb is a mastaba-style tomb from ancient Egypt, built during the reigns of Djedkare Isesi and Unas, in the necropolis of Saqqara, north of Pharaoh Djoser's Step Pyramid and about 30 kilometers south of Giza, Egypt. It was the tomb of Perneb, and from the size and placement of the tomb he might have been a court official or royal family member.
The Theban Tomb TT96 is located in Sheikh Abd el-Qurna. It forms part of the Theban Necropolis, situated on the west bank of the Nile opposite Luxor. The edifice is the burial place of the Ancient Egyptian noble, Sennefer and wife Meryt.
The Memphite tomb of Horemheb is located in the Saqqara necropolis, near Memphis, Egypt. It was constructed before Horemheb ascended to the throne and was never used for his burial, since he later built the Theban tomb KV57 for this purpose. His two wives Mutnedjmet and Amenia were buried within the structure.
The Theban Tomb TT57 is located in Sheikh Abd el-Qurna. It forms part of the Theban Necropolis, situated on the west bank of the Nile opposite Luxor. The tomb is the burial place of the Ancient Egyptian official, Khaemhat who was royal scribe and overseer of double granary, during the reign Amenhotep III. The relief decoration of the tomb is regarded as the best of New Kingdom art
Maia was the wet-nurse of the Ancient Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun in the 14th century BC. Her rock-cut tomb was discovered in the Saqqara necropolis in 1996.
The Theban Tomb TT82 is located in Sheikh Abd el-Qurna, part of the Theban Necropolis, on the west bank of the Nile, opposite to Luxor. It is the burial place of the Ancient Egyptian official, Amenemhat who was a counter of the grain of Amun and the steward of the vizier Useramen. Amenemhat dates to the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, from the time of Tuthmosis III. As the scribe to the vizier Useramen Amenemhat documents the work in Thebes up to ca year 28. This includes the withdrawal of silver, precious stines and more form the treasury and the manufacture of a number of statues made from silver, bronze and ebony. He also mentions the creation of a large lake near Thebes surrounded by trees and work on the royal tomb.
The Pyramid of Reherishefnakht is the tomb of the ancient Egyptian official Reherishefnakht. It is located in south Saqqara and was built right next to the Pyramid of the 6th Dynasty Pharaoh Pepi I. Reherishefnakht's pyramid however was probably built at the end of the 11th Dynasty or the beginning of the 12th Dynasty. It is the oldest Egyptian pyramid built for a person who was not a member of the royal family. The pyramid was discovered a few years before it was first excavated by Audran Labrousse and the Mission Archéologique Française de Saqqâra in 2005.
The Pyramid of Pepi II was the tomb of Pharaoh Pepi II, located in southern Saqqara, to the northwest of the Mastabat al-Fir’aun. It was the final full pyramid complex to be built in Ancient Egypt. Long used as a quarry, the pyramid was excavated for the first time by Gaston Maspero in 1881. Its ruins were studied in exhaustive detail by Gustave Jéquier, who was able to reconstruct the funerary complex and the texts on the walls of the funerary chamber in the course of his excavation campaigns from 1932-1935. Since 1996, thorough investigations of the pyramid and its surroundings have been being carried out by the Mission archéologique française de Saqqâra.
Tia was an ancient Egyptian high official under king Ramses II. His main title was that of an overseer of the treasuries. Tia was married to a woman with the same name, the princess Tia who was sister of Ramses II.
Amenhotep was an Ancient Egyptian official and chief physician of the early 19th Dynasty. He is mainly known from his decorated tomb chapel that was excavated in 1913/14 by Ahmed Bey Kamal at Asyut, in Middle Egypt.
Meryre was an Ancient Egyptian official under king Amenhotep III in the 18th Dynasty around 1375 BC. His main title was treasurer. He was therefore one of the most important officials at the royal court, looking after the belongings of the king and the goods of the palace. Meryre is so far only attested in his tomb at Saqqara, that was discovered in the 1980s in the temple area known as the Bubasteum. The tomb is decorated with reliefs. Some of them were already early on cut out of the walls and sold on the art market. Two of these reliefs are now in Vienna. Old drawings show that they were once in a much better condition. One block depicts Meryre and his wife Baketamun in front of the underworld god Osiris and in a second register in front of Ra-Horachte. The other fragment shows Meryre and his wife in front of an offering table in the upper register. In the lower register he is shown together with the king's son Siatum, who is sitting on his lap. Meryre was evidently the tutor of this king's son. The father of Siatum is not mentioned and it was most likely Thutmose IV.
The Ancient Egyptian Theban Tomb no. 104 (TT104) belongs to the Overseer of the treasuries Djehutynefer who was in office under king Amenhotep II. The tomb chapel is located in Sheikh Abd el-Qurna and is part of the Theban Necropolis, on the west bank of the Nile, opposite to Luxor. Djehutynefer had a second tomb in Thebes TT80. Tomb TT104 is decorated with paintings and has a T shaped ground plan. The paintings are not always well preserved.