Tomb of Thutmose

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The Tomb of Thutmose is a small, decorated rock-cut tomb in Saqqara in Egypt that dates to the time shortly after the Amarna Period (about 1350–1330 BC) [1] . The tomb is of special importance as one of the tomb owners was the sculptor Thutmose, often presumed to be the person who made the famous Nefertiti Bust. Another of the persons buried here was a certain Kenana.

Saqqara village in Giza Governorate, Egypt

Saqqara, also spelled Sakkara or Saccara in English, is a vast, ancient burial ground in Egypt, serving as the necropolis for the Ancient Egyptian capital, Memphis. Saqqara features numerous pyramids, including the world-famous Step pyramid of Djoser, sometimes referred to as the Step Tomb due to its rectangular base, as well as a number of mastabas. Located some 30 km (19 mi) south of modern-day Cairo, Saqqara covers an area of around 7 by 1.5 km.

Egypt Country spanning North Africa and Southwest Asia

Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, and across the Mediterranean lie Greece, Turkey and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt.

The Amarna Period was an era of Egyptian history during the later half of the Eighteenth Dynasty when the royal residence of the pharaoh and his queen was shifted to Akhetaten in what is now Amarna. It was marked by the reign of Amenhotep IV, who changed his name to Akhenaten in order to reflect the dramatic change of Egypt's polytheistic religion into one where the sun disc Aten was worshipped over all other gods. Aten was not solely worshipped, but the other gods were worshipped to a significantly lesser degree. The Egyptian pantheon of the equality of all gods and goddesses was restored under Akhenaten's successor, Tutankhamun.

The burial place was found on 24 November 1996 by the Mission Archeologique Francaise de Bubaseion, under the direction of Alain Zivie. It received the number I.19 and lies directly next to the much larger tomb of Maya, nurse of Tutankhamun. The entrance to the tomb chapel is cut into the rocks at Saqqara and faces south. The whole tomb chapel consists of an entrance corridor, the main chamber, and a large niche on the western side where there opens a shaft to the underground burial chambers. The whole tomb is approximately 4.20 meter long. The main chamber is approximately 2.60 by 2 m big. A pillar stands in the middle of the main chamber. [2] The burial chambers had been looted previously.

Tutankhamun 14th century BCE (18th dynasty) Egyptian pharaoh

Tutankhamun was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty, during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom or sometimes the New Empire Period. He has, since the discovery of his intact tomb, been referred to colloquially as King Tut. His original name, Tutankhaten, means "Living Image of Aten", while Tutankhamun means "Living Image of Amun". In hieroglyphs, the name Tutankhamun was typically written Amen-tut-ankh, because of a scribal custom that placed a divine name at the beginning of a phrase to show appropriate reverence. He is possibly also the Nibhurrereya of the Amarna letters, and likely the 18th dynasty king Rathotis who, according to Manetho, an ancient historian, had reigned for nine years—a figure that conforms with Flavius Josephus's version of Manetho's Epitome.

All walls of the tomb chapel were decorated with paintings or sunken relief. The facade of the tomb chapel is undecorated. The short corridor to the main chamber is decorated on both sides with reliefs, showing Osiris on the western side. On the opposite side only the figure of a woman is preserved. Next to the figure of Osiris on the western wall, two figures are painted. These are the draughtsman at the place of Truth Kenana and his son Pay who had the same title. The southern wall of the main chamber is occupied by the door. On the western side of it is shown Amenemwia, or Raemwia, who was the father of Thutmose. On the western wall are shown Thutmose and his wife standing in front of a priest. The northern wall has a relief showing Osiris and two people in front of him. Perhaps they represent Thutmose and his father, but captions are not preserved. The whole eastern wall is dedicated to Kenana and his family. Kenana and his wife are sitting on the left side. In front of them is depicted their whole family. 16 people are shown in two registers, divided by gender with men in the top and women below. The niche on the western side also is decorated. On the southern wall are shown the coffins of Thutmose and his wife Ineni, remarkably depicted from the front. On the western wall are shown the son of Thutmose, Itju and his wife and on the northern wall appear Kenena and his wife. [3]

Osiris god of the afterlife in Egyptian mythology

Osiris is the god of the afterlife, the underworld, and rebirth in ancient Egyptian religion. He was classically depicted as a green-skinned deity with a pharaoh's beard, partially mummy-wrapped at the legs, wearing a distinctive atef crown, and holding a symbolic crook and flail. Osiris was at times considered the eldest son of the god Geb and the sky goddess Nut, as well as being brother and husband of Isis, with Horus being considered his posthumously begotten son. He was also associated with the epithet Khenti-Amentiu, meaning "Foremost of the Westerners", a reference to his kingship in the land of the dead. As ruler of the dead, Osiris was also sometimes called "king of the living": ancient Egyptians considered the blessed dead "the living ones". Through syncretism with Iah, he is also the god of the Moon.

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The Ancient Egyptian Theban Tomb no. 104 (TT104) belongs to the Overseer of the treasuries Djehutynefer who was in office under king Amenhotep II. The tomb chapel is located in Sheikh Abd el-Qurna and is part of the Theban Necropolis, on the west bank of the Nile, opposite to Luxor. Djehutynefer had a second tomb in Thebes TT80. Tomb TT104 is decorated with paintings and has a T shaped ground plan. The paintings are not always well preserved.


  1. An extensive article in the July-August 2018 edition of Biblical Archaeology Review provides great detail by Zivie and many images of artifacts recovered in the tombː Zivie, Alain, Pharaoh's Man, Abdiel, the vizier with a Semitic name, Biblical Archaeology Review, July-August 2018, page 23,ff
  2. Alain Zivie: La tombe de Thoutmes, directeur des peintres dans la Place de Maât, Toulouse 2013, ISBN   9782913805040, 22
  3. Alain Zivie: La tombe de Thoutmes, directeur des peintres dans la Place de Maât, Toulouse 2013, ISBN   9782913805040