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The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier (Могила Неизвестного Солдата in Russian, [mɐˈɡʲilə nʲɪɪˈzvʲɛsnəvə sɐlˈdatə] ) is a war memorial, dedicated to the Soviet soldiers killed during World War II.
The day of celebration for the unknown soldier has been celebrated in Russia since December 3, 2014. After World War II, millions of Russian soldiers were reported missing, or pronounced dead.In 1997, a Guard of Honour of the Kremlin Regiment (which had guarded the Lenin Mausoleum) was restored at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier by the federal law of December 8, 1997, "On Immortalizing the Soviet People’s Victory in the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945". A Changing of the Guard Ceremony takes place every hour.
The Tomb is located at the Kremlin Wall in the Alexander Garden in Moscow. The remains of the unknown soldiers killed in the Battle of Moscow in 1941 were initially buried in a mass grave of the Shtyki Memorial at the 40th km of the Leningrad highway at the city of Zelenograd. This was the location of the closest approach of the German armies to Moscow during the war. To commemorate the 25th anniversary of the battle, in December 1966 these remains were relocated to the Kremlin Wall.[ citation needed ] The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier was designed by architects D. I. Burdin, V. A. Klimov, Yu. R. Rabayev and sculptor Nikolai Tomsky, and was unveiled to the public on May 8, 1967.
The dark red porphyry monument is decorated with a bronze sculpture of a laurel branch and a soldier's helmet laid upon a banner. In front of the monument, there is a five-pointed star in a square field of labradorite, which emanates the Eternal Flame from its center.The flame illuminates a bronze inscription "Имя твоё неизвестно, подвиг твой бессмертен" (translit.: Imya tvoyo neizvestno, podvig tvoy bessmerten, "Your name is unknown, your deed is immortal"). The torch for the memorial's Eternal Flame was transported from Leningrad, where it had been lit from the Eternal Flame at the Monument to the Fighters of the Revolution on the Field of Mars. To the left of the tomb is a granite wall with an inlay stating: "1941 – To Those Who Have Fallen For The Motherland – 1945".
To the right of the tomb, lining the walkway are dark red porphyry blocks with incapsulated soils from hero cities, Leningrad, Kiev, Stalingrad, Odessa, Sevastopol, Minsk, Kerch, Novorossiysk, Tula and Brest, Murmansk and Smolensk. The plate for “Stalingrad” read “Volgograd” until September 2004. Further to the right of these monuments is an obelisk in red granite, listing the names of 40 “Cities of Military Glory” divided into groups of four. This monument was dedicated on May 8, 2010.
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Burials in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis in Moscow began in November 1917, when 240 pro-Bolshevik victims of the October Revolution were buried in mass graves at Red Square. It is centered on both sides of Lenin's Mausoleum, initially built in wood in 1924 and rebuilt in granite in 1929–1930. After the last mass burial made in 1921, funerals on Red Square were usually conducted as state ceremonies and reserved as the last honor for notable politicians, military leaders, cosmonauts, and scientists. In 1925–1927 burials in the ground were stopped; funerals were now conducted as burials of cremated ash in the Kremlin wall itself. Burials in the ground only resumed with Mikhail Kalinin's funeral in 1946. The practice of burying dignitaries at Red Square ended with the funeral of Konstantin Chernenko in March 1985. The Kremlin Wall Necropolis was designated a protected landmark in 1974.
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The Kremlin Regiment, also called the Presidential Regiment, is a unique military regiment and part of the Russian Federal Protective Service with the status of a special unit. The regiment ensures the security of the Kremlin, its treasures, and state officials. In accordance with the federal law of December 8, 1997 "On Immortalizing the Soviet People’s Victory in the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945", the regiment also maintains a guard of honor at the eternal flame of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. The regiment is housed in the historic Kremlin Arsenal.
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The Shtyki Memorial, also named the Monument to the Defenders of Moscow, is a memorial complex in honour of those who defended Russia in the Battle of Moscow. At the site are a common grave and an architectural complex. It is located on the 40th km of Leningrad highway, at the second entry into the city of Zelenograd heading south, and the road to Mendeleyevo heading north. The memorial complex obtained its name because of the central obelisk, which represents the stylized image of three bayonets held together. The first burials in the common grave were in the winter of 1941; the architectural features were completed on 24 June 1974. The architects of the project were I. A. Pokrovsky, and Y. A. Sverdlovsky, with sculptors A. G. Shteyman, and E. A. Shteyman-Derevyanko.
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Defenders of the Soviet Arctic during the Great Patriotic War, commonly called Alyosha is a monument in Murmansk, Russia to Soviet soldiers, sailors, and airmen of World War II.
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The Monument to the Fighters of the Revolution is a memorial on the Field of Mars in Saint Petersburg. It marks the burial places of some of those who died during the February and October Revolutions in 1917, and casualties who died between 1917 and 1933 in the Russian Civil War or otherwise in the establishment of Soviet power. It contains the first eternal flame in Russia.
The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is a war memorial located in the Ukrainian capital of Kiev, dedicated to the soldiers of the Red Army killed in the Second World War. It is situated at the Memorial of Eternal Glory inside the Park of Eternal Glory. The memorial is a 27 meters high obelisk, with an eternal flame burning at the tomb. The Alley of Heroes leads to the tomb.
The Monument to the Unknown Sailor is a city memorial located at Shevchenko Park in the Eastern Ukrainian city of Odessa. It is part of the park's Alley of Glory, with the graves of fallen sailors on each side. An eternal flame is burning at foot of the monument.
The Commandant's Office of the Moscow Kremlin is an administration unit of the Federal Protective Service of Russia. Its duties include inspecting visitors to the Kremlin and providing security to the Kremlin interior and buildings exterior from the Kremlin Wall such as Lenin's Mausoleum. It is also responsible for keeping the order among servicemen of Moscow Garrison organizing parades in the national capital. Internally, has authority over the operation of certain Kremlin museums. The Commandant of the Moscow Kremlin is the operational head of the office. It has direct control over the Kremlin Regiment, which notable maintains a permanent honor guard at the eternal flame of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier.
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