This article relies largely or entirely on a single source .(April 2017)
The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier (Russian:Могила Неизвестного Солдата,IPA: [mɐˈɡʲilə nʲɪɪˈzvʲɛsnəvə sɐlˈdatə] ) is a war memorial dedicated to the Soviet soldiers killed during World War II. It was designed by architects D. I. Burdin, V. A. Klimov, Yu. R. Rabayev and sculptor Nikolai Tomsky.
The day of celebration for the unknown soldier has been celebrated in Russia since December 3, 2014. After World War II, millions of Russian soldiers were reported missing, or pronounced dead.The monument was unveiled to the public on May 8, 1967. In 1997, a Guard of Honour of the Kremlin Regiment (which had guarded the Lenin Mausoleum) was restored at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier by the federal law of December 8, 1997, "On Immortalizing the Soviet People’s Victory in the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945". A Changing of the Guard ceremony takes place every hour.
The ensemble of the memorial was renewed several times. By the 30th anniversary of the Victory Day celebrations, the monument was fully restored and various elements were added; at that time, a laurel branch and a helmet by Nikolai Tomsky appeared.
By the decree of President Dmitry Medvedev dated November 17, 2009, the monument was given the status of a Nationwide Memorial of Military Glory.In the same year, the Presidential Affairs Department announced the beginning of its large-scale reconstruction, the aim of which was to preserve the original appearance of the complex. Then the intention was announced to install a new stele with the names of the cities of military glory.
The return of the flame to the Alexandrovsky garden took place on 23 February 2010, in the presence of Dmitry Medvedev. The reconstruction of the memorial complex was completed by Victory Day the same year. On 8 May, the National Memorial of Military Glory was inaugurated by the presidents of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine.
The Tomb is located at the Kremlin Wall in the Alexander Garden in Moscow. The remains of the unknown soldiers killed in the Battle of Moscow in 1941 were initially buried in a mass grave of the Shtyki Memorial at the 40th km of the Leningrad highway at the city of Zelenograd. This was the location of the closest approach of the German armies to Moscow during the war. To commemorate the 25th anniversary of the battle, in December 1966 these remains were relocated to the Kremlin Wall.[ citation needed ]
The dark red porphyry monument is decorated with a bronze sculpture of a laurel branch and a soldier's helmet laid upon a banner. In front of the monument, there is a five-pointed star in a square field of labradorite, which emanates the Eternal Flame from its center.The flame illuminates a bronze inscription "Имя твоё неизвестно, подвиг твой бессмертен" (translit.: Imya tvoyo neizvestno, podvig tvoy bessmerten, "Your name is unknown, your deed is immortal"). The torch for the memorial's Eternal Flame was transported from Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg), where it had been lit from the Eternal Flame at the Monument to the Fighters of the Revolution on the Field of Mars. To the left of the tomb is a granite wall with an inlay stating: "1941 – To Those Who Have Fallen For The Motherland – 1945".
To the right of the tomb, lining the walkway are dark red porphyry blocks with incapsulated soils from hero cities, Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Stalingrad, Odessa, Sevastopol, Kerch, Novorossiysk, Tula and Brest, Murmansk and Smolensk. The plate for "Stalingrad" read "Volgograd" until September 2004. Further to the right of these monuments is an obelisk in red granite, listing the names of 40 "Cities of Military Glory" divided into groups of four. This monument was dedicated on May 8, 2010.
Novodevichy Cemetery is a cemetery in Moscow. It lies next to the southern wall of the 16th-century Novodevichy Convent, which is the city's third most popular tourist site.
Lenin's Mausoleum, also known as Lenin's Tomb, situated on Red Square in the centre of Moscow, is a mausoleum that serves as the resting place of Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin. His preserved body has been on public display there since shortly after his death in 1924, with rare exceptions in wartime. Alexey Shchusev's granite structure incorporates some elements from ancient mausoleums, such as the Step Pyramid, the Tomb of Cyrus the Great and, to some degree, the Temple of the Inscriptions.
An eternal flame is a flame, lamp or torch that burns for an indefinite time. Most eternal flames are ignited and tended intentionally, but some are natural phenomena caused by natural gas leaks, peat fires and coal seam fires, all of which can be initially ignited by lightning, piezoelectricity or human activity, some of which have burned for a long time.
Alexander Gardens was one of the first urban public parks in Moscow, Russia. The park comprises three separate gardens, which stretch along all the length of the western Kremlin wall for 865 metres (2,838 ft) between the building of the Moscow Manege and the Kremlin.
The Kremlin Regiment, also called the Presidential Regiment, is a unique military regiment and part of the Russian Federal Protective Service with the status of a special unit. The regiment ensures the security of the Kremlin, its treasures, and state officials. In accordance with the federal law of December 8, 1997 "On Immortalizing the Soviet People’s Victory in the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945", the regiment also maintains a guard of honor at the eternal flame of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. The regiment is housed in the historic Kremlin Arsenal.
The Shtyki Memorial, also named the Monument to the Defenders of Moscow, is a memorial complex in honour of those who defended Russia in the Battle of Moscow. At the site are a common grave and an architectural complex. It is located on the 40th km of Leningrad highway, at the second entry into the city of Zelenograd heading south, and the road to Mendeleyevo heading north. The memorial complex obtained its name because of the central obelisk, which represents the stylized image of three bayonets held together. The first burials in the common grave were in the winter of 1941; the architectural features were completed on 24 June 1974. The architects of the project were I. A. Pokrovsky, and Y. A. Sverdlovsky, with sculptors A. G. Shteyman, and E. A. Shteyman-Derevyanko.
The Federal Military Memorial Cemetery is a national cemetery of Russia, located in Mytishchinsky District, Moscow Oblast, on the north-eastern outskirts of Moscow.
Nikolai Vasilyevich Tomsky was a much-decorated Soviet sculptor, designer of many well-known ceremonial monuments of the Socialist Realism era.
The City of Military Glory is an honorary title bestowed upon the citizenry of Russian cities, where soldiers had displayed courage and heroism during the Second World War. The award, which to date has been bestowed upon 45 cities, is similar to the Hero City title awarded during the era of the Soviet Union and no city has yet received both awards.
The year 1952 was marked by many events that left an imprint on the history of Soviet and Russian Fine Arts.
The year 1970 was marked by many events that left an imprint on the history of Soviet and Russian fine arts.
First National Art Exhibition "Soviet Russia" was one of the largest Soviet art exhibitions of the 1960s. The exhibition took place in Manezh Exhibition Hall.
The Second National Art Exhibition "Soviet Russia" was one of the largest Soviet art exhibitions of the 1960s. The exhibition took place in Manezh Exhibition Hall.
The 60th Anniversary of the Liberation of Ukraine was a celebration in Kyiv, Ukraine on October 27–28, 2004 on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the liberation of Ukraine from the Nazi Invaders. It was notable in that it was timed to the 2004 Ukrainian presidential election that occurred a week later. It was the first time the anniversary was celebrated since independence.
Memorial of Glory is a city memorial located on Suvorov Square of Tiraspol, the capital of Transnistria. It commemorates the Veterans and the dead of the Great Patriotic War, the Soviet-Afghan War, and the Transnistria War.
Serafimovskoe Cemetery is a historic cemetery in northwestern Saint Petersburg, in Primorsky District.
The Monument to the Fighters of the Revolution is a memorial on the Field of Mars in Saint Petersburg. It marks the burial places of some of those who died during the February and October Revolutions in 1917, and casualties who died between 1917 and 1933 in the Russian Civil War or otherwise in the establishment of Soviet power. It contains the first eternal flame in Russia.
The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is a war memorial located in the Ukrainian capital of Kyiv, dedicated to the soldiers of the Red Army killed in the Second World War. It is situated at the Memorial of Eternal Glory inside the Park of Eternal Glory. The memorial is a 27 meters high obelisk, with an eternal flame burning at the tomb. The Alley of Heroes leads to the tomb.
The Monument to the Unknown Sailor is a city memorial located at Shevchenko Park in the Southern Ukrainian city of Odesa. It is part of the park's Alley of Glory, with the graves of fallen sailors on each side. An eternal flame is burning at foot of the monument.
The Commandant's Office of the Moscow Kremlin is an administration unit of the Federal Protective Service of Russia. Its duties include inspecting visitors to the Kremlin and providing security to the Kremlin interior and buildings exterior from the Kremlin Wall such as Lenin's Mausoleum. It is also responsible for keeping the order among servicemen of Moscow Garrison organizing parades in the national capital. Internally, has authority over the operation of certain Kremlin museums. The Commandant of the Moscow Kremlin is the operational head of the office. It has direct control over the Kremlin Regiment, which notable maintains a permanent honor guard at the eternal flame of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier.