Tomier and Palaizi (or Palazi) were two knights and troubadours from Tarascon, possibly brothers, and frequent comrades and co-composers (fl. 1199–1226).
Palaizi and Tomier were involved in the Albigensian Crusade. In the sirventes De chantar farai, written probably during Louis VIII's siege of Avignon in 1226, — "those who have turned the crusade" — for diverting "succour and valour" (aid and military support) from the "Sepulchre" (the Holy Land), which was "disbelief", i.e. "a sin against the faith":they criticised the Albigensian Crusaders and the Papacy
Al Sepolcr'an tout
socors e valenza
cil q'an la croz vout,
et es decredenza.
The Albigensian Crusade was described as a falsa croisada and the song had a rhyming refrain which must have been intended to arouse Provenç passions for the fight against the French: Segur estem, seignors, / E ferm de ric socors! ("Lords, we are certain and confident of mighty aid").Tomier and Palaizi blamed the church leadership, especially the legate Romano of Sant'Angelo, for avarice. In an earlier, and less violent sirventes, Si col flacs molins torneja (c. 1216), the two troubadours explain that the Albiensian venture ruins the roads and ports that lead to Acre, where the true Crusade is being waged. To them, the Crusaders pauc a en Deu d'esperanssa (have little hope in God). In the end Tomier and Palaizi attacked the Church for heresy and thus marked themselves out as heretics from the Church of Rome.
A troubadour was a composer and performer of Old Occitan lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages (1100–1350). Since the word troubadour is etymologically masculine, a female troubadour is usually called a trobairitz.
The Eighth Crusade was a crusade launched by Louis IX of France against the Hafsid dynasty in 1270. The Eighth Crusade is sometimes counted as the Seventh, if the Fifth and Sixth Crusades of Frederick II are counted as a single crusade. The Ninth Crusade is sometimes also counted as part of the Eighth. The crusade is considered a failure after Louis died shortly after arriving on the shores of Tunisia, with his disease-ridden army dispersing back to Europe shortly afterwards.
Peire Cardenal was a troubadour known for his satirical sirventes and his dislike of the clergy. Ninety-six pieces of his remain, a number rarely matched by other poets of the age.
Cadenet was a Provençal troubadour (trobador) who lived and wrote at the court of Raymond VI of Toulouse and eventually made a reputation in Spain. Of his twenty-five surviving songs, twenty-one are cansos, with one alba, one partimen, one pastorela, and one religious piece represented. Two of his melodies survive.
Guillem or Guilhem Figueira or Figera was a Languedocian jongleur and troubadour from Toulouse active at the court of the Emperor Frederick II in the 1230s. He was a close associate of both Aimery de Pégulhan and Guillem Augier Novella.
Lanfranc Cigala was a Genoese nobleman, knight, judge, and man of letters of the mid thirteenth century. He remains one of the most famous Occitan troubadours of Lombardy. Thirty-two of his poems survive, dealing with Crusading, heresy, papal power, peace in Christendom, and loyalty in love. Lanfranc represented a tradition of Italian, Occitan-language trovatori who berated the Papacy for its handling of the Crusades.
Bernard Ato VI was the posthumous son and successor of Bernard Ato V, Viscount of Nîmes and Agde. He reigned from 1163 until 1214, when he surrendered his fiefs to Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester and leader of the Albigensian Crusade. Bernard Ato was not connected with Catharism nor were his lands, but his relationship to Raymond Roger Trencavel may have marked him off as an enemy of the Crusade by default, for he was a Trencavel, though he did not carry that name.
Peirol or Peiròl was an Auvergnat troubadour who wrote mostly cansos of courtly love in the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries. Thirty-four surviving poems written in Occitan have been attributed to him; of these, seventeen have surviving melodies. He is sometimes called Peirol d'Auvergne or Peiròl d'Auvèrnha, and erroneously Pierol.
Na Gormonda de Monpeslier or Montpelher was a trobairitz from Montpellier in Languedoc. Her lone surviving work, a sirventes, has been called "the first French political poem by a woman."
Ricaut Bonomel was a Knight Templar and troubadour in the Holy Land around the time of the Eighth Crusade. He was an outspoken critic of Charles I of Naples and his attempts to secure a throne in Italy, and of the Papal policy which diverted funds intended for the Holy Land to other purposes. He was also a vocal critic of the European clergy who did not preach crusading.
Uc de Saint Circ or Hugues (Hugh) de Saint Circq was a troubadour from Quercy. Uc is perhaps most significant to modern historians as the probable author of several vidas and razos of other troubadours, though only one of Bernart de Ventadorn exists under his name. Forty-four of his songs, including fifteen cansos and only three canso melodies, have survived, along with a didactic manual entitled Ensenhamen d'onor. According to William E. Burgwinkle, as "poet, biographer, literary historian, and mythographer, Uc must be accorded his rightful place as the 'inventor' (trobador) of 'troubadour poetry' and the idealogical trappings with which it came to be associated."
Bernart Sicart de Maruèjols was a Languedocian troubadour from Marvejols in Lozère. His lone surviving work, a sirventes entitled Ab greu cossire, is of historical interest for its commentary on the Albigensian Crusade and the lost culture of Languedoc from a native perspective.
Bertran d'Alamanon, also spelled de Lamanon or d'Alamano, was a Provençal knight and troubadour, and an official, diplomat, and ambassador of the court of the Count of Provence. Twenty-two of his works survive, mainly provocative tensos and sirventes, many dealing with Crusading themes.
Guilhem Rainol d'At was a minor Provençal troubadour from Apt in the Vaucluse.
Falquetde Romans was the most famous troubadour attached to the court of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, where he garnered a high reputation despite the fact that his career began as a jongleur. His surviving work consists of fourteen or fifteen pieces: seven sirventes, three tensos, two or three cansos on courtly love, a salut d'amor of 254 lines, and a religious alba. His poetry is, in general, clear and elegant, and he was apparently very religious.
Austorc de Segret or Austau de Segret was an Auvergnat troubadour with only one surviving sirventes, "No sai quim so, tan sui desconoissens".
Bernart de la Barta, also spelled Bernarnz Delabarta or Benart de la Barda, was a troubadour from La Barthe, the location of which is unknown. He wrote two tensos, a fragment (cobla) of a satire, and a sirventes, "Foilla ni flors, ni chatuz temps ni fredura", an attack on terms of the Treaty of Meaux (1229), by which Raymond VII of Toulouse surrendered to Louis IX of France, thus ending the Albigensian Crusade.
Guilhem or Guillem Fabre was a troubadour and burgher from Narbonne. He may be the same person as the dedicatee of En Guillems Fabres, sap fargar, a eulogistic poem by Bernart d'Auriac. He was one of several mid- to late-thirteenth-century troubadours from Narbonne, with Bernart Alanhan and Miquel de Castillon.
The Siege of Avignon was the principle military action of the Albigensian Crusade of 1226. King Louis VIII of France besieged the town of Avignon, which lay within the Holy Roman Empire, from 10 June until 9 September, when it surrendered on terms.
Robert of Auvergne, also called Robert de la Tour, was a French nobleman, prelate and poet from the Auvergne. He served as bishop of Clermont from 1195 until 1227 and thereafter as archbishop of Lyon until his death. He was also a troubadour, composing poetry in Occitan.