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Tomislav Domazet-Lošo (Split, 1974) is a Croatian geneticist. His fields of interest are evolutionary genetics, evolutionary developmental biology, macroevolution and tumor evolution. He is employed at the Ruđer Bošković Institute as a research fellow.
Tomislav Domazet-Lošo, son of Croatian Admiral Davor Domazet-Lešo, was born in Split in 1974. In 1997, he graduated biology at the Faculty of Science in Zagreb, and, in 2003, he received his Ph.D. degree in genetics at the University of Cologne Institute for Genetics.
In 2007, he discovered a method of genomic philostratigraphy which states that every living organism in its genome carries a record of its evolutionary path. Hence, it is possible to read the evolutionary history of the species. In his lecture on September 17, 2007, in the Hall of the Matthias of Croatia, Domazet-Lošo presented the first ever philostratigraphic maps. Before this discovery, the only direct approach to the research of evolutionary history was to study and compare the fossil remains discovered at sites all over the world.[ dubious ] Since it is impossible to predict where certain fossils are to be found, evolutionary research is largely dependent on good fortune in the discovery of high quality paleontological finds. The theory of genomic philostratigraphy solved this problem.
Domazet-Lošo and his associates have shown that parts of the body are exposed more to the environment have a higher chance to be affected by environmental evolutionary changes. Furthermore, they managed to show the sequence of so-called embryonic 'leaflets' that are produced in the newly conceived organism in the first days of development which is the cause of further development of all other tissues in further development.[ clarification needed ] Finally, they discovered a possible genetic cause of the so-called Cambrian explosion, an event that intrigued even Charles Darwin, when almost 540 million years ago in a geologically brief period, nearly all existing animal forms have suddenly disappeared. The method, on the other hand, cannot see relatively tiny events like the separation of man and chimpanzee. The widespread scientific work of Dr. Tomislav Domazet-Loš and his associates was premiered in Split at the 5th World Conference on Forensic Genetics and Molecular Anthropology.[ citation needed ]
Domazet's work is a powerful proof of the theory of evolution, although it is assumed that the evolutionary history of the species of 200 years[ clarification needed ] has been mirrored in animal embryonic development, but has not been scientifically confirmed so far. Novelty is in the discovery of statistics-based genomic phylostratigraphy, which is based on statistics and which can measure the overall evolutionary age of active genes during each stage of embryonic development. The genomic phylostratiphraphic method is excellent for the reconstruction of the distant evolutionary past, for example, fifty million or one billion years old, which could only be studied solely with the help of fossils. The loin method was experimentally demonstrated three years ago and the research was done on a zebra fish. With the help of genomic phylostratigraphy, it has been shown that approximately in the middle of embryonic development there is a period when all vertebrae are morphologically similar. At this stage, which is called filetypes, differences in the appearance of fish, reptiles, and mammals are almost insignificant.
Genome phylostratigraphy opens up new chapters in research of hard-to-resolve problems in biology and medicine, and it could be particularly important to understand the understanding of tumor genetics. Domazet-Lošo and his team, for the first time, have shown in research on hydrates that even simple organisms may have tumors, and it follows that the possibility of tumor development is actually an immanent feature of multiplicity. The usefulness of this information for medicine is huge, and the scale is unpredictable.
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the model organism will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. Model organisms are widely used to research human disease when human experimentation would be unfeasible or unethical. This strategy is made possible by the common descent of all living organisms, and the conservation of metabolic and developmental pathways and genetic material over the course of evolution.
Zoology is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems. The term is derived from Ancient Greek ζῷον, zōion, i.e. "animal" and λόγος, logos, i.e. "knowledge, study".
Evolutionary developmental biology is a field of biological research that compares the developmental processes of different organisms to infer the ancestral relationships between them and how developmental processes evolved.
The history of biology traces the study of the living world from ancient to modern times. Although the concept of biology as a single coherent field arose in the 19th century, the biological sciences emerged from traditions of medicine and natural history reaching back to ayurveda, ancient Egyptian medicine and the works of Aristotle and Galen in the ancient Greco-Roman world. This ancient work was further developed in the Middle Ages by Muslim physicians and scholars such as Avicenna. During the European Renaissance and early modern period, biological thought was revolutionized in Europe by a renewed interest in empiricism and the discovery of many novel organisms. Prominent in this movement were Vesalius and Harvey, who used experimentation and careful observation in physiology, and naturalists such as Linnaeus and Buffon who began to classify the diversity of life and the fossil record, as well as the development and behavior of organisms. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek revealed by means of microscopy the previously unknown world of microorganisms, laying the groundwork for cell theory. The growing importance of natural theology, partly a response to the rise of mechanical philosophy, encouraged the growth of natural history.
Molecular genetics is a sub-field of biology that addresses how differences in the structures or expression of DNA molecules manifests as variation among organisms. Molecular genetics often applies an "investigative approach" to determine the structure and/or function of genes in an organism's genome using genetic screens. The field of study is based on the merging of several sub-fields in biology: classical Mendelian inheritance, cellular biology, molecular biology, biochemistry, and biotechnology. Researchers search for mutations in a gene or induce mutations in a gene to link a gene sequence to a specific phenotype. Molecular genetics is a powerful methodology for linking mutations to genetic conditions that may aid the search for treatments/cures for various genetics diseases.
Phylogenesis is the biological process by which a taxon appears. The science that studies these processes is called phylogenetics.
WormBook is an open access, comprehensive collection of original, peer-reviewed chapters covering topics related to the biology of the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans . WormBook also includes WormMethods, an up-to-date collection of methods and protocols for C. elegans researchers.
The pharyngula is a stage in the embryonic development of vertebrates. At this stage, the embryos of all vertebrates are similar, having developed features typical of vertebrates, such as the beginning of a spinal cord. Named by William Ballard, the pharyngula stage follows the blastula, gastrula and neurula stages.
The Ruđer Bošković Institute is a research institute located in the Šalata neighborhood of Zagreb, Croatia, founded in 1950, which studies the sciences.
Davor Domazet-Lošo is a Croatian military and politician, former admiral of the Yugoslav Navy and then Croatian Navy.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development and evolution. Despite the complexity of the science, certain unifying concepts consolidate it into a single, coherent field. Biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the creation and extinction of species. Living organisms are open systems that survive by transforming energy and decreasing their local entropy to maintain a stable and vital condition defined as homeostasis.
Orphan genes are genes without detectable homologues in other lineages. Orphans are a subset of taxonomically-restricted genes (TRGs), which are unique to a specific taxonomic level. In contrast to non-orphan TRGs, orphans are usually considered unique to a very narrow taxon, generally a species.
Genomic phylostratigraphy is a novel genetic statistical method developed in order to date the origin of specific genes by looking at its homologs across species. It was first developed by Ruđer Bošković Institute in Zagreb, Croatia. The system links genes to their founder gene, allowing us to then determine their age. This could in turn help us better understand many evolutionary processes.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to genetics:
Plant evolution is the subset of evolutionary phenomena that concern plants. Evolutionary phenomena are characteristics of populations that are described by averages, medians, distributions, and other statistical methods. This distinguishes plant evolution from plant development, a branch of developmental biology which concerns the changes that individuals go through in their lives. The study of plant evolution attempts to explain how the present diversity of plants arose over geologic time. It includes the study of genetic change and the consequent variation that often results in speciation, one of the most important types of radiation into taxonomic groups called clades. A description of radiation is called a phylogeny and is often represented by type of diagram called a phylogenetic tree.
The American Genetic Association (AGA), formerly the American Breeders' Association, is a USA-based learned society dedicated to the study of genetics. Founded in 1903, the organization publishes the Journal of Heredity.
Diethard Tautz is a German biologist and geneticist, who is primarily concerned with the molecular basis of the evolution of mammals. Since 2006 he is director at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology in Plön.
In Embryology a phylotypic stage or phylotypic period is a particular developmental stage or developmental period during mid-embryogenesis where embryos of related species within a phylum express the highest degree of morphological and molecular resemblance. Recent molecular studies in various plant and animal species were able to quantify the expression of genes covering crucial stages of embryo development and found that during the morphologically defined phylotypic period the evolutionary oldest genes, genes with similar temporal expression patterns, and genes under strongest purifying selection are most active throughout the phylotypic period.
De novo gene birth is the process by which new genes evolve from DNA sequences that were ancestrally non-genic. De novo genes represent a subset of novel genes, and may be protein-coding or instead act as RNA genes. The processes that govern de novo gene birth are not well understood, although several models exist that describe possible mechanisms by which de novo gene birth may occur.
Caveasphaera is a multicellular organism found in 609-million-year-old rocks in the Guizhou Province of South China, that is not easily defined as an animal or non-animal. The organism is notable due to the study of related embryonic fossils which display different stages of its development: from early single-cell stages to later multicellular stages. Such fossil studies present the earliest evidence of an essential step in animal evolution - the ability to develop distinct tissue layers and organs. According to researchers, fossil studies of Caveaspaera have suggested that animal-like embryonic development arose much earlier than the oldest clearly defined animal fossils. and may be consistent with studies suggesting that animal evolution may have begun about 750 million years ago. Nonetheless, Caveasphaera fossils may look similar to starfish and coral embryos. Still, researchers have concluded, "Parental investment in the embryonic development of Caveasphaera and co-occurring Tianzhushania and Spiralicellula, as well as delayed onset of later development, may reflect an adaptation to the heterogeneous nature of the early Ediacaran nearshore marine environments in which early animals evolved."