Tomita–Takesaki theory

Last updated

In the theory of von Neumann algebras, a part of the mathematical field of functional analysis, Tomita–Takesaki theory is a method for constructing modular automorphisms of von Neumann algebras from the polar decomposition of a certain involution. It is essential for the theory of type III factors, and has led to a good structure theory for these previously intractable objects.


The theory was introduced by MinoruTomita  ( 1967 ), but his work was hard to follow and mostly unpublished, and little notice was taken of it until MasamichiTakesaki  ( 1970 ) wrote an account of Tomita's theory.

Modular automorphisms of a state

Suppose that M is a von Neumann algebra acting on a Hilbert space H, and Ω is a cyclic and separating vector of H of norm 1. (Cyclic means that is dense in H, and separating means that the map from M to is injective.) We write for the state of M, so that H is constructed from using the Gelfand–Naimark–Segal construction.

We can define an unbounded antilinear operator S0 on H with domain by setting for all m in M, and similarly we can define an unbounded antilinear operator F0 on H with domain M'Ω by setting for m in M, where M is the commutant of M.

These operators are closable, and we denote their closures by S and F = S*. They have polar decompositions

where is an antilinear isometry called the modular conjugation and is a positive self-adjoint operator called the modular operator.

The main result of Tomita–Takesaki theory states that:

for all t and that

the commutant of M.

There is a 1-parameter family of modular automorphisms of M associated to the state , defined by

The Connes cocycle

The modular automorphism group of a von Neumann algebra M depends on the choice of state φ. Connes discovered that changing the state does not change the image of the modular automorphism in the outer automorphism group of M. More precisely, given two faithful states φ and ψ of M, we can find unitary elements ut of M for all real t such that

so that the modular automorphisms differ by inner automorphisms, and moreover ut satisfies the 1-cocycle condition

In particular, there is a canonical homomorphism from the additive group of reals to the outer automorphism group of M, that is independent of the choice of faithful state.

KMS states

The term KMS state comes from the Kubo–Martin–Schwinger condition in quantum statistical mechanics.

A KMS state φ on a von Neumann algebra M with a given 1-parameter group of automorphisms αt is a state fixed by the automorphisms such that for every pair of elements A, B of M there is a bounded continuous function F in the strip 0 ≤ Im(t) ≤ 1, holomorphic in the interior, such that

Takesaki and Winnink showed that a (faithful semi finite normal) state φ is a KMS state for the 1-parameter group of modular automorphisms . Moreover, this characterizes the modular automorphisms of φ.

(There is often an extra parameter, denoted by β, used in the theory of KMS states. In the description above this has been normalized to be 1 by rescaling the 1-parameter family of automorphisms.)

Structure of type III factors

We have seen above that there is a canonical homomorphism δ from the group of reals to the outer automorphism group of a von Neumann algebra, given by modular automorphisms. The kernel of δ is an important invariant of the algebra. For simplicity assume that the von Neumann algebra is a factor. Then the possibilities for the kernel of δ are:

Hilbert algebras

The main results of Tomita–Takesaki theory were proved using left and right Hilbert algebras.

A left Hilbert algebra is an algebra with involution xx and an inner product (,) such that

  1. Left multiplication by a fixed aA is a bounded operator.
  2. ♯ is the adjoint; in other words (xy, z) = (y, xz).
  3. The involution is preclosed
  4. The subalgebra spanned by all products xy is dense in A.

A right Hilbert algebra is defined similarly (with an involution ♭) with left and right reversed in the conditions above.

A Hilbert algebra is a left Hilbert algebra such that in addition ♯ is an isometry, in other words (x, y) = (y, x).


Related Research Articles

In number theory, an arithmetic, arithmetical, or number-theoretic function is for most authors any function f(n) whose domain is the positive integers and whose range is a subset of the complex numbers. Hardy & Wright include in their definition the requirement that an arithmetical function "expresses some arithmetical property of n".

In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which the values for certain pairs of physical quantities of a particle, such as position, x, and momentum, p, can be predicted from initial conditions. Such variable pairs are known as complementary variables or canonically conjugate variables, and, depending on interpretation, the uncertainty principle limits to what extent such conjugate properties maintain their approximate meaning, as the mathematical framework of quantum physics does not support the notion of simultaneously well-defined conjugate properties expressed by a single value. The uncertainty principle implies that it is in general not possible to predict the value of a quantity with arbitrary certainty, even if all initial conditions are specified.

In mathematics, particularly linear algebra and functional analysis, a spectral theorem is a result about when a linear operator or matrix can be diagonalized. This is extremely useful because computations involving a diagonalizable matrix can often be reduced to much simpler computations involving the corresponding diagonal matrix. The concept of diagonalization is relatively straightforward for operators on finite-dimensional vector spaces but requires some modification for operators on infinite-dimensional spaces. In general, the spectral theorem identifies a class of linear operators that can be modeled by multiplication operators, which are as simple as one can hope to find. In more abstract language, the spectral theorem is a statement about commutative C*-algebras. See also spectral theory for a historical perspective.

In mathematics, a von Neumann algebra or W*-algebra is a *-algebra of bounded operators on a Hilbert space that is closed in the weak operator topology and contains the identity operator. It is a special type of C*-algebra.

In theoretical physics, the Batalin–Vilkovisky (BV) formalism was developed as a method for determining the ghost structure for Lagrangian gauge theories, such as gravity and supergravity, whose corresponding Hamiltonian formulation has constraints not related to a Lie algebra. The BV formalism, based on an action that contains both fields and "antifields", can be thought of as a vast generalization of the original BRST formalism for pure Yang–Mills theory to an arbitrary Lagrangian gauge theory. Other names for the Batalin–Vilkovisky formalism are field-antifield formalism, Lagrangian BRST formalism, or BV–BRST formalism. It should not be confused with the Batalin–Fradkin–Vilkovisky (BFV) formalism, which is the Hamiltonian counterpart.

In mathematics and functional analysis a direct integral is a generalization of the concept of direct sum. The theory is most developed for direct integrals of Hilbert spaces and direct integrals of von Neumann algebras. The concept was introduced in 1949 by John von Neumann in one of the papers in the series On Rings of Operators. One of von Neumann's goals in this paper was to reduce the classification of von Neumann algebras on separable Hilbert spaces to the classification of so-called factors. Factors are analogous to full matrix algebras over a field, and von Neumann wanted to prove a continuous analogue of the Artin–Wedderburn theorem classifying semi-simple rings.

In functional analysis, an abelian von Neumann algebra is a von Neumann algebra of operators on a Hilbert space in which all elements commute.

A locally compact quantum group is a relatively new C*-algebraic approach toward quantum groups that generalizes the Kac algebra, compact-quantum-group and Hopf-algebra approaches. Earlier attempts at a unifying definition of quantum groups using, for example, multiplicative unitaries have enjoyed some success but have also encountered several technical problems.

In mathematics, and more specifically in the theory of von Neumann algebras, a crossed product is a basic method of constructing a new von Neumann algebra from a von Neumann algebra acted on by a group. It is related to the semidirect product construction for groups.

In mathematics, ergodic flows occur in geometry, through the geodesic and horocycle flows of closed hyperbolic surfaces. Both of these examples have been understood in terms of the theory of unitary representations of locally compact groups: if Γ is the fundamental group of a closed surface, regarded as a discrete subgroup of the Möbius group G = PSL(2,R), then the geodesic and horocycle flow can be identified with the natural actions of the subgroups A of real positive diagonal matrices and N of lower unitriangular matrices on the unit tangent bundle G / Γ. The Ambrose-Kakutani theorem expresses every ergodic flow as the flow built from an invertible ergodic transformation on a measure space using a ceiling function. In the case of geodesic flow, the ergodic transformation can be understood in terms of symbolic dynamics; and in terms of the ergodic actions of Γ on the boundary S1 = G / AN and G / A = S1 × S1 \ diag S1. Ergodic flows also arise naturally as invariants in the classification of von Neumann algebras: the flow of weights for a factor of type III0 is an ergodic flow on a measure space.

In mathematics, the Fredholm alternative, named after Ivar Fredholm, is one of Fredholm's theorems and is a result in Fredholm theory. It may be expressed in several ways, as a theorem of linear algebra, a theorem of integral equations, or as a theorem on Fredholm operators. Part of the result states that a non-zero complex number in the spectrum of a compact operator is an eigenvalue.

In mathematics, affiliated operators were introduced by Murray and von Neumann in the theory of von Neumann algebras as a technique for using unbounded operators to study modules generated by a single vector. Later Atiyah and Singer showed that index theorems for elliptic operators on closed manifolds with infinite fundamental group could naturally be phrased in terms of unbounded operators affiliated with the von Neumann algebra of the group. Algebraic properties of affiliated operators have proved important in L2 cohomology, an area between analysis and geometry that evolved from the study of such index theorems.

In mathematics, a commutation theorem explicitly identifies the commutant of a specific von Neumann algebra acting on a Hilbert space in the presence of a trace. The first such result was proved by Francis Joseph Murray and John von Neumann in the 1930s and applies to the von Neumann algebra generated by a discrete group or by the dynamical system associated with a measurable transformation preserving a probability measure. Another important application is in the theory of unitary representations of unimodular locally compact groups, where the theory has been applied to the regular representation and other closely related representations. In particular this framework led to an abstract version of the Plancherel theorem for unimodular locally compact groups due to Irving Segal and Forrest Stinespring and an abstract Plancherel theorem for spherical functions associated with a Gelfand pair due to Roger Godement. Their work was put in final form in the 1950s by Jacques Dixmier as part of the theory of Hilbert algebras. It was not until the late 1960s, prompted partly by results in algebraic quantum field theory and quantum statistical mechanics due to the school of Rudolf Haag, that the more general non-tracial Tomita–Takesaki theory was developed, heralding a new era in the theory of von Neumann algebras.

In physics, and especially scattering theory, the momentum-transfer cross section is an effective scattering cross section useful for describing the average momentum transferred from a particle when it collides with a target. Essentially, it contains all the information about a scattering process necessary for calculating average momentum transfers but ignores other details about the scattering angle.

In mathematics, Jordan operator algebras are real or complex Jordan algebras with the compatible structure of a Banach space. When the coefficients are real numbers, the algebras are called Jordan Banach algebras. The theory has been extensively developed only for the subclass of JB algebras. The axioms for these algebras were devised by Alfsen, Schultz & Størmer (1978). Those that can be realised concretely as subalgebras of self-adjoint operators on a real or complex Hilbert space with the operator Jordan product and the operator norm are called JC algebras. The axioms for complex Jordan operator algebras, first suggested by Irving Kaplansky in 1976, require an involution and are called JB* algebras or Jordan C* algebras. By analogy with the abstract characterisation of von Neumann algebras as C* algebras for which the underlying Banach space is the dual of another, there is a corresponding definition of JBW algebras. Those that can be realised using ultraweakly closed Jordan algebras of self-adjoint operators with the operator Jordan product are called JW algebras. The JBW algebras with trivial center, so-called JBW factors, are classified in terms of von Neumann factors: apart from the exceptional 27 dimensional Albert algebra and the spin factors, all other JBW factors are isomorphic either to the self-adjoint part of a von Neumann factor or to its fixed point algebra under a period two *-anti-automorphism. Jordan operator algebras have been applied in quantum mechanics and in complex geometry, where Koecher's description of bounded symmetric domains using Jordan algebras has been extended to infinite dimensions.

Symmetry in quantum mechanics Properties underlying modern physics

Symmetries in quantum mechanics describe features of spacetime and particles which are unchanged under some transformation, in the context of quantum mechanics, relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum field theory, and with applications in the mathematical formulation of the standard model and condensed matter physics. In general, symmetry in physics, invariance, and conservation laws, are fundamentally important constraints for formulating physical theories and models. In practice, they are powerful methods for solving problems and predicting what can happen. While conservation laws do not always give the answer to the problem directly, they form the correct constraints and the first steps to solving a multitude of problems.

Masamichi Takesaki is a Japanese mathematician working in the theory of operator algebras.

Loop representation in gauge theories and quantum gravity

Attempts have been made to describe gauge theories in terms of extended objects such as Wilson loops and holonomies. The loop representation is a quantum hamiltonian representation of gauge theories in terms of loops. The aim of the loop representation in the context of Yang–Mills theories is to avoid the redundancy introduced by Gauss gauge symmetries allowing to work directly in the space of physical states. The idea is well known in the context of lattice Yang–Mills theory. Attempts to explore the continuous loop representation was made by Gambini and Trias for canonical Yang–Mills theory, however there were difficulties as they represented singular objects. As we shall see the loop formalism goes far beyond a simple gauge invariant description, in fact it is the natural geometrical framework to treat gauge theories and quantum gravity in terms of their fundamental physical excitations.

Lie algebra extension Creating a "larger" Lie algebra from a smaller one, in one of several ways

In the theory of Lie groups, Lie algebras and their representation theory, a Lie algebra extensione is an enlargement of a given Lie algebra g by another Lie algebra h. Extensions arise in several ways. There is the trivial extension obtained by taking a direct sum of two Lie algebras. Other types are the split extension and the central extension. Extensions may arise naturally, for instance, when forming a Lie algebra from projective group representations. Such a Lie algebra will contain central charges.

In the theory of C*-algebras, the universal representation of a C*-algebra is a faithful representation which is the direct sum of the GNS representations corresponding to the states of the C*-algebra. The various properties of the universal representation are used to obtain information about the ideals and quotients of the C*-algebra. The close relationship between an arbitrary representation of a C*-algebra and its universal representation can be exploited to obtain several criteria for determining whether a linear functional on the algebra is ultraweakly continuous. The method of using the properties of the universal representation as a tool to prove results about the C*-algebra and its representations is commonly referred to as universal representation techniques in the literature.