Tomitaro Makino(牧野 富太郎Makino Tomitarō, April 24, 1862 – January 18, 1957) was a pioneer Japanese botanist noted for his taxonomic work. He has been called "Father of Japanese Botany". He was one of the first Japanese botanists to work extensively on classifying Japanese plants using the system developed by Linnaeus. His research resulted in documenting 50,000 specimens, many of which are represented in his Makino's Illustrated Flora of Japan. Despite having dropped out of grammar school, he would eventually attain a Doctor of Science degree, and his birthday is remembered as Botany Day in Japan.
Carl Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, was a Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist who formalised binomial nomenclature, the modern system of naming organisms. He is known as the "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin, and his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus.
A grammar school is one of several different types of school in the history of education in the United Kingdom and other English-speaking countries, originally a school teaching Latin, but more recently an academically-oriented secondary school, differentiated in recent years from less academic secondary modern schools.
Doctor of Science, usually abbreviated Sc.D., D.Sc., S.D., or D.S., is an academic research degree awarded in a number of countries throughout the world. In some countries, "Doctor of Science" is the title used for the standard doctorate in the sciences; elsewhere the Sc.D. is a "higher doctorate" awarded in recognition of a substantial and sustained contribution to scientific knowledge beyond that required for a PhD. It may also be awarded as an honorary degree.
Tomitaro Makino was born in Sakawa, Kōchi to a prestigious sake brewer. His parents died during his early childhood, and he was raised mainly by his grandmother. Though he dropped out of school after two years, he cultivated a strong interest in English, geography, and especially in botany. In 1880, he became a teacher at the primary school in his hometown, where he published his first academic botanical paper.
Sakawa is a town located in Takaoka District, Kōchi Prefecture, Japan. It is 28 km west of Kōchi City.
Kōchi Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan located on the south coast of Shikoku. The capital is the city of Kōchi.
Primary education also called an elementary education is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary education. Primary education usually takes place in a primary school or elementary school. In some countries, primary education is followed by ecosystem, an educational stage which exists in some countries, and takes place between primary school and high school college. Primary Education in Australia consists of grades foundation to grade 6. In the United States, primary education is Grades 1 - 3 and elementary education usually consists of grades 1-6.
In 1884, he moved to Tokyo to pursue his botanical interests at the University of Tokyo where he worked with Ryōkichi Yatabe. He married in 1890 and would later have 13 children.
Tokyo, officially Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2014, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world. The urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island, Honshu, and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was formerly named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603. It became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868; at that time Edo was renamed Tokyo. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is often referred to as a city but is officially known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo.
The University of Tokyo, abbreviated as Todai or UTokyo, is a public research university located in Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan. Established in 1877 as the first imperial university, it is one of Japan's most prestigious universities.
Ryōkichi Yatabe was a Japanese botanist during the Meiji era. The standard author abbreviation Yatabe is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name.
In 1887, Makino started to publish an academic journal of botany.
An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. Academic journals serve as permanent and transparent forums for the presentation, scrutiny, and discussion of research. They are usually peer-reviewed or refereed. Content typically takes the form of articles presenting original research, review articles, and book reviews. The purpose of an academic journal, according to Henry Oldenburg, is to give researchers a venue to "impart their knowledge to one another, and contribute what they can to the Grand design of improving natural knowledge, and perfecting all Philosophical Arts, and Sciences."
In 1936, he published Makino Book of Botany, a six volume text on botany, in which he describes 6000 species, 1000 of which he discovered. He is best known for his Makino's Illustrated Flora of Japan, published 1940, which is still used as an encyclopedic text today.
In 1948, he was invited to the Imperial Palace to lecture on botany for Emperor Hirohito.
In total, Makino named over 2500 plants, including 1000 new species and 1500 new varieties. In addition, he discovered about 600 new species.
In biology, a species ( ) is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. Other ways of defining species include their karyotype, DNA sequence, morphology, behaviour or ecological niche. In addition, paleontologists use the concept of the chronospecies since fossil reproduction cannot be examined. While these definitions may seem adequate, when looked at more closely they represent problematic species concepts. For example, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, and in a ring species. Also, among organisms that reproduce only asexually, the concept of a reproductive species breaks down, and each clone is potentially a microspecies.
After his death in 1957, his collection of approximately 400,000 specimens was donated to Tokyo Metropolitan University. The Makino Herbarium in Tokyo and the Makino Botanical Garden on Mount Godai in his native Kōchi were named in his honor. He was also named an Honorary Citizen of Tokyo.
In a statistical overview derived from writings by and about Makino, OCLC/WorldCat includes roughly 270+ works in 430+ publications in 4 languages and 1,060+ library holdings.
John Torrey was an American botanist, chemist, and physician. Throughout much of his career, Torrey was a teacher of chemistry, often at multiple universities, while at the same time pursuing botanical work. Dr. Torrey's botanical career focused on the flora of North America. His most renowned works include studies of the New York flora, the Mexican Boundary, the Pacific railroad surveys, as well as the uncompleted Flora of North America.
Sir William Jackson Hooker was an English systematic botanist and organiser, and botanical illustrator. He held the post of Regius Professor of Botany at Glasgow University, and was Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. He enjoyed the friendship and support of Sir Joseph Banks for his exploring, collecting and organising work. His son, Joseph Dalton Hooker, succeeded him to the Directorship of Kew Gardens.
Sir James Edward Smith was an English botanist and founder of the Linnean Society.
Augustin François César Prouvençal de Saint-Hilaire, French botanist and traveler, was born at Orléans, France, on 4 October 1779. A keen observer, he is credited with important discoveries in botany, notably the direction of the radicle in the embryo sac and the double point of attachment of certain ovules. He also described two families, the Paronychiae and the Tamariscinae, as well as a large number of genera and species.
Bunzō Hayata was a Japanese botanist noted for his taxonomic work in Japan and Formosa, present day Taiwan. The standard author abbreviation Hayata is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name.
Elmer Drew Merrill was an American botanist and taxonomist. He spent more than twenty years in the Philippines where he became a recognized authority on the flora of the Asia-Pacific region. Through the course of his career he authored nearly 500 publications, described approximately 3,000 new plant species, and amassed over one million herbarium specimens. In addition to his scientific work he was an accomplished administrator, college dean, university professor and editor of scientific journals.
Hipólito Ruiz López, or Hipólito Ruiz, was a Spanish botanist known for researching the floras of Peru and Chile during an expedition under Carlos III from 1777 to 1788. During the reign of Carlos III, three major botanical expeditions were sent to the New World; Ruiz and José Antonio Pavón Jiménez were the botanists for the first of these expeditions, to Peru and Chile.
Yasuyoshi Shirasawa was a Japanese botanist who worked alongside Tomitaro Makino 'The Father of Japanese Botany', at the University of Tokyo. Shirasawa named numerous native plants, notably the endangered Picea koyamae and the Kyūshū Lime Tilia kiusiana.
Nobuyuki Tanaka is an economic botanist at the Tokyo Metropolitan University, the Makino Botanical Garden in Kōchi Prefecture, Japan.
Thomas Frederic Cheeseman was a New Zealand botanist. He was also a naturalist who had wide-ranging interests, such that he even described a few species of sea slugs.
The Makino Botanical Garden, also known as the Kochi Prefectural Makino Botanical Garden, is a botanical garden located at Godaisan 4200-6, Kōchi, Kōchi Prefecture, Japan. It is open to the public daily except Mondays; an admission fee is charged.
Mitsutarō Shirai was a Japanese plant pathologist, mycologist, and herbalist. He was the first president of the Phytopathology Society of Japan and emeritus professor of plant pathology, College of Agriculture, The University of Tokyo.
Hiroyoshi Ohashi is a botanist formerly at the University of Tokyo and Tohoku University. He began publishing on Japanese Arisaema in the early 1960s. He published a couple of miscellaneous notes on Arisaema in 1963 and 1964 and these were followed by a revision of the genus for Japan jointly published in 1980 with J. Murata, and by the Araceae treatment for the Wildflowers of Japan.
Fuji Yahiro was a Japanese screenwriter, mostly of chanbara films. His real name was Minoru Yahiro. Leaving Meiji University before graduating, he began writing screenplays at Shōzō Makino's Makino Film Productions in 1927. He ended up penning hundreds of screenplays at many studios, such as Teikine, Shinkō Kinema, and Daiei. He also participated in the "Narutakimura" group, writing screenplays with Sadao Yamanaka, Hiroshi Inagaki, Eisuke Takizawa and others. He also wrote many books and received the Order of the Rising Sun in 1975.
Makino Memorial Garden is located in Nerima, Tokyo, Japan and dedicated to the life and works of Makino Tomitarō, "Father of Japanese Botany".
Allium inutile is a species of wild onion native to Honshu Island in Japan and to Anhui Province of southeastern China.
Quercus serrata, the jolcham oak, (Chinese: 枹栎; pinyin: bāolì, 小楢 is an East Asian species of tree in the beech family. It is native to southern, central, and eastern China, Taiwan, Japan, and Korea.
Arnica mallotopus is a species of arnica in the sunflower family. It is native to Japan.
Erigeron alpicola is an Asian species of flowering plants in the daisy family. It is native to Japan, to Jilin Province in China, and to the Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia.
Makino is a Japanese surname. Notable people with the surname include: