Tommaso Caracciolo

Last updated

Tommaso Caracciolo, Count of Roccarainola
Born10 March 1572
Naples
Died5 December 1631
Naples
Allegiance Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Spain
Years of service1594 - 1631
Battles/wars Eighty Years' War
Thirty Years' War

Tommaso Caracciolo, Count of Roccarainola (10 March 1572 – 5 December 1631), was among others a Field Marshal who commanded parts of the Spanish forces in the Thirty Years' War.

Contents

Biography

His father, Tristano Caracciolo, was the son of Michele Caracciolo, II. Baron of Castelfranco (Cosenza ) and signore of Lusciano (Terra di lavore) and Ponte Albaneto (Capitanata). Michele had the lordship of these lands from 1530 to his death in 1548, inheriting them from his uncle Berardino Caracciolo, created first baron by privilege signed by the King Fernando I of Aragon at Castelnovo of Naples on 20 June 1598. [1]

He seems to have had some military experiences in his youth; he reportedly assisted in the siege of Brichesario (1594). On 25 August 1600 he was made a captain by his relative Camillo Caracciolo (1563–1617), Count of Avellino, who entrusted him a tercio. On 5 September he was made a sergeant major of this tercio. He took part at the Siege of Ostend in Flanders. He is mentioned as Maestro de Campo (Field Marshal) in the war in Montferrat in the Piedmont (1614–1617). [2]

After 1617, he made him captain of war of the Val di Noto (between Catania and Messina) by the viceroy Count of Osuna, in order to establish the defense of Sicily against a suspected Turkish invasion. [3] [4]

Campaign in Bohemia

On 2 January 1619 he got the permit to leave Sicily and came back to Naples where he took part in the expedition of Carlo Spinelli to Bohemia as an adventurer without military order. Later the same Carlo Spinelli refuses to serve under Tommaso Caracciolo in Germany. [5]

He commanded some of the Spanish troops on the way to the Battle of White Mountain north of Prague on 8 November 1620, in which half of the enemy forces were killed or captured. [6] After that, on 22 July 1621, the Emperor appointed him to the post of Master field general in Moravia. [7]

Campaign in Germany

He successfully captured a hill with Walloon musketeers under his command at the Battle of Höchst. [8]

Campaign against French-Savoyan-Forces in Northern Italy

He was defeated by Savoian-French troops near Voltaggio, which he left to meet the enemy, being taken a prisoner by the Duke of Savoy on 9 September 1625, in which hands he remained until 11 September 1625, when Philip IV of Spain paid for his rescue.

Late Years

After two years in Milan, he came back to Naples on 3 August 1625, being appointed Commissary and Superintendent General of the Fortifications of the Kingdom, a post that he maintained till his death. By his military services, the king of Spain had appointed him Count of Roccarainola, a title raised to Duke of Roccarainola in 1667 for his eldest son. [9] [10]

Literature

Related Research Articles

Matthäus Merian Swiss-born engraver, publisher (1593–1650)

Matthäus Merian der Ältere was a Swiss-born engraver who worked in Frankfurt for most of his career, where he also ran a publishing house. He was a member of the patrician Basel Merian family.

Martin Opitz

Martin Opitz von Boberfeld was a German poet, regarded as the greatest of that nation during his lifetime.

Caravaggisti

The Caravaggisti were stylistic followers of the late 16th-century Italian Baroque painter Caravaggio. His influence on the new Baroque style that eventually emerged from Mannerism was profound. Caravaggio never established a workshop as most other painters did, and thus had no school to spread his techniques. Nor did he ever set out his underlying philosophical approach to art, the psychological realism which can only be deduced from his surviving work. But it can be seen directly or indirectly in the work of Rubens, Jusepe de Ribera, Bernini, and Rembrandt. Famous while he lived, Caravaggio himself was forgotten almost immediately after his death. Many of his paintings were reascribed to his followers, such as The Taking of Christ, which was attributed to the Dutch painter Gerrit van Honthorst until 1990. It was only in the 20th century that his importance to the development of Western art was rediscovered. In the 1920s Roberto Longhi once more placed him in the European tradition: "Ribera, Vermeer, La Tour and Rembrandt could never have existed without him. And the art of Delacroix, Courbet and Manet would have been utterly different". The influential Bernard Berenson stated: "With the exception of Michelangelo, no other Italian painter exercised so great an influence."

Simon Vouet French painter

Simon Vouet was a French painter who studied and rose to prominence in Italy before being summoned by Louis XIII to serve as Premier peintre du Roi in France. He and his studio of artists created religious and mythological paintings, portraits, frescoes, tapestries, and massive decorative schemes for the king and for wealthy patrons, including Richelieu. During this time, "Vouet was indisputably the leading artist in Paris," and was immensely influential in introducing the Italian Baroque style of painting to France. He was also "without doubt one of the outstanding seventeenth-century draughtsmen, equal to Annibale Carracci and Lanfranco."

Domenichino 17th-century Italian painter

Domenico Zampieri, known by the diminutive Domenichino after his shortness, was an Italian Baroque painter of the Bolognese School of painters.

<i>Tercio</i> Land warfare branch of the Spanish Tercios of the Spanish Empire

One tercio was a military unit of the Spanish Army during the time of the House of Austria. The Tercios were famous for their resistance on the battlefield, forming the elite of the military units available to the kings of the Hispanic Monarchy of the time. The thirds were the essential piece of the terrestrial hegemony, and sometimes also maritime of the Spanish Empire. The Tercio is considered the rebirth of the infantry on the battlefield, comparable to the Roman legions or the Macedonian phalanxes.

Georg Friedrich, Margrave of Baden-Durlach Margrave of Baden-Durlach

George Frederick of Baden-Durlach was Margrave of Baden-Durlach from 1604 until his abdication in 1622. He also ruled Baden-Baden.

Santa Maria La Nova Church in Campania, Italy

Santa Maria la Nova is a Renaissance style, now-deconsecrated, Roman Catholic church and monastery in central Naples. The church is located at the beginning of a side street directly across from the east side of the main post office, a few blocks south of the Church and Monastery of Santa Chiara. Today the adjacent monastery is a meeting site and hosts the Museo ARCA of modern religious art.

Massimo Stanzione 17th century Italian Baroque painter

Massimo Stanzione was an Italian Baroque painter, mainly active in Naples, where he and his rival Jusepe de Ribera dominated the painting scene for several decades. Most of his work, in both oils and fresco, depicted religious subjects. A papal knight, he is often referred to as Cavalliere Massimo Stanzione, especially in older sources.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Aversa

The Diocese of Aversa is a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical territory in Campania, southern Italy, created in 1053. It is situated in the Terra di Lavoro (Liburia), seven miles north of Naples, and eight miles south of Capua. It is suffragan of the Archdiocese of Naples.

Carlos Coloma

Don Carlos II Coloma y de Saa, knight of Santiago, 1st Marquess of Espinar was a Spanish military commander, diplomat and author. He is also known as a translator of Tacitus.

Frederick William, Duke of Cieszyn

Frederick William of Cieszyn was a Duke of Cieszyn since 1617 until his death.

Michael Altenburg

Michael Altenburg was a German theologian and composer.

John VIII, Count of Nassau-Siegen

John VIII, Count of Nassau-Siegen was a German nobleman and militarist of the 17th century.

Ludwig Camerarius

Ludwig Camerarius was a German statesman, lawyer, minister and head of Frederick V's government-in-exile in the Hague. He also served Swedish interests later in his life. He was the son of the scholar Joachim Camerarius the Younger and grandson of Joachim Camerarius the Elder.

Hedwig of Brandenburg, Duchess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel

Hedwig of Brandenburg, a member of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Princess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel from 1568 to 1589, by her marriage with the Welf duke Julius.

The Battle of Rinnthal was the heaviest battle of the Palatine uprising and took place on 17 June 1849 near Rinnthal in the Annweiler valley in Europe. The revolutionary troops under August Willich tried in vain to halt the advance of Prussian troops on Landau.

Giovanni Garzia Mellini

Giovanni Garzia Mellini was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Cardinal-Bishop of Frascati (1629), Cardinal-Priest of San Lorenzo in Lucina (1627–1629), Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals (1623–1625), Archpriest of the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore (1622–1629), Cardinal-Priest of Santi Quattro Coronati (1608–1627), Archbishop of Imola (1607–1611), and Apostolic Nuncio to Spain (1605–1607).

Battle of Preßnitz

The Battle of Preßnitz was a military engagement fought on 27 March [O.S. 17 March] 1641 during the Thirty Years' War. In the battle, Imperial troops under Octavio Piccolomini defeated the Swedish army under Field Marshal Johan Baner.

Giovanni Battista Spinelli

Giovanni Battista Spinelli was an Italian painter.

References

  1. Imhof, Corpus historiae genealogicae Italiae et Hispaniae Archived 9 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine , Nürnberg, 1702, famiglia Caracciolo, table IX, pag. 264, n.° 16; Erasmo Ricca, La Nobilitá del Regno delle Due Sicilie, vol. I (Napoli, 1859), pg. 225 and ss. ($ Castel franco)
  2. Tercio website Archived 9 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine .
  3. "I Caracciolo Pisquizi: Linea di Bartolomeo". Genmarenostrum.com. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
  4. "tercio.org".
  5. http://www.tercio.org Archived 9 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  6. Die Schlacht am Weissen Berge bei Prag: (8, November 1620) im Zusammenhange, Karl Julius Krebs, 1879.
  7. Wertheim biography of Christian von Braunschweig - Tome II - tercio.org
  8. Der tolle Halberstädter Herzog Christian von Braunschweig im pfälzischen Kriege Band 2
  9. "I Caracciolo Pisquizi: Linea di Bartolomeo". Genmarenostrum.com. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
  10. http://www.tercio.org Archived 9 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine