Tomora

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Tomora
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Tomora
Location in Mali
Coordinates: 14°15′0″N10°27′50″W / 14.25000°N 10.46389°W / 14.25000; -10.46389 Coordinates: 14°15′0″N10°27′50″W / 14.25000°N 10.46389°W / 14.25000; -10.46389
CountryFlag of Mali.svg  Mali
Region Kayes Region
Cercle Bafoulabé Cercle
Principal town Oussoubidiagna
Population
 (2009 census) [1]
  Total32,527
Time zone UTC+0 (GMT)

Tomora is a commune in the Cercle of Bafoulabé in the Kayes Region of south-western Mali. The administrative centre ( chef-lieu ) is Oussoubidiagna, a small town with around 4,000 inhabitants. The commune contains over thirty small villages. In the 2009 census it had a population of 32,527. Most of the inhabitants of Tomora are Khassonkés, with a minority of Soninke, Fulani and Malinke engaged mostly in farming. [2]

Communes of Mali

A Commune is the third level administrative unit in Mali. Mali is divided into eight regions and one capital district (Bamako). These subdivisions bear the name of their principal city. The regions are divided into 49 Cercles. The Cercles and the district are divided into 703 Communes, with 36 Urban Communes and 667 Rural Communes, while some larger Cercles still contain Arrondissements above the Commune level, these are organisational areas with no independent power or office. Rural Communes are subdivided in Villages, while Urban Communes are subdivided into Quartier. Communes usually bear the name of their principal town. The capital, Bamako, consists of six Urban Communes. There were initially 701 communes until the Law No. 01-043 of 7 June 2001 created two new Rural Communes in the desert region in the north east of the country: Alata, Ménaka Cercle in the Gao Region and Intadjedite, Tin-Essako Cercle in the Kidal Region.

Bafoulabé Cercle Cercle in Kayes Region, Mali

Bafoulabé Cercle is an administrative subdivision of the Kayes Region of Mali. The administrative center (chef-lieu) is the town of Bafoulabé. In the 2009 census the population of the cercle was 233,926.

Kayes Region Region in Mali

Kayes Region is one of eight first level national subdivisions in Mali called Regions. It is the first administrative area of Mali and covers an area of 120,760 square kilometres or 46,630 square miles. Its capital is the town of Kayes. The province was historically part of the Ghana Empire and the Mali Empire.

Contents

History and administration

The Borough of Oussoubidiangna was created in 1959 by merging the townships of Tomora, Sidibéla, Kontéla, Soroma and Diaye. [2] However, by Law No. 96 - 059/AN- RM of November 4, 1996 thirty seven villages in the Borough of Oussoubidiangna formed the current rural commune of Tomora. [2] The management of its affairs is entrusted to a council of twenty-three members and a communal office consists of a Mayor and three assistant deputies. The mayor, currently Hamet Sissoko, and his deputies are responsible for the implementation of the decisions of the municipal council, and a prefect is chosen to represent to commune as a state representative and is responsible for advisory support to the municipal authorities. [2]

Geography and climate

The commune of Tomora is located 100 km north of Bafoulabé. [2] It is bounded on the east by the rural commune of Diallan, north by Diakon, south by the commune of Bafoulabé and west by the municipality of Sidibéla, and to the south-east by Kontéla. Tomora is located on the foothills of the Fouta Djallon, and the commune has a topography characterized by a multitude of hills with narrow plains between them. The climate is Sahelian, typically hot, with rainfall varying from 700 to 900 mm per year with three main seasons: dry (March, April, May and June), Rainy (July-October) and cold (November-February). [2] No permanent watercourse traverses the commune so for water the inhabitants have had to resort to drilling wells and collecting water from further afield given that there is no permanent piped water supply. [2]

Diallan Commune and town in Kayes Region, Mali

Diallan is a town and commune in the Cercle of Bafoulabé in the Kayes Region of south-western Mali. In the 2009 census the commune had a population of 14,635.

Diakon Commune and town in Kayes Region, Mali

Diakon is a town and commune in the Cercle of Bafoulabé in the Kayes Region of western Mali. In the 2009 census the commune had a population of 34,100.

The Nando Peretti Foundation, backed with funding from the AECI (International Co-operation Spanish Agency), by the ECGO (Humanitarian Aid Office, European Commission) and private financial supporters and institutions such as the Barcelona Provincial Council, the Catalan Fund for Development and La Caixa Bank have been involved in improving water supply in the commune, particularly in the village of Madalaya and the surrounding villages of Tifé, Bougountinti, Mansadji, Diafan, Yahinane, Tamratinti, Bdiandiana, Gao and Diba. [3] They have also instructed the local people to maintain the borehole pump and distribution system to obtain the best advantage of fresh water availability to provide for some 8000 people in the local area, including 1360 in Madalaya and rest in the surrounding villages. [3] At present a yield of 40 m3 per day is supplied by 10 traditional wells, but the wells are shallow and the aquifers unfavorable, less than 20 m deep while the drill hole depths range between 43 and 80 m. [3]

Barcelona City and municipality in Catalonia

Barcelona is a city in Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within city limits, its urban area extends to numerous neighbouring municipalities within the Province of Barcelona and is home to around 4.8 million people, making it the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union after Paris, London, Madrid, the Ruhr area and Milan. It is one of the largest metropolises on the Mediterranean Sea, located on the coast between the mouths of the rivers Llobregat and Besòs, and bounded to the west by the Serra de Collserola mountain range, the tallest peak of which is 512 metres high.

However the variety of soils from gravelly or silty to sandy loam and sandy clay are suitable in many parts for agriculture. A number of plants inhabit the commune including gum, baobab, jujube, Kungo sira and other thorny species and the trees are plants are often used for firewood, lumber, and for medical purposes. [2]

<i>Acacia</i> Genus of plants

Acacia, commonly known as the wattles or acacias, is a large genus of shrubs and trees in the subfamily Mimosoideae of the pea family Fabaceae. Initially, it comprised a group of plant species native to Africa and Australia, with the first species A. nilotica described by Linnaeus.

<i>Adansonia digitata</i> species of plant

Adansonia digitata, the baobab, is the most widespread tree species of the genus Adansonia, the baobabs, and is native to the African continent. The long-lived pachycauls are typically found in dry, hot savannahs of sub-Saharan Africa, where they dominate the landscape, and reveal the presence of a watercourse from afar. Their growth rate is determined by ground water or rainfall, and their maximum age, which is subject to much conjecture, seems to be in the order of 1,500 years. They have traditionally been valued as sources of food, water, health remedies or places of shelter and are steeped in legend and superstition. European explorers of old were inclined to carve their names on baobabs, and many are defaced by modern graffiti.

Jujube A species of plant with edible fruit

Ziziphus jujuba, commonly called jujube, red date, Chinese date, is a species of Ziziphus in the buckthorn family (Rhamnaceae).

Economy

The economy is based on agriculture, harvesting and trade and crafts. The people of Tomora farm sorghum, maize, beans and cassava and rely on groundnuts as cash crops. [2] They also grow vegetables such as onion, tomato, okra, eggplant, squash and peppers. [2] Pastoral farming is particularly important, especially for food supply and saving money for household food bills. [2] Shea butter, monkey bread, are also produced and are also intended primarily for consumption while the wine of palmyra and raffia is a source of income for people.

<i>Sorghum</i> genus of plants

Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae. Seventeen of the 25 species are native to Australia, with the range of some extending to Africa, Asia, Mesoamerica, and certain islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. One species is grown for grain, while many others are used as fodder plants, either cultivated in warm climates worldwide or naturalized, in pasture lands. Sorghum is in the subfamily Panicoideae and the tribe Andropogoneae.

Maize Cereal grain

Maize, also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago. The leafy stalk of the plant produces pollen inflorescences and separate ovuliferous inflorescences called ears that yield kernels or seeds, which are fruits.

Bean seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food

A bean is a seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food.

Making mats and baskets is also a local custom and blacksmiths, shoemakers, potters and weavers are involved in this crafts sector. They sell their products at the weekly market in the main town of Oussoubidiagna. [2]

Religion

In the 2000s, the commune has been subjects to visits by Christian missionaries. The United Bible Society in coordination with the Norwegian Protestant Mission are of major note in this respect and educated several villagers in the region in 2007 in English. [4] On February 25, 2008 a United Bible Society/NPM convoy of seven vehicles left Bamako to travel to Oussoubidiagna under the guidance of Jacques Dembele, General Secretary of the Bible Society in Mali and their translation correspondent, Youssouf Dembele. [4] Most of missionaries were Norwegian and affiliated with the Norwegian Protestant Mission. [4] Christianity had never really reached the commune and a large crowd had gathered in the main square to greet them, including the mayor, Sissoko. Hunters and musicians and dancing girls and horses turned the visit into a celebration which is a Khassonké custom at important events. The people of Tomora slaughtered two cows and about fifteen sheep to provide a feast. [4] The Bible Society had been responsible for spreading Christianity in the area by establishing the Khassonké New Testament, translated by those they had educated in English into the Khassonké. [4] The New Testament was brought in, wrapped in a large gift box and followed by a small church choir which performed Khassonké songs throughout the ceremony. [4]

The arrival of the Bible in Tomora was attended by numerous eminent Malian Khassonké and religious figures, including Kadiatou Dembele, a member of staff of the Ministry of Primary Education, Literacy and National Languages, Oumar Cissé, a representative of the Khassonké language department at Bamako University; Abbot Urephin Somé, curate of Kakoulou, representing the bishop of the Kayes region, Sheik Oumar Coulibaly, the sub-prefect of Tomora and Sidibéla representing the regional governor, and Daniel Coulibaly, delegate of the Association of Evangelical Protestant Churches and Missions in Mali and the village imam, Diawoye Tamega etc. [4]

Hamet Sissoko, the mayor of Tomora, in his speech said, “a unique day, a day of joy, a day bringing honour to all Malians, but also a day spreading the influence of a whole culture, a proud day for the Khassonké people. That which education could not achieve, that which the government should have done, has now been carried out by the Norwegian Protestant Mission, thanks to the goodwill and the love of the Khassonké people”. [4]

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References

  1. Resultats Provisoires RGPH 2009 (Région de Kayes) (PDF) (in French), République de Mali: Institut National de la Statistique.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 "Plan de securite alimentaire commune rurale de Tomora" (PDF) (in French). USAID, Commissariat à la Sécurité Alimentaire (CSA). 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 22, 2008. Retrieved September 19, 2009.
  3. 1 2 3 "World geologists:Providing Water Supply to needy areas around the World:Mali". Nando Peretti Foundation . Retrieved September 19, 2009.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "'All these non-Christians still came to glorify the living God!'" (PDF). United Bible Society. February 15, 2008. Retrieved September 19, 2009.