|Federal subject||Tomsk Oblast|
|• Body||Duma of Tomsk|
|• Mayor||Ivan Klyayn|
|• Total||297.2 km2 (114.7 sq mi)|
|Elevation||80 m (260 ft)|
|• Estimate||574,002 (+9.4%)|
|• Rank||32nd in 2010|
|• Density||1,800/km2 (4,600/sq mi)|
|• Subordinated to||Tomsk City Under Oblast Jurisdiction|
|• Capital of||Tomsk Oblast , Tomsky District|
|• Urban okrug||Tomsk Urban Okrug|
|• Capital of||Tomsk Urban Okrug , Tomsky Municipal District|
|Time zone|| UTC+7 (MSK+4 |
|Dialing code(s)||+7 3822|
|City Day||June 7|
|Twin towns|| Ulsan, Krasnoyarsk |
Tomsk (Russian :Томск,IPA: [tomsk] ) is a city and the administrative center of Tomsk Oblast in Russia, located on the Tom River. The city's population was 524,669 (2010 Census); 487,838 (2002 Census); 501,963 (1989 Census).
Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although, nowadays, nearly three decades after the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia, the rise of state-specific varieties of this language tends to be strongly denied in Russia, in line with the Russian World ideology.
The classification system of the types of inhabited localities in Russia, the former Soviet Union, and some other post-Soviet states has certain peculiarities compared with the classification systems in other countries.
Tomsk Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. It lies in the southeastern West Siberian Plain, in the southwest of the Siberian Federal District. Its administrative center is the city of Tomsk. Population: 1 078 923 (1,047,394.
Tomsk is considered one of the oldest towns in Siberia. It celebrated its 410th anniversary in 2014. The city is a notable educational and scientific center with six state universities, over 100,000 students, and the oldest university in Siberia.
Siberia is an extensive geographical region spanning much of Eurasia and North Asia. Siberia has historically been a part of modern Russia since the 17th century.
National Research Tomsk State University, TSU is a public research university located in Siberia, Russia. On May 28, 1878, Emperor Alexander II signed a decree on the establishment of the first and only higher education institution in the vast expanses from the Russian Urals to the Pacific Ocean – the Siberian Imperial University in Tomsk, Russia. The TSU is the first Russian university in Asia.
Tomsk originated with a decree from Tsar Boris Godunov in 1604 after Toian, the Tatar duke of Eushta , asked for the Tsar's protection against Kirghiz bandits. The Tsar sent 200 Cossacks under the command of Vasily Fomich Tyrkov and Gavriil Ivanovich Pisemsky to construct a fortress on the bank of the Tom River, overlooking what would become the city of Tomsk. Toian ceded the land for the fortress to the Tsar.
Tsar, also spelled czar, or tzar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe, originally Bulgarian monarchs from 10th century onwards. As a system of government in the Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire, it is known as Tsarist autocracy, or Tsarism. The term is derived from the Latin word Caesar, which was intended to mean "Emperor" in the European medieval sense of the term—a ruler with the same rank as a Roman emperor, holding it by the approval of another emperor or a supreme ecclesiastical official —but was usually considered by western Europeans to be equivalent to king, or to be somewhat in between a royal and imperial rank.
Boris Fyodorovich Godunov ruled the Tsardom of Russia as de facto regent from c. 1585 to 1598 and then as the first non-Rurikid tsar from 1598 to 1605. After the end of his reign Russia descended into the Time of Troubles.
The Tatars are a Turkic-speaking people living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries. The name Tatar first appears in written form on the Kul Tigin monument as 𐱃𐱃𐰺 (Ta-tar). Historically, the term Tatars was applied to anyone originating from the vast Northern and Central Asian landmass then known as the Tartary, which was dominated by various mostly Turco-Mongol semi-nomadic empires and kingdoms. More recently, however, the term refers more narrowly to people who speak one of the Turkic languages.
In 1804 the Imperial Russian government selected Tomsk as the seat of the new Tomsk Governorate, which would include the modern cities of Novosibirsk, Kemerovo, and Krasnoyarsk, as well as the territories now in Eastern Kazakhstan. The new status brought development and the city grew quickly.
Tomsk Governorate was an administrative division of the Russian Empire, located in Siberia. It existed from 1804 to 1925; its seat was in the city of Tomsk.
Novosibirsk is the third-most populous city in Russia, after Moscow and St. Petersburg. It is the most populous city in Asian Russia, with a population of 1,612,833 as of the 2018 Census, and is the administrative center of Novosibirsk Oblast as well as of the Siberian Federal District.
Kemerovo is an industrial city and the administrative center of Kemerovo Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Iskitim and Tom Rivers, in the major coal mining region of the Kuznetsk Basin. Its population was 532,981 in the 2010 Census; 484,754 in the 2002 Census; 520,263 in the 1989 Census.
The discovery of gold in 1830 brought further development to Tomsk in the 19th century; however, when in the 1890s the Trans-Siberian Railway bypassed the city in favor of the village of Novonikolayevsk (Novosibirsk), development began to move south to connect with the railway. In time, Novosibirsk would surpass Tomsk in importance.
The Trans-Siberian Railway is a network of railways connecting Moscow with the Russian Far East. With a length of 9,289 kilometres, from Moscow to Vladivostok, it is the longest railway line in the world. There are connecting branch lines into Mongolia, China and North Korea. It has connected Moscow with Vladivostok since 1916, and is still being expanded.
In the mid-19th century one fifth of the city's residents were exiles. However, within a few years, the city reinvented itself as the educational center of Siberia with the establishment of Tomsk State University, founded in 1880, and Tomsk Polytechnic University, founded in 1896. By World War II, every twelfth resident of the city was a student,giving rise to the city's nickname, the Siberian Athens .
To be in exile means to be away from one's home, while either being explicitly refused permission to return or being threatened with imprisonment or death upon return.
Tomsk Polytechnic University (TPU) in Tomsk, Russia, is the oldest technical university in Russia east of the Urals. The university was founded in 1896 and opened in 1900 as the Tomsk Technological Institute. In 1925, the school was renamed the Siberian Technological Institute and in 1930, the institute was split into five divisions, three of which remained in Tomsk. In 1934, the three institutes in Tomsk reunited to form a new institute that would be named the Tomsk Polytechnic Institute. The university has more than 22,000 current students and has graduated more than 100,000 technical specialists. As of 2014 the rector was Petr S. Chubik.
World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.
After the October Revolution of 1917 the city became a notable center of the White movement, led by Anatoly Pepelyayev and Maria Bochkareva, among others. After the victory of the Red Army in the 1920s, Soviet authorities incorporated Tomsk into the West Siberian Krai and later into Novosibirsk Oblast.
Like many Siberian cities, Tomsk became the new home for many factories relocated out of the war zone from 1941. The resulting growth of the city led the Soviet government to establish the new Tomsk Oblast, with Tomsk serving as the administrative center.
During the Cold War, Tomsk became one of many designated closed cities, 15 kilometres (9 miles) north-west of Tomsk; the new settlement became the home of the Tomsk Nuclear Plant (subsequently[ when? ] renamed the Sibirskaya Nuclear Power Plant), the Soviet Union's first industrial-scale nuclear-power station. Tomsk-7 received municipal status in 1956 and was renamed Seversk in 1992.which outsiders and, in particular, foreigners, could not visit. In 1949 matters went a stage further with the establishment of a secret city, known as "Tomsk-7" (or sometimes simply as "Postbox 5")
Tomsk serves as the administrative center of the oblast and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Tomsky District, even though it is not a part of it.As an administrative division, it is, together with seven rural localities, incorporated separately as Tomsk City Under Oblast Jurisdiction —an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, Tomsk City Under Oblast Jurisdiction is incorporated as Tomsk Urban Okrug.
Tomsk is divided into four city districts: Kirovsky, Leninsky, Oktyabrsky, and Sovetsky.
Tomsk has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) barely escaping a subarctic classification. The annual average temperature is +0.87 °C (33.57 °F). Winters are severe and lengthy, and the lowest recorded temperature was −55 °C (−67 °F) in January 1931. However, the average temperature in January is between −21 °C (−6 °F) and −13 °C (9 °F). The average temperature in July is +18.7 °C (65.7 °F). The total annual rainfall is 568 millimeters (22.4 in). In 2006, Tomsk experienced what might have been its first recorded winds of hurricane force, which toppled trees and damaged houses.
|Climate data for Tomsk|
|Record high °C (°F)||3.7|
|Average high °C (°F)||−13|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−17.1|
|Average low °C (°F)||−20.9|
|Record low °C (°F)||−55|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||35|
|Average rainy days||0.3||0.3||2||12||16||17||17||17||19||15||5||1||122|
|Average snowy days||23||21||17||13||4||0.3||0||0||2||14||22||26||142|
|Average relative humidity (%)||81||78||72||65||61||70||76||79||79||80||83||82||76|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||57||104||169||224||258||314||316||253||171||86||51||41||2,044|
|Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net|
|Source #2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)|
Tomsk is governed by a mayor and a 33-member Duma. The current mayor, appointed in 2013, is Ivan Klyayn,a member of The United Russia party.
Of the 33 members, 16 are elected from the eight double mandate districts while 17 are chosen from party lists.
In the October 2005 local elections, United Russia was expected to cruise to a solid victory; however, the Pensioners Party put up a strong showing. The final count was (proportional representation):
Tomsk has the oldest electrical grid in Siberia. There are three power stations in the city:
Tomsk consumes more electric energy than it produces. The bulk of the city's electric and thermal energy is produced by the GRES-2 (281 MWt) and TEC-3 (140 MWt) powerplants, belonging to Tomskenergo Inc. Tomsk supplements its energy needs with electricity generated at Seversk.
There is a commercial and passenger port on the Tom River.
The city is served by the Bogashevo Airport.
Tomsk is a small railway center that is situated on the Tayga—Bely Yar line (Tomsk branch) of the Trans-Siberian Railway.
The main line of the Trans-Siberian railway, built in 1896, passes 50 km (31 mi) south of Tomsk and bypasses Tomsk. Access from Tomsk to the Trans-Siberian railway is available via the town of Tayga. A regional rail line links Tomsk with Tayga.
The Tomsk Railway existed as an independent entity until 1961. At the present time, the Tomsk line belongs to the West-Siberian Railway, branch of Russian Railways Corp.. Trains link Tomsk to Anapa, Asino, Barnaul, Bely Yar, Moscow, Novokuznetsk, Novosibirsk, Sochi, and Tayga.
The main part of inner-city and suburban transportation is provided by marshrutkas (routed taxis), mainly PAZ) minibuses, which serve about forty routes.
Additionally, the city has eleven proper bus routes, eight trolleybus lines (built in 1967), and five tram lines (constructed in 1949). Private taxis are also readily available.
Tomsk Bogashevo Airport is the airport serving the city. The airport is also served by charter flights operated by UTair and Alrosa Mirny Air Enterprise.
Tomsk has a number of prominent institutions of higher education, including:
A large number of educational institutions in the city have contributed to making Tomsk a major center for Russia's IT industry. Tomsk was one of the first cities in Russia to gain access to the Internet, which became available in the early 1990s owing to grants received by universities and scientific cooperation.
Tomsk has many local cultural institutions including several drama theaters as well as a children's theater and a puppet theater. Major concert venues in the city include the Conservatory Concert hall and the Tomsk Palace of Sport. The city also boasts cultural centers dedicated to German, Polish and Tatar languages and culture.
One of the city's prominent theaters was destroyed in an act of terrorism in 1905. The Korolevsky Theater (built in 1884–85) was being used by a group of communist revolutionaries when the theater was attacked and set on fire by members of the Black Hundred, a hard-line nationalist organization. Those who escaped the flames were gunned down by Black Hundred members waiting outside the theater. Estimates put the number of casualties between 200 and 1000.[ citation needed ]
There are a number of museums in Tomsk devoted to various subjects, most notably art, local history and wood carving. There is also a Museum of Oppression, housed in a former KGB dungeon. Tomsk State University has a number of small museums with exhibits on archaeology, paleontology, zoology, as well as a herbarium and a botanical garden
As in many other cities in the former Soviet Union, the revolutionary government destroyed a number of old churches in the city including two that had existed since the 17th century. However, Tomsk managed to save some of its churches by transforming them into machine shops, warehouses, archives, and even residential buildings. Since the end of the communist era some of the churches have been renovated and returned to their congregations.
Tomsk is well known for its intricate "gingerbread" decoration of traditional wooden houses in the area. However, the number of old homes in this style is decreasing due to redevelopment or some of them catching fire, as the structures have little to no fire protection.
Trud (Labor) Stadium, in central Tomsk is the base for matches with the FC Tom Tomsk, the city's professional football club. The team's 2004 promotion to the Russian Premier League gave local fans a chance to see some of the nation's best teams play at the city's own stadium.
Tomsk has many local media outlets including the TV2 (Tomsk)television station, shut down by the authorities and turned into an internet TV medium, the radio stations Radio Siberia and Echo of Moscow in Tomsk along with several newspapers ( Tomskaya Nedelya, Krasnoye Znamya and Vechernii Tomsk ).
In April 2006 Tomsk received international media attention as the venue of a major summit on economic cooperation, held in the city between Russian President Vladimir Putin and German Chancellor Angela Merkel.
Tomsk was the name given by children's author Elizabeth Beresford to one of her fictional characters The Wombles, all of whom are named after places.
Tomsk is the only non-capital member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21.
Tomsk is twinned with:
Kolpashevo is a town and the administrative center of Kolpashevsky District in Tomsk Oblast, Russia, located on the Ob River. Population: 24,124 (2010 Census); 28,441 (2002 Census); 31,319 (1989 Census).
Seversk is a closed city in Tomsk Oblast, Russia, located 15 kilometers (9.3 mi) northwest of Tomsk on the right bank of the Tom River. Population: 108,590 (2010 Census); 109,106 (2002 Census);
Kedrovy is a town in Tomsk Oblast, Russia, situated in the valley of the Chusik River. Population: 2,451 (2010 Census); 3,052 ; 1,998 (1989 Census).
Strezhevoy is a town in Tomsk Oblast, Russia, located on the shores of the Ob River's canal. Population: 42,219 (2010 Census); 43,815 (2002 Census); 43,348 (1989 Census).
Alexandrovsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the sixteen in Tomsk Oblast, Russia. It is located in the northwest of the oblast and borders with the territory of Strezhevoy Town Under Oblast Jurisdiction, with Kargasoksky District, and with Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug. The area of the district is 30,160 square kilometers (11,640 sq mi).} Its administrative center is the rural locality of Alexandrovskoye. Population: 8,686 ; 10,136 (2002 Census); 11,356 (1989 Census)—the second least populated in Tomsk Oblast. The population of Alexandrovskoye accounts for 83.0% of the district's total population.
Kargasoksky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the sixteen in Tomsk Oblast, Russia. It is located in the northern, western, and southwestern parts of the oblast. The area of the district is 86,900 square kilometers (33,600 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Kargasok. Population: 21,814 ; 24,756 (2002 Census); 28,651 (1989 Census). The population of Kargasok accounts for 37.3% of the district's total population.
Asinovsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the sixteen in Tomsk Oblast, Russia. It is located in the southeast of the oblast. The area of the district is 5,943.3 square kilometers (2,294.7 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Asino. Population: 36,459 ; 12,911 (2002 Census); 16,222 (1989 Census). The population of Asino accounts for 70.3% of the district's total population.
Bakcharsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the sixteen in Tomsk Oblast, Russia. It is located in the south of the oblast. The area of the district is 24,700 square kilometers (9,500 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Bakchar. Population: 13,419 ; 15,963 (2002 Census); 17,879 (1989 Census). The population of Bakchar accounts for 45.7% of the district's total population.
Chainsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the sixteen in Tomsk Oblast, Russia. It is located in the center of the oblast. The area of the district is 7,242 square kilometers (2,796 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Podgornoye. Population: 12,920 ; 13,888 (2002 Census); 17,325 (1989 Census). The population of Podgornoye accounts for 38.6% of the district's total population.
Kolpashevsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the sixteen in Tomsk Oblast, Russia. It is located in the center of the oblast. The area of the district is 17,112 square kilometers (6,607 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Kolpashevo. Population: 41,183 ; 19,723 (2002 Census); 22,689 (1989 Census). The population of Kolpashevo accounts for 58.6% of the district's total population.
Kozhevnikovsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the sixteen in Tomsk Oblast, Russia. It is located in the southeast of the oblast. The area of the district is 3,907.5 square kilometers (1,508.7 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Kozhevnikovo. Population: 20,967 ; 22,582 (2002 Census); 24,535 (1989 Census). The population of Kozhevnikovo accounts for 39.0% of the district's total population.
Krivosheinsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the sixteen in Tomsk Oblast, Russia. It is located in the southeastern central part of the oblast. The area of the district is 4,380 square kilometers (1,690 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Krivosheino. Population: 13,285 ; 15,848 (2002 Census); 19,332 (1989 Census). The population of Krivosheino accounts for 41.2% of the district's total population.
Molchanovsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the sixteen in Tomsk Oblast, Russia. It is located in the eastern central part of the oblast. The area of the district is 6,351.2 square kilometers (2,452.2 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Molchanovo. Population: 13,446 ; 15,591 (2002 Census); 19,217 (1989 Census). The population of Molchanovo accounts for 42.7% of the district's total population.
Parabelsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the sixteen in Tomsk Oblast, Russia. It is located in the northern, central, and southwestern parts of the oblast. The area of the district is 35,846.69 square kilometers (13,840.48 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Parabel. Population: 12,595 ; 13,533 (2002 Census); 16,033 (1989 Census). The population of Parabel accounts for 48.4% of the district's total population.
Pervomaysky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the sixteen in Tomsk Oblast, Russia. It is located in the east of the oblast. The area of the district is 15,554.18 square kilometers (6,005.50 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Pervomayskoye. Population: 18,947 ; 21,260 (2002 Census); 23,350 (1989 Census). The population of Pervomayskoye accounts for 29.8% of the district's total population.
Shegarsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the sixteen in Tomsk Oblast, Russia. It is located in the southeast of the oblast. The area of the district is 5,029.54 square kilometers (1,941.92 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Melnikovo. Population: 20,306 ; 22,551 (2002 Census); 24,129 (1989 Census). The population of Melnikovo accounts for 41.3% of the district's total population.
Teguldetsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the sixteen in Tomsk Oblast, Russia. It is located in the east of the oblast and borders Verkhneketsky District in the north, Krasnoyarsk Krai in the east, Kemerovo Oblast in the south, and Zyryansky and Pervomaysky Districts in the west. The area of the district is 12,271.1 square kilometers (4,737.9 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Teguldet. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 6,937, with the population of Teguldet accounting for 63.2% of that number.
Tomsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the sixteen in Tomsk Oblast, Russia. It is located in the southeast of the oblast. The area of the district is 10,064.2 square kilometers (3,885.8 sq mi). Its administrative center is the city of Tomsk. Population: 68,652 ; 85,888 (2002 Census); 92,340 (1989 Census).
Verkhneketsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the sixteen in Tomsk Oblast, Russia. It is located in the northeast of the oblast. The area of the district is 43,348.9 square kilometers (16,737.1 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Bely Yar. Population: 17,052 ; 18,300 (2002 Census); 25,127 (1989 Census). The population of Bely Yar accounts for 46.9% of the district's total population.
Zyryansky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the sixteen in Tomsk Oblast, Russia. It is located in the east of the oblast. The area of the district is 3,966 square kilometers (1,531 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Zyryanskoye. Population: 13,179 ; 16,052 (2002 Census); 18,549 (1989 Census). The population of Zyryanskoye accounts for 42.7% of the district's total population.
1603.12. - 1604.01. Поездка Тояна в Москву. Тоян подал челобитную царю Борису Годунову с просьбой принять его со всеми 'томскими людьми под высокую государеву руку'. [December 1603 to January 1604: Toyan's visit to Moscow. Toyan swore homage to Tsar Boris Godunov, requesting him to take himself and all 'the people of the Tom under his Lordship's protection'.]
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