Tomsk

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Tomsk

Томск
City Under Oblast Jurisdiction [1]
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Coat of arms
Location of Tomsk
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Tomsk
Location of Tomsk
Outline Map of Tomsk Oblast.svg
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Tomsk
Tomsk (Tomsk Oblast)
Coordinates: 56°30′N84°58′E / 56.500°N 84.967°E / 56.500; 84.967 Coordinates: 56°30′N84°58′E / 56.500°N 84.967°E / 56.500; 84.967
Country Russia
Federal subject Tomsk Oblast
Founded1604
Government
  Body Duma of Tomsk [2]
  MayorIvan Klyayn [3]
Area
[4]
  Total297.2 km2 (114.7 sq mi)
Elevation
80 m (260 ft)
Population
  Total524,669
  Estimate 
(2018) [6]
574,002 (+9.4%)
  Rank 32nd in 2010
  Density1,800/km2 (4,600/sq mi)
  Subordinated toTomsk City Under Oblast Jurisdiction [1]
   Capital of Tomsk Oblast [1] , Tomsky District [1]
  Urban okrugTomsk Urban Okrug [7]
   Capital ofTomsk Urban Okrug [7] , Tomsky Municipal District [8]
Time zone UTC+7 (MSK+4 Blue pencil.svg [9] )
Postal code(s) [10]
634xxx
Dialing code(s) +7 3822
City DayJune 7
Twin towns Ulsan, Krasnoyarsk Blue pencil.svg
OKTMO ID69701000001
Website www.admin.tomsk.ru

Tomsk (Russian :Томск,IPA:  [tomsk] ) is a city and the administrative center of Tomsk Oblast in Russia, located on the Tom River. The city's population was 524,669(2010 Census); [5] 487,838(2002 Census); [11] 501,963(1989 Census). [12]

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although, nowadays, nearly three decades after the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia, the rise of state-specific varieties of this language tends to be strongly denied in Russia, in line with the Russian World ideology.

The classification system of the types of inhabited localities in Russia, the former Soviet Union, and some other post-Soviet states has certain peculiarities compared with the classification systems in other countries.

Tomsk Oblast First-level administrative division of Russia

Tomsk Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. It lies in the southeastern West Siberian Plain, in the southwest of the Siberian Federal District. Its administrative center is the city of Tomsk. Population: 1 078 923 (1,047,394.

Contents

Tomsk is considered one of the oldest towns in Siberia. It celebrated its 410th anniversary in 2014. The city is a notable educational and scientific center with six state universities, over 100,000 students, and the oldest university in Siberia. [13]

Siberia Geographical region

Siberia is an extensive geographical region spanning much of Eurasia and North Asia. Siberia has historically been a part of modern Russia since the 17th century.

Tomsk State University university

National Research Tomsk State University, TSU is a public research university located in Siberia, Russia. On May 28, 1878, Emperor Alexander II signed a decree on the establishment of the first and only higher education institution in the vast expanses from the Russian Urals to the Pacific Ocean – the Siberian Imperial University in Tomsk, Russia. The TSU is the first Russian university in Asia.

History

The "Where Tomsk was Founded" marker at the Tomsk History Museum. FoundingSpotTomsk.jpg
The "Where Tomsk was Founded" marker at the Tomsk History Museum.
Siberian State Medical University Siberian State Medical University.jpg
Siberian State Medical University

Tomsk originated with a decree from Tsar Boris Godunov in 1604 after Toian  [ ru ], the Tatar duke of Eushta , asked for the Tsar's protection against Kirghiz bandits. [14] The Tsar sent 200 Cossacks under the command of Vasily Fomich Tyrkov  [ ru ] and Gavriil Ivanovich Pisemsky to construct a fortress on the bank of the Tom River, overlooking what would become the city of Tomsk. Toian ceded the land for the fortress to the Tsar. [15]

Tsar title given to a male monarch in Russia, Bulgaria and Serbia

Tsar, also spelled czar, or tzar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe, originally Bulgarian monarchs from 10th century onwards. As a system of government in the Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire, it is known as Tsarist autocracy, or Tsarism. The term is derived from the Latin word Caesar, which was intended to mean "Emperor" in the European medieval sense of the term—a ruler with the same rank as a Roman emperor, holding it by the approval of another emperor or a supreme ecclesiastical official —but was usually considered by western Europeans to be equivalent to king, or to be somewhat in between a royal and imperial rank.

Boris Godunov Russian Tsar

Boris Fyodorovich Godunov ruled the Tsardom of Russia as de facto regent from c. 1585 to 1598 and then as the first non-Rurikid tsar from 1598 to 1605. After the end of his reign Russia descended into the Time of Troubles.

The Tatars are a Turkic-speaking people living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries. The name Tatar first appears in written form on the Kul Tigin monument as 𐱃𐱃𐰺 (Ta-tar). Historically, the term Tatars was applied to anyone originating from the vast Northern and Central Asian landmass then known as the Tartary, which was dominated by various mostly Turco-Mongol semi-nomadic empires and kingdoms. More recently, however, the term refers more narrowly to people who speak one of the Turkic languages.

In 1804 the Imperial Russian government selected Tomsk as the seat of the new Tomsk Governorate, which would include the modern cities of Novosibirsk, Kemerovo, and Krasnoyarsk, as well as the territories now in Eastern Kazakhstan. The new status brought development and the city grew quickly. [15]

Tomsk Governorate

Tomsk Governorate was an administrative division of the Russian Empire, located in Siberia. It existed from 1804 to 1925; its seat was in the city of Tomsk.

Novosibirsk City in Novosibirsk Oblast, Russia

Novosibirsk is the third-most populous city in Russia, after Moscow and St. Petersburg. It is the most populous city in Asian Russia, with a population of 1,612,833 as of the 2018 Census, and is the administrative center of Novosibirsk Oblast as well as of the Siberian Federal District.

Kemerovo City in Kemerovo Oblast, Russia

Kemerovo is an industrial city and the administrative center of Kemerovo Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Iskitim and Tom Rivers, in the major coal mining region of the Kuznetsk Basin. Its population was 532,981 in the 2010 Census; 484,754 in the 2002 Census; 520,263 in the 1989 Census.

The discovery of gold in 1830 brought further development to Tomsk in the 19th century; however, when in the 1890s the Trans-Siberian Railway bypassed the city in favor of the village of Novonikolayevsk (Novosibirsk), development began to move south to connect with the railway. In time, Novosibirsk would surpass Tomsk in importance.

Trans-Siberian Railway network of railways connecting Moscow with the Russian Far East and the Sea of Japan

The Trans-Siberian Railway is a network of railways connecting Moscow with the Russian Far East. With a length of 9,289 kilometres, from Moscow to Vladivostok, it is the longest railway line in the world. There are connecting branch lines into Mongolia, China and North Korea. It has connected Moscow with Vladivostok since 1916, and is still being expanded.

In the mid-19th century one fifth of the city's residents were exiles. However, within a few years, the city reinvented itself as the educational center of Siberia with the establishment of Tomsk State University, founded in 1880, and Tomsk Polytechnic University, founded in 1896. By World War II, every twelfth resident of the city was a student, [15] giving rise to the city's nickname, the Siberian Athens .

Exile event by which a person is forced away from home

To be in exile means to be away from one's home, while either being explicitly refused permission to return or being threatened with imprisonment or death upon return.

Tomsk Polytechnic University university

Tomsk Polytechnic University (TPU) in Tomsk, Russia, is the oldest technical university in Russia east of the Urals. The university was founded in 1896 and opened in 1900 as the Tomsk Technological Institute. In 1925, the school was renamed the Siberian Technological Institute and in 1930, the institute was split into five divisions, three of which remained in Tomsk. In 1934, the three institutes in Tomsk reunited to form a new institute that would be named the Tomsk Polytechnic Institute. The university has more than 22,000 current students and has graduated more than 100,000 technical specialists. As of 2014 the rector was Petr S. Chubik.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

After the October Revolution of 1917 the city became a notable center of the White movement, led by Anatoly Pepelyayev and Maria Bochkareva, among others. After the victory of the Red Army in the 1920s, Soviet authorities incorporated Tomsk into the West Siberian Krai and later into Novosibirsk Oblast.

Like many Siberian cities, Tomsk became the new home for many factories relocated out of the war zone from 1941. The resulting growth of the city led the Soviet government to establish the new Tomsk Oblast, with Tomsk serving as the administrative center. [15]

During the Cold War, Tomsk became one of many designated closed cities, [16] which outsiders and, in particular, foreigners, could not visit. In 1949 matters went a stage further with the establishment of a secret city, known as "Tomsk-7" (or sometimes simply as "Postbox 5") 15 kilometres (9 miles) north-west of Tomsk; the new settlement became the home of the Tomsk Nuclear Plant (subsequently[ when? ] renamed the Sibirskaya Nuclear Power Plant), the Soviet Union's first industrial-scale nuclear-power station. Tomsk-7 received municipal status in 1956 and was renamed Seversk in 1992.

Administrative and municipal status

Tomsk serves as the administrative center of the oblast and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Tomsky District, even though it is not a part of it. [1] As an administrative division, it is, together with seven rural localities, incorporated separately as Tomsk City Under Oblast Jurisdiction —an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. [1] As a municipal division, Tomsk City Under Oblast Jurisdiction is incorporated as Tomsk Urban Okrug. [7]

City divisions

Tomsk is divided into four city districts: Kirovsky, Leninsky, Oktyabrsky, and Sovetsky.

Climate

Tomsk has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) barely escaping a subarctic classification. The annual average temperature is +0.87 °C (33.57 °F). Winters are severe and lengthy, and the lowest recorded temperature was −55 °C (−67 °F) in January 1931. However, the average temperature in January is between −21 °C (−6 °F) and −13 °C (9 °F). The average temperature in July is +18.7 °C (65.7 °F). The total annual rainfall is 568 millimeters (22.4 in). In 2006, Tomsk experienced what might have been its first recorded winds of hurricane force, which toppled trees and damaged houses. [17]

Climate data for Tomsk
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)3.7
(38.7)
7.1
(44.8)
17.7
(63.9)
26.5
(79.7)
34.4
(93.9)
34.7
(94.5)
35.1
(95.2)
33.8
(92.8)
31.7
(89.1)
25.1
(77.2)
11.6
(52.9)
6.5
(43.7)
35.1
(95.2)
Average high °C (°F)−13
(9)
−9.6
(14.7)
−1.1
(30.0)
7.0
(44.6)
17.5
(63.5)
22.3
(72.1)
24.8
(76.6)
21.7
(71.1)
14.4
(57.9)
6.0
(42.8)
−4.7
(23.5)
−11.1
(12.0)
6.2
(43.2)
Daily mean °C (°F)−17.1
(1.2)
−14.7
(5.5)
−7
(19)
1.3
(34.3)
10.4
(50.7)
15.9
(60.6)
18.7
(65.7)
15.7
(60.3)
9.0
(48.2)
1.7
(35.1)
−8.3
(17.1)
−15.1
(4.8)
0.9
(33.6)
Average low °C (°F)−20.9
(−5.6)
−18.9
(−2.0)
−12
(10)
−3.3
(26.1)
4.7
(40.5)
10.5
(50.9)
13.7
(56.7)
11.0
(51.8)
5.1
(41.2)
−1.4
(29.5)
−11.4
(11.5)
−18.9
(−2.0)
−3.5
(25.7)
Record low °C (°F)−55
(−67)
−51.3
(−60.3)
−42.4
(−44.3)
−31.1
(−24.0)
−17.5
(0.5)
−3.5
(25.7)
1.5
(34.7)
−1.6
(29.1)
−8.1
(17.4)
−29.1
(−20.4)
−48.3
(−54.9)
−50
(−58)
−55
(−67)
Average precipitation mm (inches)35
(1.4)
24
(0.9)
25
(1.0)
33
(1.3)
41
(1.6)
60
(2.4)
75
(3.0)
67
(2.6)
50
(2.0)
56
(2.2)
52
(2.0)
49
(1.9)
567
(22.3)
Average rainy days0.30.321216171717191551122
Average snowy days2321171340.3002142226142
Average relative humidity (%)81787265617076797980838276
Mean monthly sunshine hours 571041692242583143162531718651412,044
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net [18]
Source #2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990) [19]

Politics

Tomsk City Administration building Tomsk-Administration.jpg
Tomsk City Administration building
Tomsk, view from the fire-observation tower Tomsk, view from the fire-observation tower.jpg
Tomsk, view from the fire-observation tower

Tomsk is governed by a mayor and a 33-member Duma. The current mayor, appointed in 2013, is Ivan Klyayn, [20] a member of The United Russia party.

Of the 33 members, 16 are elected from the eight double mandate districts while 17 are chosen from party lists.

In the October 2005 local elections, United Russia was expected to cruise to a solid victory; however, the Pensioners Party put up a strong showing. The final count was (proportional representation):

Double mandates

Economy

Lenin Square in Tomsk Blazon monument in Tomsk.jpg
Lenin Square in Tomsk

Energy generation

Tomsk has the oldest electrical grid in Siberia. There are three power stations in the city:

  1. TEC-1 (launched on January 1, 1896)
  2. GRES-2 (launched on May 28, 1945)
  3. TEC-3 (launched on October 29, 1988)

Tomsk consumes more electric energy than it produces. The bulk of the city's electric and thermal energy is produced by the GRES-2 (281 MWt) and TEC-3 (140 MWt) powerplants, belonging to Tomskenergo Inc. Tomsk supplements its energy needs with electricity generated at Seversk.

Transportation

Lenina Avenue in Tomsk Street Scene in Tomsk - Russia.JPG
Lenina Avenue in Tomsk

Road network:

There is a commercial and passenger port on the Tom River.

The city is served by the Bogashevo Airport.

Railways

Tomsk is a small railway center that is situated on the TaygaBely Yar line (Tomsk branch) of the Trans-Siberian Railway.

The main line of the Trans-Siberian railway, built in 1896, passes 50 km (31 mi) south of Tomsk and bypasses Tomsk. Access from Tomsk to the Trans-Siberian railway is available via the town of Tayga. A regional rail line links Tomsk with Tayga.

The Tomsk Railway existed as an independent entity until 1961. At the present time, the Tomsk line belongs to the West-Siberian Railway, branch of Russian Railways Corp.. Trains link Tomsk to Anapa, Asino, Barnaul, Bely Yar, Moscow, Novokuznetsk, Novosibirsk, Sochi, and Tayga.

Public transportation

The main part of inner-city and suburban transportation is provided by marshrutkas (routed taxis), mainly PAZ) minibuses, which serve about forty routes.

Additionally, the city has eleven proper bus routes, eight trolleybus lines (built in 1967), and five tram lines (constructed in 1949). Private taxis are also readily available.

Air transportation

Tomsk Bogashevo Airport is the airport serving the city. The airport is also served by charter flights operated by UTair and Alrosa Mirny Air Enterprise.

Education

Tomsk has a number of prominent institutions of higher education, including:

A large number of educational institutions in the city have contributed to making Tomsk a major center for Russia's IT industry. Tomsk was one of the first cities in Russia to gain access to the Internet, which became available in the early 1990s owing to grants received by universities and scientific cooperation.

Culture

Tomsk Museum for Regional Studies and the Organ Hall of the Philharmonic Tomsk Lenin 75.jpg
Tomsk Museum for Regional Studies and the Organ Hall of the Philharmonic
Example of wood carving in Tomsk wooden architecture Shishkov House Window Carving.jpg
Example of wood carving in Tomsk wooden architecture

Tomsk has many local cultural institutions including several drama theaters as well as a children's theater and a puppet theater. Major concert venues in the city include the Conservatory Concert hall and the Tomsk Palace of Sport. The city also boasts cultural centers dedicated to German, Polish and Tatar languages and culture.

One of the city's prominent theaters was destroyed in an act of terrorism in 1905. The Korolevsky Theater (built in 1884–85) was being used by a group of communist revolutionaries when the theater was attacked and set on fire by members of the Black Hundred, a hard-line nationalist organization. Those who escaped the flames were gunned down by Black Hundred members waiting outside the theater. Estimates put the number of casualties between 200 and 1000.[ citation needed ]

There are a number of museums in Tomsk devoted to various subjects, most notably art, local history and wood carving. There is also a Museum of Oppression, housed in a former KGB dungeon. Tomsk State University has a number of small museums with exhibits on archaeology, paleontology, zoology, as well as a herbarium and a botanical garden

As in many other cities in the former Soviet Union, the revolutionary government destroyed a number of old churches in the city including two that had existed since the 17th century. However, Tomsk managed to save some of its churches by transforming them into machine shops, warehouses, archives, and even residential buildings. Since the end of the communist era some of the churches have been renovated and returned to their congregations.

Tomsk is well known for its intricate "gingerbread" decoration of traditional wooden houses in the area. However, the number of old homes in this style is decreasing due to redevelopment or some of them catching fire, as the structures have little to no fire protection.

Trud (Labor) Stadium, in central Tomsk is the base for matches with the FC Tom Tomsk, the city's professional football club. The team's 2004 promotion to the Russian Premier League gave local fans a chance to see some of the nation's best teams play at the city's own stadium.

Tomsk has many local media outlets including the TV2 (Tomsk)  [ ru ] television station, shut down by the authorities and turned into an internet TV medium, [21] the radio stations Radio Siberia and Echo of Moscow in Tomsk along with several newspapers ( Tomskaya Nedelya, Krasnoye Znamya and Vechernii Tomsk ).

In April 2006 Tomsk received international media attention as the venue of a major summit on economic cooperation, held in the city between Russian President Vladimir Putin and German Chancellor Angela Merkel.

Tomsk was the name given by children's author Elizabeth Beresford to one of her fictional characters The Wombles, all of whom are named after places.

Notable people

International relations

Tomsk is the only non-capital member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21.

Twin towns and sister cities

Tomsk is twinned with:

See also

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Teguldetsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the sixteen in Tomsk Oblast, Russia. It is located in the east of the oblast and borders Verkhneketsky District in the north, Krasnoyarsk Krai in the east, Kemerovo Oblast in the south, and Zyryansky and Pervomaysky Districts in the west. The area of the district is 12,271.1 square kilometers (4,737.9 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Teguldet. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 6,937, with the population of Teguldet accounting for 63.2% of that number.

Tomsky District District in Tomsk Oblast, Russia

Tomsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the sixteen in Tomsk Oblast, Russia. It is located in the southeast of the oblast. The area of the district is 10,064.2 square kilometers (3,885.8 sq mi). Its administrative center is the city of Tomsk. Population: 68,652 ; 85,888 (2002 Census); 92,340 (1989 Census).

Verkhneketsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the sixteen in Tomsk Oblast, Russia. It is located in the northeast of the oblast. The area of the district is 43,348.9 square kilometers (16,737.1 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Bely Yar. Population: 17,052 ; 18,300 (2002 Census); 25,127 (1989 Census). The population of Bely Yar accounts for 46.9% of the district's total population.

Zyryansky District District in Tomsk Oblast, Russia

Zyryansky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the sixteen in Tomsk Oblast, Russia. It is located in the east of the oblast. The area of the district is 3,966 square kilometers (1,531 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Zyryanskoye. Population: 13,179 ; 16,052 (2002 Census); 18,549 (1989 Census). The population of Zyryanskoye accounts for 42.7% of the district's total population.

References

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Law #271-OZ
  2. Дума города Томска (in Russian). Tomsk City Duma. Retrieved 28 May 2015.
  3. Мэр города (in Russian). Tomsk official web portal. Retrieved 28 May 2015.
  4. Official website of the City of Tomsk. Structure of the Territory's Economy Archived June 29, 2008, at the Wayback Machine (in Russian)
  5. 1 2 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  6. "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  7. 1 2 3 Law #238-OZ
  8. Law #241-OZ
  9. "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). 3 June 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  10. Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  11. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (21 May 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000](XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  12. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 via Demoscope Weekly.
  13. A Geography of Russia and Its Neighbors ISBN   978-1-606-23933-9 p. 398
  14. Хахалкин А.А. "Томская Хроника XVII—XVIII вв". Хронос. Всемирная история в Интернете. Archived from the original on February 2, 2012. Retrieved 2015-09-25. 1603.12. - 1604.01. Поездка Тояна в Москву. Тоян подал челобитную царю Борису Годунову с просьбой принять его со всеми 'томскими людьми под высокую государеву руку'. [December 1603 to January 1604: Toyan's visit to Moscow. Toyan swore homage to Tsar Boris Godunov, requesting him to take himself and all 'the people of the Tom under his Lordship's protection'.]
  15. 1 2 3 4 General Information about Tomsk, Kommersant Daily Archived February 7, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  16. Stewart, Will (December 6, 2009). "Were Russian security services behind the leak of 'Climategate' emails?". Daily Mail . Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  17. Погода и климат - Климат Томска (Weather and climate - Climate of Tomsk)
  18. "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved 30 November 2015.
  19. "Tomsk Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved 30 November 2015.
  20. "Official Portal of «The city of Tomsk»". en.admin.tomsk.ru. Retrieved January 1, 2018.
  21. "Томский телеканал ТВ2, закрытый властями, работает в Интернете" (in Russian). Voise of America. 14 February 2015. Retrieved 29 October 2015.

Sources