|Coat of Arms|
Location in the State of Jalisco
|Metropolitan Area||Guadalajara Metropolitan Area|
|Mayor||Jorge Arana Arana (2012–2015)|
|City Area||119.6 km²|
|Metro Area||500 km²|
|City Population (2005)||374,258 city; 408,729 municipality|
|Metro Population (2005)||4,095,853 (Rank 2)|
|Time Zone||CST (UTC−6)|
|• Summer||CDT (UTC−5)|
|Area Code||+52 (Mexico) / +33 (Jalisco)|
|Website – H. Ayuntamiento de Tonalá|
Tonalá (Spanish pronunciation: [tonaˈla] ) is a city and municipality within the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area in the state of Jalisco in Mexico. With a population of 374,258, it is the fourth largest city in the state, the other three being the other major population centres in the metro area: Guadalajara, Zapopan, and Tlaquepaque. It is best known as a major handcrafts center for Jalisco, especially pottery, as well as its very large Thursday and Sunday street market, dedicated to handcrafts.
The “municipal palace” or local government building is distinguished by its clock tower and arches, which are decorated in ceramic tiles in traditional motifs.There are also ceramic murals created by Salvador Vázquez and Francisco Basulto. In 2013, the local government opened an exhibition hall and museum in the building called the Tonalá Puebla-Museo, to promote local handcrafts, arts and culture.
The main church for the city is the Santiago Apostol Parish. Constructed in the 16th century, it is the second oldest standing church in the Valley of Atemajac. It is best known as the site of the masked Dance of the Tastoanes, performed in honor of Saint James on July 25.The atrium of the church as a monument to Pius IX, created in 1887. The facade of the church is of sandstone; the sides have buttresses decorated in vegetative motifs and one side has a medallion with an anagram and the date of March 24, 1813 and lion gargoyles. The main entrance is flanked by pilasters that support a frieze. Above this is the choir window framed in vegetation in relief topped by a niche. There is a single bell tower with two levels. The interior consists of three naves and vaulted ceiling, with a Neo Classical main altar.
Capilla de la Cruz Blanca (White Cross Chapel) is where the first mass in western Mexico was said in 1530 by Franciscan friars. The exterior is sober, made of stone and the facade has two small bell towers. The interior contains murals that represent the native flora and fauna of the area. The Santuario del Sagrado Corazón (Sacred Heart Sanctuary) was built in the 19th century in Gothic style over what was the Nuestra Señora de la Soledad Hospital. The interior feature a very large oil painting of “Via Crucis” depicting the stations of the cross.The San Gaspar Parish dates from the 16th century, named in honor of one of the Three Kings. Another 16th-century parish is Purisima Concepción.
Main cultural centers are the Museo Nacional de la Cerámica,the Casa de Artesanos and the Museo Tonallan. The Museo Nacional de la Cerámica is mostly dedicated to Jalisco ceramics, especially that of Tonalá. There are halls dedicated to ceramics from other parts of the country as well as a hall dedicated to miniatures. The museum has a collection of about 500 pieces from the pre Hispanic period to contemporary winners of various competitions. It was founded in 1986, by a group of businessmen along with artisans Jorge Wilmot and Ken Edwards in Wilmot's former home. The initial collection came from the Instituto Nacional Indigenista (National Indigenous Institute), which has been since augmented by winners from the Certamen Estatal de la Cerámica (Jalisco State Ceramic Contest). The Museum closed for a year in 1995 but has been open since 1996 despite financial problems. Most pieces arebruñido, bandera, petatillo and canelo, the most common types produced in Tonalá.
The Tonallán Museum contains exhibits related to the municipality's history, dances such as the Tastoanes and handcrafts from the pre Hispanic era to the present.It has three halls, one dedicated to painting, sculpture and handcrafts/folk art, another to archeology and traditional ceramics and the last to the Tastoanes dance. It also offers interactive workshops for schools in pottery.
The Tonalá Regional Museum is in a rustic adobe building. It hosts temporary exhibits by artists and artisans of the region.
One other cultural institution is the Casa de Artesanos. It has various areas that sell the area's handcrafts including the Casa de los Artesanos, which is noted for its murals and a permanent collection of the best of the town's work.
Overlooking the town is the Cerro de la Reina (Queen's Hill), named after the last indigenous ruler of Tonalá, Cihualpilli. At its summit, there is a monument to her, a chapel dedicated to the Virgin of Guadalupe and a flagpole holding Jalisco's highest Mexican flag, the sixth highest in the country. The hill was originally site for the queen's home.
One of the most important popular festivals is the Fiestas de Sol (Sun Festivals) which occurs in the first half of April. It features artisans from all over Jalisco along with traditional dance, food, parades, the election of a queen, cultural and musical events and more.The Festival of Santa Cruz occurs in May and is marked by processions in each of the city's neighborhoods, centered on the carrying of a cross. Saint James, the patron of the city, is celebrated on July 25. This event is distinguished by the dance of the matachines and the Tastoanes, done only here. The Tastoanes dance symbolized the battles between the indigenous and the conquistadors in the 16th century. One of the main characters is Saint James himself, who according to tradition appeared during the fight to help the Spanish. The municipality hosts the annual Concurso Nacional de la Cerámica, with a purse of about 600,000 pesos for original ceramic pieces. The event attracts artisans from Michoacán, Oaxaca, Chihuahua, the State of Mexico and Jalisco. It is sponsored by the Instituto de la Artesania Jalisciense and the Fondo Nacional para el Fomento de las Artesanías.
The city of Tonalá functions as the local government for 58 other communities, which cover a territory of 119.58km2.It is bordered by the municipalities of Zapotlanejo, El Salto, Juanacatlán, Tlaquepaque and Guadalajara. The city is the largest community with a population of 408,759, followed by Puente Grande(5,664), Coyula(29,674), Centro de Readaptación Social(13,071) and La Punta(4,889).(2010 figures). The municipal government consists of a president, eleven representatives and a syndic, which are elected every three years.
Outside of the municipal seat, important landmarks include the Santa Cruz de las Huertas Church, the parishes of Coyula and Tololotlán, all in colonial style, the main bridge over the Santiago River, the Garita del Puente Grande from the 18th century and the former Arroyo de Emmedio hacienda.
The name comes from the Nahuatl phrase Tonallán, which means "Where the Sun rises".The town approved its seal (coat of arms) in 1985, designed by Rogelio Contreras Colina.
The town started as a Zapotec settlement [ citation needed ], which latter incorporated Toltec and Nahua migrants, leading to a blending of cultures. Another influence were the nomadic Cocos and Tecuexes, who also lived in the area. Religious practice focused on gods such as Teoplizintli (child god), Heri (sciences) and Nayart (god of war), along with Tenaguachi and Tezcatipoca.
During the Salitre War in 1510, the Purépecha invaded the area, which at that time was a dominion, however, this effort was defeated.
When the Nuño de Guzmán and Spanish arrived in 1530, the town was the capital of a dominion ruled by a woman named Cihualpilli Tzapotzinco. This dominion included Tlaquepaque, Tololotlán, Coyolán, Mexquitán, Tzalatitán, Atemajac, Tetlán, Tateposco, Tlaxomulco, Cuescomatitán, Coyutlán and Toluquilla as tribute paying entities.
The leaders of the dominion were divided on how to respond to the foreigners Cihualpilli did not want to resist, due to Spanish power, but local leaders, notably those from Coyolan, Ichcatán, Tzalatitán, and Tetlán wanted to resist. Cihualpilli sent gifts to Guzmán, who not only demanded more, but also demanded allegiance to the Spanish king. Dissidents gathered numbering about 3,000 and attacked the Spanish. This began a battle that lasted several hours, with a Spanish victory on March 25, 1530. Cihualpilli was baptized with the name Juana Bautista. The territory was renamed Nueva Galicia and the town Santiago de Tonalá.
The new province was initially governed by Diego Vazquez Buendia and remained the main settlement in the area until the founding of Guadalajara in 1535. Evangelization was carried out by the Franciscans and the Augustinians until the early 17th century.
In 1824, the Tonalá became one of the twenty six departments of Jalisco, officially named a town, then in the same year became subordinate to Zapotlanejo. Through the rest of the 19th century, its status changed and was unclear, mentioned as a municipality in a decree in 1873 but declared subordinate to Zapotlanejo and San Pedro in 1889.
Tonalá is rated as having a very low level of socio-economic marginalization. Overall, the main sources of employment for the municipality include handcrafts, tourism, transportation, commerce and administration. Forty three percent work in commerce and services, 32% in handcrafts and other industries, and 21% in administrative and professional services. Less than one percent work in agriculture.
The most visible economic activity is handcrafts, especially pottery. It is a major center for this activity in Jalisco, along with Tlaquepaque.The town has been a ceramics center since the pre Hispanic period. The variety include traditional Jalisco varieties from the colonial period such as bruñido, petatillo, bandera, canelo, betus and even bruñido with applications of gold leaf. In the 1970s, Ken Edwards and Jorge Wilmot introduced stone ware and high fire ceramics to Tonalá. Ceramic pieces include plates, platters, jars, cantaros, cooking pots, flower pots, flower vases, miniatures and other kinds of decorative pieces. One popular design motif in Tonalá ceramics is called the Flor de Tonalá (Tonalá flower), which is an oval center with rounded petals.
A number of other handcrafted items are made in Tonalá as well, with blown glass coming second after ceramics. Others include ironwork, woodworking, especially furniture, cartonería (animals, clowns and dolls), tin and brass objects.
The handcrafts business means ups and downs for the municipality, depending on the market. For example, many businesses closed and other reduced operations when there are economic recessions in either Mexico or the US as 80% of exports go to the latter country. Another issue is the importation of cheaper and similar Asian products.
Unlike Tlaquepaque, the town of Tonalá has not been geared for tourists in the sense of hotels, restaurant and scenic streets.Despite this, it received thousands of visitors each week, most drawn by the street market or “tianguis” that is set up each Thursday and Sunday. This market is centered on the town main road for about a kilometer, and spills into adjoining side streets. This market can have from between 3,500 and 4,000 vendors, especially during the Christmas and Holy Week holidays when tourism is highest in Mexico.
Aside from handcrafts, commerce is mostly limited to basic needs, with 1,000 small grocery stores, 128 butcher shops, and 142 businesses selling produce. There are also eleven municipal markets and thirty nine other tianguis markets. Agriculture is done on small-scale, raising corn, sorghum, vegetables, dairy cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, domestic fowl and bees. There is also some fish farming and mining for sand, gravel, marble and construction stone.
|1954-31/12/1955||J. Jesús Álvarez Pérez||PRI|
|01/01/1956-31/12/1958||Nicolás Gabriel Parra||PRI|
|01/01/1959-31/12/1961||Brígido Sandoval Ramos||PRI|
|01/01/1962-31/12/1964||Isidoro Ramos Bautista||PRI|
|01/01/1965-31/12/1967||Pascual Aldana Martínez||PRI|
|01/01/1968-31/12/1970||Francisco Hernández Langarica||PRI|
|01/01/1971-31/12/1973||Francisco Oliva Lemus||PRI|
|01/01/1974-31/12/1976||Pascual Cecilio Aldana González||PRI|
|01/01/1977-31/12/1979||Hilario Puga Decenas||PRI|
|01/01/1980-31/12/1982||Juan Coral Vega||PRI|
|01/01/1983-31/12/1985||Marcos Arana Cervantes||PRI|
|01/01/1986-31/12/1988||Melquiades Preciado Partida||PRI|
|1989-1992||Vidal Maestro Murguía||PRI|
|1992-1995||J. Timoteo Campechano Silva||PRI|
|1995-1997||Felipe Jarero Escobedo||PAN|
|1997||Guillermo López Mateos||PAN||Acting Mayor|
|1997||Angelita García Beato||PAN||Acting Mayor|
|01/01/1998-2000||Jorge Arana Arana||PRI|
|2000-31/12/2000||Juan Lara Lucano||PRI||Acting Mayor|
|01/01/2001-31/12/2003||Vicente Vargas López||PRI|
|01/01/2004-31/12/2006||Palemón García Real||PRI|
|01/01/2007-2007||Jorge Luis Vizcarra Mayorga||PAN||His political immunity was removed|
|2007-03/09/2009||Emanuel Agustín Ordóñez Hernández||PAN||Acting Mayor|
|04/09/2009-31/12/2009||Jorge Luis Vizcarra Mayorga||PAN||Resumed|
|01/01/2010-30/09/2012||Juan Antonio Mateos Nuño||PRI|
|01/10/2012-30/09/2015||Jorge Arana Arana||PRI|
|01/10/2015-30/09/2018||Sergio Armando Chávez Dávalos||PRI|
|01/10/2018-||Juan Antonio González Mora||MC|
The municipality is located in the eastern part of the state. With an average altitude of 1.500 meters above sea level, the territory has three kinds of relief: areas of rugged terrain, semi flat and flat areas. The main elevations are the Cerro Cúpula de la Reina, and Xólotl, both 1,720 meters above sea level.
The climate is semi dry with the driest months in the winter and spring. It is semi-warm without a well-defined winter with about six days a year with temperatures at freezing or below. Most of the annual rainfall, 900mm, falls between July and October. Dominant winds are from the east.
The main river is the Santiago originally called the Cichnahuay, which flows in the west and north of the territory. Tributary streams include the Popul, Las Jicamas and Agua Amarilla, all located in the east of the municipality. There are also dams called La Rusia, De Sermeño and El Ocotillo, with the Colimilla on the Santiago River itself.The Santiago River carves one of the main natural attractions of the municipality, the Colimilla Ravine. The municipal has also been known for thermal springs, said to have curative powers, since the colonial period. The main thermal spring today are those of Agua Caliente.
The municipality contains 420 hectares of forest that contains mostly huizache, mesquite, holm oak and oak.Most of the vegetation is deciduous, with leaves falling during the dry season and scrub plants.
Wildlife is mostly limited to the ravines and include various rodents, skunks, deer, wildcats, armadillos, opossums and various bird species.
Ninety seven percent of the population lives in urban areas, with a population density of just over 4,000 people per square km. Population growth from 2005 to 2010 was 3.45%, down from 7.2% the previous five years. As of 2010 only 3,389 people spoke an indigenous language, mostly Nahuatl. Just over 90% of the population is Roman Catholic. Most of the rest are Protestant or profess no religion.
The municipality has 145 pre-schools, 166 primary schools, 41 middle schools, eighteen high/vocational schools, one special education center and two continuing educational centers. About 60 percent of the population has finished primary school and 3,36% are illiterate.
In 2012 the Centro Universitario de Tonalá was opened as part of the Universidad de Guadalajara.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tonalá, Jalisco .|
Tlaquepaque, historically San Pedro Tlaquepaque, is a city and the surrounding municipality in the Mexican state of Jalisco.
A tianguis is an open-air market or bazaar that is traditionally held on certain market days in a town or city neighborhood in Mexico and Central America. This bazaar tradition has its roots well into the pre-Hispanic period and continues in many cases essentially unchanged into the present day. The word tianguis comes from tiyānquiztli in Classical Nahuatl, the language of the Aztec Empire. In rural areas, many traditional types of merchandise are still sold, such as agriculture supplies and products as well as modern, mass-produced goods. In the cities, mass-produced goods are mostly sold, but the organization of tianguis events is mostly the same. There are also specialty tianguis events for holidays such as Christmas as well as for particular types of items such as cars or art.
The Guadalajara metropolitan area is the third populous metropolitan area of the Mexican state of Jalisco and the third largest in the country after Greater Mexico City. It includes the core municipality of Guadalajara and the surrounding municipalities of Zapopan, Tlaquepaque, Tonalá, Tlajomulco de Zúñiga, El Salto, Ixtlahuacán de los Membrillos and Juanacatlán.
Zapotlanejo is a town and municipality in the Mexican state of Jalisco.
Jalisco, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Jalisco is one of the 32 states which comprise the Federal Entities of Mexico. It is located in Western Mexico and is bordered by six states which are Nayarit, Zacatecas, Aguascalientes, Guanajuato, Michoacán, and Colima. Jalisco is divided into 125 municipalities, and its capital city is Guadalajara.
San Bartolo Coyotepec is a town and municipality located in the center of the Mexican state of Oaxaca. It is in the Centro District of the Valles Centrales region about fifteen km south of the capital of Oaxaca.
Ceramics in Mexico date back thousands of years before the Pre-Columbian period, when ceramic arts and pottery crafts developed with the first advanced civilizations and cultures of Mesoamerica. With one exception, pre-Hispanic wares were not glazed, but rather burnished and painted with colored fine clay slips. The potter's wheel was unknown as well; pieces were shaped by molding, coiling and other methods.
Jorge Wilmot was one of the most distinguished artisans of Mexico, and has been credited with the introduction of stoneware and other high fire techniques to the country. His work is also known for its more austere, Oriental-inspired designs blended with Mexican motifs. His work has been widely sold and exhibited both in Mexico and abroad and he has trained and influenced generations of ceramicists at the school he established in Tonalá, Jalisco.
Museo Universitario de Artes Populares María Teresa Pomar is a museum dedicated to Mexico's handcrafts and folk art tradition, called “artesanía.” It is part of the University of Colima in the city of Colima, founded by artesanía collector and promoter María Terea Pomar. It contains one of the most important collections of its type in Mexico, covering traditions from around the country as well as the artesanía and traditions of the state of Colima.
The Museo Regional de la Cerámica in Tlaquepaque, Jalisco, Mexico is located on Independencia Street in the center of the city. The museum is one of two main ceramics museums in the city, with the other being the Pantaleon Panduro Museum. It was established in 1954 to preserve and promote indigenous handcrafts of Jalisco, especially the state’s ceramic tradition. The emphasis is still on ceramics but the museum also has a room dedicated to Huichol art and holds events related to various types of indigenous crafts and culture.
Alejandro Rangel Hidalgo (1923-2000) was a Mexican artist, graphic designer and artisan best known for his series of Christmas cards produced for UNICEF in the 1960s, as well as known in Mexico for his furniture designs and promotion of traditional handcrafts. Rangel lived and worked during his life at his childhood home called Nogueras Hacienda. When he died, he donated the property and his large collection of Western Mexico shaft tomb tradition ceramics to University of Colima, which converted into a research center, which includes a museum dedicated to Rangel's works and collections.
Ceramics of Jalisco, Mexico has a history that extends far back in the pre Hispanic period, but modern production is the result of techniques introduced by the Spanish during the colonial period and the introduction of high-fire production in the 1950s and 1960s by Jorge Wilmot and Ken Edwards. Today various types of traditional ceramics such as bruñido, canelo and petatillo are still made, along with high fire types like stoneware, with traditional and nontraditional decorative motifs. The two main ceramics centers are Tlaquepaque and Tonalá, with a wide variety of products such as cookware, plates, bowls, piggy banks and many types of figures.
The pottery of Metepec is that of a municipality in central Mexico, located near Mexico City. It is noted for durable utilitarian items but more noted for its decorative and ritual items, especially sculptures called “trees of life,” decorative plaques in sun and moon shapes and mermaid like figures called Tlanchanas. Metepec potters such as the Soteno family have won national and international recognition for their work and the town hosts the annual Concurso Nacional de Alfarería y Cerámica.
Salvador Vázquez Carmona is a Mexican potter from the crafts town of Tonalá, Jalisco, who specializes in a regional ceramic style called bruñido. He has been called the best artisan in Tonalá and has trained a number of other notable potters.
Nicasio Pajarito Gonzalez is a Mexican potter from Tonalá, Jalisco known for his canelo ware.
Oaxaca handcrafts and folk art is one of Mexico's important regional traditions of its kind, distinguished by both its overall quality and variety. Producing goods for trade has been an important economic activity in the state, especially in the Central Valleys region since the pre-Hispanic era which the area laid on the trade route between central Mexico and Central America. In the colonial period, the Spanish introduced new raw materials, new techniques and products but the rise of industrially produced products lowered the demand for most handcrafts by the early 20th century. The introduction of highways in the middle part of the century brought tourism to the region and with it a new market for traditional handcrafts. Today, the state boasts the largest number of working artisans in Mexico, producing a wide range of products that continue to grow and evolve to meet changing tastes in the market.
Handcrafts and folk art in Mexico City is a microcosm of handcraft production in most of the rest of country. One reason for this is that the city has attracted migration from other parts of Mexico, bringing these crafts. The most important handcraft in the city is the working of a hard paper mache called cartonería, used to make piñatas and other items related to various annual celebrations. It is also used to make fantastic creatures called alebrijes, which originated here in the 20th century. While there are handcrafts made in the city, the capital is better known for selling and promoting crafts from other parts of the country, both fine, very traditional wares and inexpensive curio types, in outlets from fine shops to street markets.
The Mexican State of Mexico produces various kinds of handcrafted items. While not as well documented as the work of other states, it does produce a number of notable items from the pottery of Metepec, the silverwork of the Mazahua people and various textiles including handwoven serapes and rebozos and knotted rugs. There are seventeen recognized handcraft traditions in the state, and include both those with pre Hispanic origins to those brought over by the Spanish after the Conquest. As the state industrializes and competition from cheaper goods increases, handcraft production has diminished. However, there are a number of efforts by state agencies to promote these traditions both inside and outside of Mexico.
Jalisco handcrafts and folk art are noted among Mexican handcraft traditions. The state is one of the main producers of handcrafts, which are noted for quality. The main handcraft tradition is ceramics, which has produced a number of known ceramicists, including Jorge Wilmot, who introduced high fire work into the state. In addition to ceramics, the state also makes blown glass, textiles, wood furniture including the equipal chair, baskets, metal items, piteado and Huichol art.