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Tondero is a dance and guitar rhythm from Peru that developed in the country's northern coastal region (Piura – Lambayeque).
The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that usually has six strings. It is typically played with both hands by strumming or plucking the strings with either a guitar pick or the finger(s)/fingernails of one hand, while simultaneously fretting with the fingers of the other hand. The sound of the vibrating strings is projected either acoustically, by means of the hollow chamber of the guitar, or through an electrical amplifier and a speaker.
Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river.
The Tondero is a Peruvian dance and rhythm born in the north coast adjacent to the eastern valleys of the Sierra or "yungas" of Piura, Sechura and Lambayeque. The oldest version is from the Morropón Province, approximately the center of Piura's region, below the highlands and inland from the coast.
Sechura is a city in northwestern Peru, 50 km south of Piura. It is the capital of Sechura Province in the Piura Region. The city borrows its name to the Sechura Desert, which extends south along most of coastal Peru. Crescent dunes lie south of the city, between the sea and the highway.
The Morropón Province is one of eight provinces of the Piura Region in Peru. The province was created in 1936. Its administrative center is in the town of Chulucanas.
The classical version consists of a principal singer, a small chorus, two Criollo style guitar players (one picking up the tundete or tondero bass line); the "Peruvian cajon" (now used in Latin American commercial rhythms), modern flamenco and evolutionary jazz, and/or Peruvian spoon players. It may be accompanied by palms or an Afro-Peruvian instrument made of dried and flattened pumpkins called checo.
A choir is a musical ensemble of singers. Choral music, in turn, is the music written specifically for such an ensemble to perform. Choirs may perform music from the classical music repertoire, which spans from the medieval era to the present, or popular music repertoire. Most choirs are led by a conductor, who leads the performances with arm and face gestures.
Creole people are ethnic groups which originated during the colonial-era from racial mixing between Europeans and non-European peoples, known as creolisation. These groups are typically descended from White Western European colonial settlers, West Africans, Haitians and indigenous peoples of the Americas, Africa, and Asia. Creole peoples vary widely in ethnic background and mixture, and many have since developed distinct ethnic identities. The development of creole languages is sometimes mistakenly attributed to the emergence of creole ethnic identities; however, they are independent developments.
Flamenco, in its strictest sense, is a professionalized art-form based on the various folkloric music traditions of southern Spain in the autonomous communities of Andalusia, Extremadura and Murcia. In a wider sense, it refers to these musical traditions and more modern musical styles which have themselves been deeply influenced by and become blurred with the development of flamenco over the past two centuries. It includes cante (singing), toque, baile (dance), jaleo, palmas (handclapping) and pitos.
It is also played by trumpet and drum bands.
It is composed of three parts: 1) glosa 2) dulce and 3) fuga.
In its choreography and its music, the tondero is very similar to the marinera, Perú's national dance, and the marinera norteña, the version of the marinera popular in the northern part of Perú—roughly the area around Trujillo and Piura. All of these dances ultimately stem from what had been cultivated in Perú by Spanish horsemen of Romani origin, then modified by African slaves. The terminology of "Tondero" derives from the terms Volandero, and Volero (to fly by, describes the gypsy errant and caravanistic life) yet it eventually evolved into a "T", as to describe the tundete sound and base rhythm typical to it: "Bum Bum Bum". This base rhythm derives from trumpeting Csárdás yet carefully scales on guitar and the dance handfigures and movements are primitive bulerías. The cock fight so popular among Gypsies worldwide is where the dance gets its choreography and inspiration.
The Romani, colloquially known as Gypsies or Roma, are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group, traditionally itinerant, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, and Punjab regions of modern-day India.
Csárdás, often seen as Czárdás, is a traditional Hungarian folk dance, the name derived from csárda. It originated in Hungary and was popularized by Romani music (Cigány) bands in Hungary and neighboring lands of Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Burgenland, Croatia, Ukraine, Russia, Poland, Transylvania and Moravia, as well as among the Banat Bulgarians, including those in Bulgaria.
Bulería is a fast flamenco rhythm in 12 beats with emphasis in two general forms as follows:
However, as the years went on, the significance of African influence added to its Romani origin and so did the mingling of these with the native Amerindians.
Unlike the Zamacueca, which directly derives from Zambrainas and Hispano-African influences without Andean addings, the Tondero maintains a stronger Romani origin in its tragic lyrics with visible addings of African and America, Indian influence as time went by.
The Zamacueca is an ancient colonial dance and music that originated in the Viceroyalty of Peru, taking its roots from African, Spanish, and Andean rhythms. Although currently the dance is not widely popular, several dance institutions in places such as Peru still dedicate part of their time to teaching Zamacueca.
The dance expresses three themes, all inspired from the same emotion: the errant life of birds, cockfighting very common among Peruvians (Peruvian roosters are the largest and most aggressive) and lastly, the falling in love; between birds or between the macho stallion that battles to get the acceptance of the female, she flirts and doesn't let him conquer her until the end.
The prototype image of tondero and cumanana singers are the solitary mestizo or creole (northern Peruvian) farmers who stop and sing about their tragic hard life, their errant ways. Themes are usually tragic and somewhat picaresque, where one makes fun of one's tragedy. Typical topics are the loss of cattle, crops (due usually to El Niño phenomena) or the lament due to unrequited love from his "china" (dear woman).
The use of the handkerchief, as a symbolic element that relates to the flying of errant birds, has a possible Romani inheritance that belongs to the weddings and is also seen in coastal dances like Zamacueca Limeña, Resbalosa, Canto de Jarana or Marinera Norteña. All of the dances seem to have guitarra and cajón instruments as their principal instruments.
Figures of course represent cockfights and the stumps, body-waste movements and hand movements are done in gypsy musical style where flirting is done by the women, and the stud acts, and picaresque attitude called machismo , is done by the man.
Tondero is played by all coastal regions of the North; so there are styles from La Libertad, Lambayeque, Piura (the official region and origin of Tondero) and even Tumbes.
The "chinganas" (traditional creole music bars) has the popular costume of putting a "White Flags" as synonymous invitations for newcomers or solitary bohemian northmen "Piajenos" (how northern people call the typical farmers whom ride donkeys and mules) to come refresh themselves from the northern heat and have a "Chicha de Jora" drink. It is of course a great chance to listen to an old "Piajeno" farmer sing and play tondero rhythms, most typically of northern Lambayeque and southern Piura.
The cumananas and "Tristes" are somewhat like the tragic initial Zards or the Cante Jondo of Andalucia but in a mestizo flavour. After a few drinks of Pisco, Algarrobina or Chicha en poto come the "Cumanánas"; whom are coplas brought in "contra punto" style. They are sung in satiric and picaresque style but rooted always in a sad theme. The cumananas all surround the Tondero. Right before a tondero it is common to play cumanana and tristes. You can hear the resemblance to the yaraví (Andean song) mestizo in the guitar, gypsy Romani balads of eastern Europe or Spain in the form of song and then the explosive finish line or "tundete" of guitar: the rhythm of Tondero itself.
The most probable is that the term tondero derives from the term volero (flyer, birds that fly) or bolero and after years of changes to Tondero (with a t) as faster version based on Zards and Flamenco. The musical composition of guitarra has a resemblance to the order of those trumpet gypsy bands found in Romania or Hungary whom after tragic intro, flow as nomadic tunes.
So we have a caravan-like feeling, where rhythms of cajón resemble as if they were mules, donkeys or even horses from a caravan. The thumping noise is accompanied by the "Tundete of the guitarr" that sounds like Ton-Ton-Tun. That is why it probably changed into Tondero instead of Volero (Bolero); there is also a gypsy rhythm called Volandero.
The music resembles primitive "bulerías", "tangos" or zards yet played to the creative Peruvian cockfights, in the movements.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Peru, including population density, ethnicity, education level, the health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
The music of Latin America refers to music originating from Latin America, namely the Romance-speaking countries and territories of the Americas and the Caribbean south of the United States. Latin American music also incorporates African music from slaves who were transported to the Americas by European settlers as well as music from the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Due to its highly syncretic nature, Latin American music encompasses a wide variety of styles, including influential genres such as bachata, bossa nova, merengue, rumba, salsa, samba, son, and tango. During the 20th century, many styles were influenced by the music of the United States giving rise to genres such as Latin pop, rock, jazz, hip hop, and reggaeton.
The Music Of Peru is an amalgamation of sounds and styles drawing on Peru's Andean, Spanish, and African roots. Andean influences can perhaps be best heard in wind instruments and the shape of the melodies, while the African influences can be heard in the rhythm and percussion instruments, and European influences can be heard in the harmonies and stringed instruments. Pre-Columbian Andean music was played on drums and wind instruments, not unlike the European pipe and tabor tradition. Andean tritonic and pentatonic scales were elaborated during the colonial period into hexatonic, and in some cases, diatonic scales.
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A cajón is a box-shaped percussion instrument originally from Peru, played by slapping the front or rear faces with the hands, fingers, or sometimes implements such as brushes, mallets, or sticks. Cajones are primarily played in Afro-Peruvian music, but has made its way into flamenco as well. The term cajón is also applied to other box drums used in Latin American music, such as the Cuban cajón de rumba and the Mexican cajón de tapeo.
La Libertad is a region in northwestern Peru. Formerly it was known as the Department of La Libertad. It is bordered by the Lambayeque, Cajamarca and Amazonas regions on the north, the San Martín Region on the east, the Ancash and Huánuco regions on the south and the Pacific Ocean on the west. Its capital is Trujillo, which is the nation's third biggest city. The region's main port is Salaverry, one of Peru's largest ports. The name of the region is Spanish for "freedom" or "liberty"; it was named in honor of the Intendencia of Trujillo's proclaiming independence from Spain in 1820 and fighting for that.
Piura is a coastal region in northwestern Peru. The region's capital is Piura and its largest port cities, Paita and Talara, are also among the most important in Peru. The area is known for its tropical and dry beaches.
Afro-Peruvian music, or Música negra, is a type of Latin American music first developed by black slaves from West Africa in Peru, where it is known as música criolla. The genre is a mix of West African and Spanish music.
Cueca is a family of musical styles and associated dances from Chile, Argentina and Bolivia. In Chile, the cueca holds the status of national dance, where it was officially selected on September 18, 1979.
Música Criolla or Canción Criolla is a varied genre of Peruvian music that exhibits influences from African, European, and Andean music. The genre's name reflects the coastal culture of Peru, and the local evolution of the term criollo into a more socially inclusive element of the nation.
Marinera is a coastal dance of Peru. Marinera is a graceful and romantic couple's dance that uses handkerchiefs as props. The dance is an elegant and stylized reenactment of a courtship, and it shows a blend of the different cultures of Peru. The dance itself has gained a lot of recognition and is one of the most popular traditional dances of Peru. The city of Trujillo has been the national capital of this dance ever since the passage of law No. 24,447 on January 24, 1986. The Trujillo Marinera Festival has been held in Trujillo since the 1960s. In 2012, the Congress of the Peruvian Republic declared October 7 as Marinera Day in Trujillo City, which is celebrated with a parade and dance expressions.
Afro-Peruvians are citizens of Peru descended from Africans who were enslaved and brought to Peru after the arrival of the conquistadors.
Rumba flamenca, also known as flamenco rumba or simply rumba, is a palo (style) of flamenco music developed in Andalusia, Spain. It is known as one of the cantes de ida y vuelta, music which diverged in the new world, then returned to Spain in a new form. The genre originated in the 19th century in Andalusia, southern Spain, where Cuban music first reached the country.
Peruvian dances are primarily of native origin. There are also dances that are related to agricultural work, hunting and war. Peru takes dance very seriously. Some choreographies show certain Christian influence.
Peruvians are the citizens of the Republic of Peru or their descendants abroad. Peru is a multiethnic country formed by the combination of different groups over five centuries, so people in Peru usually treat their nationality as a citizenship rather than an ethnicity. Amerindians inhabited Peruvian territory for several millennia before Spanish Conquest in the 16th century; according to historian David N. Cook their population decreased from an estimated 5–9 million in the 1520s to around 600,000 in 1620 mainly because of infectious diseases. Spaniards and Africans arrived in large numbers under colonial rule, mixing widely with each other and with indigenous peoples. During the Republic, there has been a gradual immigration of European people. Japanese and Chinese arrived in large numbers at the end of nineteenth century.
The term gypsy style refers to the typical way East European music is played in coffeehouses and restaurants, at parties, and sometimes on-stage, in European cities. Music played in this style is known by the general public as "gypsy music".
Victoria Eugenia Santa Cruz Gamarra was an Afro-Peruvian choreographer, composer, and activist.