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Location in Mali
Coordinates: 16°0′43″N4°06′52″W / 16.01194°N 4.11444°W / 16.01194; -4.11444 Coordinates: 16°0′43″N4°06′52″W / 16.01194°N 4.11444°W / 16.01194; -4.11444
CountryFlag of Mali.svg  Mali
Region Tombouctou Region
Cercle Niafunké
Time zone GMT (UTC+0)

Tondidarou is a small town and megalithic archaeological site in Niafunké Cercle, Timbuktu Region, Mali, northwest of Niafunké, about 150 kilometres south-west of Timbuktu. [1] The site, located on the eastern bank of Lac Tagadji, was discovered by Jules Brévié in 1904 and is said to be "defined by three groups of stone megaliths", monoliths which are a "remarkable collection of phalliform stone monuments." [2] [3] Ancient Egypt in Africa refers to the site as "Diop's 'Egypt-influenced' phalliform stone circle of Tondidarou". [4] Eugene Maes was the first to seriously document the stones at Tondidarou in 1924. [5] It was extensively excavated in around 1980. [6] The site is dated to 670 - 790 AD.

Niafunké Cercle Cercle in Tombouctou Region, Mali

Niafunké Cercle is an administrative subdivision of the Tombouctou Region of Mali. The administrative center (chef-lieu) is the town of Niafunké. In the 2009 census the cercle had a population of 184,285. The Niger River runs for 100 km through the cercle.

Mali republic in West Africa

Mali, officially the Republic of Mali, is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton. Mali is the eighth-largest country in Africa, with an area of just over 1,240,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi). The population of Mali is 18 million. Its capital is Bamako. The sovereign state of Mali consists of eight regions and its borders on the north reach deep into the middle of the Sahara Desert, while the country's southern part, where the majority of inhabitants live, features the Niger and Senegal rivers. The country's economy centers on agriculture and mining. Some of Mali's prominent natural resources include gold, being the third largest producer of gold in the African continent, and salt.

Timbuktu City in Tombouctou Region, Mali

Timbuktu is an ancient city in Mali, situated 20 km (12 mi) north of the Niger River. The town is the capital of the Timbuktu Region, one of the eight administrative regions of Mali. It had a population of 54,453 in the 2009 census.

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Gao Urban commune and town in Mali

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Djinguereber Mosque

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Timbuktu Manuscripts historical documents from Mali

Timbuktu Manuscripts is a blanket term for the large number of historically important manuscripts that have been preserved for centuries in private households in Timbuktu, Mali. The collections include manuscripts about art, medicine, philosophy, and science, as well as copies of the Quran. The number of manuscripts in the collections has been estimated as high as 700,000.

Ghana Empire former country

The Ghana Empire, properly known as Wagadou, was a West African empire located in the area of present-day southeastern Mauritania and western Mali. Complex societies based on trans-Saharan trade with salt and gold had existed in the region since ancient times, but the introduction of the camel to the western Sahara in the 3rd century CE opened the way to great changes in the area that became the Ghana Empire. By the time of the Muslim conquest of North Africa in the 7th century the camel had changed the ancient, more irregular trade routes into a trade network running from Morocco to the Niger river. The Ghana Empire grew rich from this increased trans-Saharan trade in gold and salt, allowing for larger urban centres to develop. The traffic furthermore encouraged territorial expansion to gain control over the different trade routes.

Ali Farka Touré Malian musician

Ali Ibrahim "Ali Farka" Touré was a Malian singer and multi-instrumentalist, and one of the African continent's most internationally renowned musicians. His music is widely regarded as representing a point of intersection of traditional Malian music and its North American cousin, the blues. The belief that the latter is historically derived from the former is reflected in Martin Scorsese's often quoted characterization of Touré's tradition as constituting "the DNA of the blues". Touré was ranked number 76 on Rolling Stone's list of "The 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time" and number 37 on Spin magazine's "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time".

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Dr. Téréba Togola (1948–2005) was a Malian archaeologist from Sikasso. He participated in the country's first national inventory of its archaeological sites.

Kawinza Village in Tombouctou, Mali

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Tissalaten in Tombouctou, Mali

Tissalaten is an archaeological site in Niafunké Cercle, Timbuktu Region, Mali, not far from Lake Soumpi. It was excavated extensively in the 1980s by Téréba Togola, Michael Rainbault and Roderick and Susan McIntosh. They discovered tumuli here in 1986. dated to 1030 - 1220 AD.

Toyla in Tombouctou, Mali

Toyla is an archaeological site in Diré Cercle, Timbuktu Region, Mali, southeast of Goundam, towards Diré. It was excavated extensively in the 1980s by Téréba Togola, Michael Rainbault and Roderick and Susan McIntosh. They discovered tumuli here in 1986, dated to 880 - 990 AD.

History of Timbuktu

The following is a history of the city of Timbuktu, Mali.

Fall of Timbuktu (2012)

The Fall of Timbuktu took place during the war in northern Mali. This is one of the first clashes between the MNLA and Ansar Dine.


  1. Mokhtar, G. (1981). General History of Africa: Ancient civilizations of Africa. UNESCO. p. 523. ISBN   978-92-3-101708-7 . Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  2. Sottas, Beat (1997). Forum suisse des africanistes. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 69. ISBN   978-3-8258-3506-4 . Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  3. Ki-Zerbo, Joseph (1981). General History of Africa: Methodology and African prehistory. UNESCO. p. 630. ISBN   978-92-3-101707-0 . Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  4. O'Connor, David; Reid, Andrew (August 2003). Ancient Egypt in Africa. Cavendish Publishing. p. 104. ISBN   978-1-84314-758-9 . Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  5. Smithsonian Institution. Libraries. National Museum of African Art Branch (1989). The arts of Africa: an annotated bibliography. African Studies Association. p. 128. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  6. Fage, J. D. (1 February 1979). The Cambridge History of Africa: From c. 500 B.C. to A.D. 1050. Cambridge University Press. p. 341. ISBN   978-0-521-21592-3 . Retrieved 12 July 2012.

Further reading