Tondo Conspiracy

Last updated

The Tondo Conspiracy of 1587–1588, popularly known as the Conspiracy of the Maharlikas (Spanish: La Conspiración de las Maharlikas), also known as the Revolt of the Lakans, was a revolt planned by Tagalog nobles known as maharlikas, led by Don Agustin de Legazpi of Tondo and his cousin Martin Pangan, to overthrow the Spanish government in the Philippines due to injustices against the Filipinos. [1] It was territorially one of the largest conspiracies against the Spanish rule next to the Katipunan. It ranged from provinces near Manila all the way to the Calamianes Islands near Palawan. [2]


Legazpi sought help from a Japanese sea captain named Juan Gayo and asked for arms and warriors to fight alongside them in exchange for one-half of the tributes collected in the Philippines. [1] They also requested help from places such as Borneo, Laguna, and Batangas with a plan to assault the city of Manila and assassinate the Spaniards. However, their plan was discovered by the Spaniards when Magat Salamat revealed their plan to fellow rebel Antonio Surabao, who turned out to be a traitor when he reported the conspiracy to the Spaniards. Consequently, the rebels associated with the conspiracy were punished, with some being put to death and others being exiled. The plot against the Spaniards died alongside them.


Cause for the revolt

Numerous datus were not in favor of the Spanish rule as they had conflicting interests with regard to authority and freedom. An instance of such is the waning obedience of the slaves to the datus. This was brought about by the initiatives of the Spaniards to abolish slavery in hopes of shifting the slaves' allegiance from the datus to the kingly Spaniards. Furthermore, this elimination of slavery had institutionalized how the slaves were obligated to pay their tributes to the Spaniards instead of the datus. They had been reduced to vassalage, thus the plan of rebellion of the datus against the Spaniards. [3]


Martin Pangan, who was accused of adultery, Agustin de Legazpi, who was accused of not paying fees as governor of Tondo, Gabriel Tuambasan, and Pitonggatan all met in jail, where they made a pact of the datus to aid each other in times of need and hardship. They also made a pact to stand united against the Spaniards, though they did not know in which manner yet.

After they got out of jail, Martin Pangan (who was exiled from Tondo) went to live in a village in Tambobong, Navotas (known today as Malabon), where he, along with Legazpi, planned a secret meeting. They reached out to the datus of Pandacan, Navotas, Taguig, Maysilo, Catangalan, and many others in the Manila area and of nearby provinces such as Candaba, Pampanga who had been thinking of starting an uprising for quite some time then. With a pseudo reason of visiting their dear friend Pangan, arrived Agustin Manuguit and his father Felipe Salalila (chief from Maysilo), Magat Salamat (chief of Tondo), Pedro Balinguit (chief from Pandacan), Geronimo Basi and Gabriel Tuambasan (Legazpi's brothers), Luis Amanicalao and his son Calao, Dionisio Capolo (chief of Candaba) and his brother Felipe Salonga (chief of Polo), Felipe Amarlangagui (chief of Catangalan), Francisco Acta (another chief from Tondo), and Omaghicon (chief of Navotas). Timawas, servants, and other allies were also invited to the secret meeting. [3]

Planning of the conspiracy

All conspirators went planning for three days, pretending to be merely celebrating and drinking as they were keeping their planning under the covers. As they recalled the good old times before the Spanish conquest, they had strengthened their unified bond. Subsequently, they agreed that they would always protect each other and if the Spaniards' initiatives toward the freedom of the datus' slaves were reinforced, they would unite in preventing this to come into fruition. [3]

Involved foreign parties

Legazpi told his co-conspirators that he knew a Japanese captain of a trading boat named Juan Gayo, whom he frequently entertained in his home. They were able to communicate through his interpreter, Dionisio Fernandez. Through him, the conspirators were assured of weapons they could use for the revolt. He also allegedly promised to provide them with Japanese warriors, under the deal that he would get a half of the tribute to be collected in the Philippines. The warriors were to arrive in Manila and pretend they arrived with peaceful intentions by bringing in ship flags for the Spaniards to use. Once they captured the Spaniards, Legazpi was to be made king. [4] However, there was no fine print that dictated for how long this deal would go on, thus showing the lack of organization in the plan. [2]

Legazpi also had ties with Brunei, as he was the son-in-law of the sultan. As such, the conspiracy also sought the help of Borneo. They believed they would come join and help the uprising not only because of their apparent blood ties, but because of their historical clash with the Christian Spaniards as well. [2] The plan was that once Bornean fleets arrived at Cavite causing the Spaniards to call the chiefs to their aid, they would arrive with their men and attack the Spaniards in their own homes. [4]

Events and plots

The conspiracy would remain a plot for long, as almost a year would pass before the conspirators could come up with another step in their plot. In 1588, they learned that the English pirate Thomas Candish had captured the Spanish galleon Santa Ana. He had apparently threatened the Spaniards of taking over Manila. [5] They waited for him to arrive in hopes that he would act on his threat to fight the Spaniards; once he did, they planned to overthrow the government by overpowering them on land. However, they made no contact with Candish to let them know of their plans. He had made his way to Visayas (where he failed to burn a galleon being built in Aravelo) and after, to India and then England. [5]

The conspiracy started to materialize more once Pangan met with Esteban Taes, a chieftain from Bulacan. They planned an all-Tagalog uprising: Taes invited all other chiefs from Bulacan to Tondo, while Pangan planned to send letters to the gobernadorcillo of Malolos and Guiguinto, as well as to reach out to chiefs from Laguna and Batangas. However, their planned meeting with all the chiefs never pushed through. Thus, Pangan went to approach datus from Pampanga hoping they could unite their cause because several Pampango chiefs were about to file a petition asking the government to suspend the freeing of their slaves. However, they had no interest in joining the uprising because they were in favor of the Spaniards and the King. [5] It was after the inability to form a meeting with other Tagalog chiefs and the rejection of Pampango chiefs when the conspirators sought the help of Borneans.

However, when the time of attack came, Gayo did not come through with the arms or warriors either because he lost interest or betrayed the rebels. [6] While they were waiting in vain for help that did not come, the conspirators were caught when Magat Salamat revealed their plan against the Spaniards to Antonio Surabao.

Magat Salamat had been chosen chief envoy to go to Borneo and communicate the plan to the sultan. On his way over, Salamat stopped at Cuyo island, where he was able to recruit a native chief named Sumaclob to join the uprising. [2] After transferring to another Calamianes island, Salamat met Surabao, who was a Cuyo native pretending to be a supporter. He was actually a servant of Pedro Sarmiento, a Spanish encomendero. Surabao then betrayed the rebels’ plan to his master, Sarmiento, who brought Magat Salamat, Don Agustin Manuguit, and Don Joan Banal to Manila as captives. [2] He exposed the conspirators’ plan against the Spanish government to Governor General Santiago de Vera on October 26, 1588 with the plan having been in motion for over 15 months. [1] As a result, with Salamat in captive, the plan, their letters and gifts never reached the sultan of Brunei. [2] Moreover, the governor ordered the arrest of all members part of the conspiracy who were tried and investigated in court.


There were harsh penalties given to the conspirators, especially to the leaders Agustin de Legazpi and Martin Pangan who were brutally hanged while their heads were chopped off and placed in iron cages. [1] Their properties were also seized, with half going to the royal treasury and the other half to judicial expenses. Furthermore, their homes plowed and sown with salt to remain barren. [1] A similar fate occurred to Dionisio Fernandez who was also hanged and his properties confiscated. Other conspirators who were executed were Magat Salamat, Geronimo Basi, and Esteban Taes. [1]

While some people were punished severely, others were let off on a milder sentence such as paying heavy fines or being exiled from their towns. Notable members who were exiled to Mexico were Pedro Balunguit, Pintonggatan, Felipe Salonga, Calao, and Agustin Manuguit. [1] Balanguit was charged with six years of exile and payment of six tael of orejas gold, Pintonggatan with two years, Salonga with eight years, Calao with four years, and Manuguit with six years of exile and payment of 20 tael of orejas gold. [4]


At the beginning of the Manila Galleon Trade, slaves and exiles were exchanged between Manila and Acapulco. The exiles of these datus were significant because they were reported to be the first Filipinos to settle in Mexico. [7]

The conspiracy is also worth noting for it is the only recorded plot during the Spanish colonial period where Luzon chiefs attempted to enlist help from the Muslims. The trace and influence of Islam in Manila and the Tagalog regions disappeared with passing of these Tagalog chiefs—allowing stability for Catholicism in the region in the future. [5] It is also worth pointing out that the Indios tried to fight for their lost freedom only after quickly surrendering to the Spaniards. Thus, their uprising had them labelled as rebels as they were already subject under Spanish rule; this contrasted them from Muslims who never surrendered to the Spaniards. [2] Furthermore, it was different from other uprisings in the seventeenth century because the primary goal was to overthrow the Spanish rule rather than to protest the oppression of a tribute collector, alcalde , or friar. The chiefs sought to get rid of Spanish control rather than be satisfied with the death of a particular Spanish official. It is also in this uprising where the persona of the traitor first appeared. Lastly, the conspiracy was not an isolated case, as several other uprisings were being planned in regions like Cebu and Panay as well. [5]

Related Research Articles

Miguel López de Legazpi Spanish conquistador, navigator, and colonial governor

Miguel López de Legazpi, also known as El Adelantado and El Viejo, was a Spanish navigator and governor who established the first Spanish settlement in the East Indies when his expedition crossed the Pacific Ocean from the Viceroyalty of New Spain in modern-day Mexico, arriving in Cebu in the Philippine Islands in 1565. He was the first Governor-General of the Spanish East Indies, which was governed and mainly located in the Philippines. It also encompassed other Pacific islands namely Guam and the Mariana Islands. After obtaining peace with various indigenous nations and kingdoms, he made Cebu City the capital of the Spanish East Indies in 1565 and later transferred to Manila in 1571. The capital city of the province of Albay bears his name.

Rajah Sulayman 16th-century Rajah of Maynila

Rajah Sulayman, sometimes referred to as Sulayman III (1558–1575), was the Rajah of Maynila, a fortified Tagalog Muslim polity on the southern half of the Pasig River delta, when a Spanish expedition arrived in the early 1570s.

Lakan Dula or Lakandula was the regnal name of the last Lakan of pre-colonial Tondo when the Spaniards first conquered the lands of the Pasig River delta in the Philippines in the 1570s.

Filipinos have various naming customs. They most commonly blend the older Spanish system and Anglo-American conventions, where there is a distinction between the "Christian name" and the "surname". The construct containing several middle names is common to all systems, but having multiple "first" names and only one middle and last name is a result of the blending of American and Spanish naming customs. The Tagalog language is one of the few national languages in Asia to practically use the Western name order while formally using the eastern name order. The Philippine naming custom is identical to the Spanish and Portuguese name customs and, to an extent, Chinese naming customs.

Datu Sikatuna

Datu Sikatuna was a Datu or chieftain of the Bool Kingdom in the island of Bohol in the Philippines. He made a blood compact (sanduguan) and alliance with the Spanish explorer Miguel López de Legazpi on March 25, 1565 at Hinawanan Bay, barangay Hinawanan, Loay. Their blood compact is the first Treaty of Friendship between Spain and the Philippines. The previous site of the pact was at barangay Bool, Tagbilaran City but later concluded the event actually happened at barangay Hinawanan, Loay, Bohol through Resolution No. 4, issued by the National Historical Institute in 2005.

Philippine revolts against Spain

During the Spanish colonial period in the Philippines, 1521–1898, there were several revolts against the Spanish colonial government by indigenous Moro, Lumad, Indians, Chinese (Sangleys), and Insulares, often with the goal of re-establishing the rights and powers that had traditionally belonged to Lumad Timueys, Maginoo Rajah, and Moro Datus. Some revolts stemmed from land problems and this was largely the cause of the insurrections that transpired in the agricultural provinces of Batangas, Bulacan, Cavite, and Laguna. Natives also rebelled over unjust taxation and forced labor.


The Tagalog maginoo, the Kapampangan ginu, and the Visayan tumao were the nobility social class among various cultures of the pre-colonial Philippines. Among the Visayans, the tumao were further distinguished from the immediate royal families, the kadatuan.

Castilian War

The Spanish Expedition to Borneo, also known locally as the Castilian War, was a military conflict between Brunei and Spain in 1578.

Tondo (historical polity)

In early Philippine history, the Tagalog settlement at Tondo or Tundu was a major trade hub located on the northern part of the Pasig River delta, on Luzon island.

The Battle of Bangkusay, on June 3, 1571, was a naval engagement that marked the last resistance by locals to the Spanish Empire's occupation and colonization of the Pasig River delta, which had been the site of the indigenous polities of Rajahnate of Maynila and Tondo.

Rajah Ache, better known by his title Rajah Matanda (1480–1572), was one of the rulers of Maynila, a pre-colonial Indianized Tagalog polity along the Pasig River in what is now Manila, Philippines.

History of the Philippines (900–1565)

The history of the Philippines between 900 and 1565 begins with the creation of the Laguna Copperplate Inscription in 900 and ends with Spanish colonisation in 1565. The inscription records its date of creation in the year 822 of the Hindu Saka calendar, corresponding to 900 AD in the Gregorian system. Therefore, the recovery of this document marks the end of prehistory of the Philippines at 900 AD. During this historical time period, the Philippine archipelago was home to numerous kingdoms and sultanates and was a part of the theorised Indosphere and Sinosphere.

Barangay state

In early Philippine history, the barangay was a complex sociopolitical unit which scholars have historically considered the dominant organizational pattern among the various peoples of the Philippine archipelago. The term, barangay, refers to both a house on land and a boat on water; containing families, friends and dependents and is currently the basic political unit of the Philippines.

History of Manila

Manila's history begins around 65,000 BC the time the Callao Man first settled in the Philippines, predating the arrival of the Negritos and the Malayo-Polynesians. The nearby Angono Petroglyphs, are then dated to be around 3,000 BC and the earliest recorded history of Manila, the capital of the Philippines, dates back to the year 900 AD as recorded in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription. By the thirteenth century, the city consisted of a fortified settlement and trading quarter near the mouth of the Pasig River, the river that bisects the city into north and south.

Battle of Manila (1570)

The Battle of Manila (1570) was fought in Manila between the native Filipinos led by Rajah Sulayman, a vassal to the Sultan of Brunei, and the Spaniards led by Martin de Goiti, Maestre de Campo on May 24, 1570. The forces under Goiti were victorious and as a result, Manila became the capital of the Spanish East Indies.

Datu Magat Salamat was a Filipino historical figure best known for co-organizing the Tondo Conspiracy of 1587. He was one of at least four sons of Lakandula, and thus held the title of Datu under his cousin and co-conspirator Agustin de Legazpi, who had been proclaimed paramount ruler of the indianized kingdom of Tondo after the death of Lakandula, although the position soon became little more than a courtesy title.


The Maharlika were the feudal warrior class in ancient Tagalog society in Luzon, the Philippines. The Spanish translated the name as Hidalgos. They belonged to the lower nobility class similar to the Timawa of the Visayan people. In modern Filipino, however, the term has come to mean "royal nobility", which was actually restricted to the hereditary Maginoo class.

Index of Metro Manila–related articles Wikipedia index

The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to the Philippine capital region of Metro Manila.

Filipino styles and honorifics

In the Philippine languages, Filipino honorific styles and titles are a complex system of titles and honorifics, which were used extensively during the pre-colonial era mostly by the Tagalogs and Visayans. These were borrowed from the Malay system of honorifics obtained from the Moro peoples of Mindanao, which in turn was based on the Indianized Sanskritized honorifics system in addition to the Chinese system of honorifics used in areas like Ma-i (Mindoro) and Pangasinan. Indian influence is evidenced by the titles of historical figures such as Rajah Sulayman, Lakandula and Dayang Kalangitan. Malay titles are still used by the royal houses of Sulu, Maguindanao, Maranao and Iranun on the southern Philippine island of Mindanao, but these are retained on a traditional basis as the 1987 Constitution explicitly reaffirms the abolition of royal and noble titles in the republic.

Agustin de Legazpi is a prominent historical figure in the Philippines best known as the leader of the Tondo Conspiracy of 1587–1588, the last native ruler of Tondo, and the last individual to hold the title of paramount ruler in any of the Indianized indigenous Tagalog polities of the Pasig River delta, although it had been reduced to little more than a courtesy title by the time of Agustin de Legazpi's execution.


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Halili, M.C. Philippine History. Rex Bookstore, Inc., 2004.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Martinez, Manuel F. Assassinations & conspiracies : from Rajah Humabon to Imelda Marcos. Manila: Anvil Publishing, 2002.
  3. 1 2 3 Kimuell-Gabriel, Nancy. "ANG TUNDO NI BONIFACIO, SI BONIFACIO SA TUNDO." Saliksik E-Journal 3, no. 2 (November 2014): 35-29. November 2014. Accessed July 7, 2017.
  4. 1 2 3 de Marquina, Esteban (1903). Blair, Emma Helen; Robertson, James Alexander (eds.). Conspiracy Against the Spaniards: Testimony in certain investigations made by Doctor Santiago de Vera, president of the Philipinas, May-July 1589. The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898. 7. Ohio, Cleveland: Arthur H. Clark Company. pp. 86–103.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 Corpuz, Onofre (June 30, 2007). The Roots of the Filipino Nation. University of the Philippines Press. pp. 111–119.
  6. Sta. Romana, Elpidio R., and Ricardo T. Jose. "Never Imagine Yourself to be Otherwise…: Filipino Image of Japan Over the Centuries" Asian Studies: 65-94.
  7. Mercene, Floro L. Manila Men in the New World: Filipino Migration to Mexico and the Americas from the Sixteenth Century. Quezon City: The University of the Philippines Press, 2007

See also