Tong–Tai (Chinese: 通泰), also known as Tai–Ru (Chinese: 泰如) is a group of Lower Yangtze Mandarin dialects spoken in the east-central part of Jiangsu province in the prefecture-level cities of Nantong (formerly Tongzhou) and Taizhou. The alternative name refers to the county-level city of Rugao within Nantong. This region includes the areas which are to the north of Yangtze River and to the east of Grand Canal. There are about 11.37 million speakers there (in 2004) and this region occupies about 15,000 square kilometers.
Lower Yangtze Mandarin is one of the most divergent and least mutually-intelligible groups of Mandarin dialects, as it neighbours the Wu, Hui, and Gan groups of varieties of Chinese. It is also known as Jiang–Huai Mandarin, named after the Yangtze (Jiang) and Huai Rivers. Lower Yangtze dialects are distinguished from most other Mandarin varieties by their retention of a final glottal stop in words that ended in a stop consonant in Middle Chinese.
Jiangsu is an eastern-central coastal province of the People's Republic of China. It is one of the leading provinces in finance, education, technology, and tourism, with its capital in Nanjing. Jiangsu is the third smallest, but the fifth most populous and the most densely populated of the 23 provinces of the People's Republic of China. Jiangsu has the highest GDP per capita of Chinese provinces and second-highest GDP of Chinese provinces, after Guangdong. Jiangsu borders Shandong in the north, Anhui to the west, and Zhejiang and Shanghai to the south. Jiangsu has a coastline of over 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) along the Yellow Sea, and the Yangtze River passes through the southern part of the province.
Nantong is a prefecture-level city in Jiangsu province, China. Located on the northern bank of the Yangtze River, near the river mouth. Nantong is a vital river port bordering Yancheng to the north, Taizhou to the west, Suzhou, Wuxi and Shanghai to the south across the river, and the East China Sea to the east. Its current population is 7,282,835 at the 2010 census, 1,994,708 of whom live in the built-up area made up of three urban districts.
This region can also be divided further into 3 districts: the west, the middle and the east.The west part includes Taizhou, Jiangyan, west of Hai'an, west of Dongtai, Dafeng, Xinghua, east of Jiangdu. The middle part includes Rugao, Rudong, Taixing, east of Dongtai, east of Hai'an and southwest of Jingjiang. The east part includes downtown of Nantong and southwest of Tongzhou. These vernaculars are distinguished by the difference in consonants.
Dongtai is a coastal county-level city under the administration of Yancheng, Jiangsu province, China. It has a population of roughly 1,170,000 estimated for 2007. Out of the total population, about 260,000 live in the Dongtai urban core, others are distributed in the 23 suburban towns and rural regions. With some Yellow Sea coast, it borders the prefecture-level cities of Nantong to the south and Taizhou to the west, and is the southernmost county-level division of Yancheng.
Xinghua is a county-level city under the administration of Taizhou, Jiangsu province, China. It is located in the central part of Jiangsu Province. It borders the prefecture-level cities of Yancheng to the north and east and Yangzhou to the west.
Rugao is a county-level city under the administration of Nantong, Jiangsu province, China, located in the Yangtze River Delta on the northern (left) bank of the river.
However these districts used to be the region of the Wu culture, so there are many features of Wu Chinese in these vernaculars, especially the vernacular in the middle part, known as middle Tong-Tai Dialect. It is closely bounded on the Changzhou part in the Wu region.
Wu refers to a region in China whose core area is around Lake Tai in Jiangnan. The Wu region was historically part of the ancient Yang Province in southeastern China. The name "Wu" came from the names of several historical kingdoms based in that area.
Wu is a group of linguistically similar and historically related Sinitic languages spoken primarily in Shanghai, Zhejiang province, the southern half of Jiangsu province and bordering areas.
The Nantong variety will be taken as representative.
|Fricative||f, v||s||ɕ ʑ||ʃ||x|
|Lateral approximant||w (labiovelar approximant)||l||j|
r-colored ɜ: ɜ˞
tongue position for [ø] is slightly higher than the standard [ø], but lower than [y]
[ɛ] is slightly lower than the standard [ɛ], sounds close to [æ]
[ʌ] is higher than the standard [ʌ],close to [ɜ]
Dark level 阴平21 Light level 阳平35
Light departing 阳去213 Dark departing 阴去42
Light entering 阳入55ʔ Dark entering 阴入42ʔ
The Rugaohua dialect of Jianghuai does not follow the T3 sandhi rule which most other Mandarin dialects follow. Linguists speculate that changes to pitch countours over time also removed the original motivation for T3 sandhi in the Beijing dialect underlying modern Standard Mandarin (putonghua), but the sandhi was retained.
When Chinese people were subjected to listening to various dialects such as Northern Mandarin (Yantai dialect), Standard Mandarin (Putonghua), and Jianghuai Mandarin (Rugao dialect of Jiangsu), "cross dialectal" differences appeared in their reactions.
Mandarin is a group of related Sinitic languages spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. The group includes the Beijing dialect, the basis of Standard Chinese or Standard Mandarin. Because Mandarin originated in North China and most Mandarin dialects are found in the north, the group is sometimes referred to as the Northern dialects. Many local Mandarin varieties are not mutually intelligible. Nevertheless, Mandarin is often placed first in lists of languages by number of native speakers.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, Modern Standard Mandarin Chinese (MSMC), or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is one of the official languages of China. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. The similar Taiwanese Mandarin is a national language of Taiwan. Standard Singaporean Mandarin is one of the four official languages of Singapore.
Chinese, also known as Sinitic, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties that are not mutually intelligible. The differences are greater than within the Romance languages, with variation particularly strong in the more mountainous southeast. There is currently no classification of Sinitic languages, or even a comprehensive list. The family is typically divided into several subfamilies: Mandarin, Wu, Min, Xiang, Gan, Hakka and Yue, though some varieties remain unclassified. Some authors further break up Mandarin, Wu, Yue and especially Min. These groups are neither clades nor individual languages defined by mutual intelligibility, but reflect common phonological developments from Middle Chinese.
Jiangyan District is one of three urban districts of the city of Taizhou, Jiangsu province, having been, until December 2012, a county-level city. Jiangyan is noted for being the birthplace of the former General Secretary of the Communist Party of China Hu Jintao.
The Fuzhou dialect, also Fuzhounese, Foochow or Hok-chiu, is the prestige variety of the Eastern Min branch of Min Chinese spoken mainly in the Mindong region of eastern Fujian province. Like many other varieties of Chinese, the Fuzhou dialect is dominated by monosyllabic morphemes which carry lexical tones, and has a mainly analytic syntax. While the Eastern Min branch that it belongs to is relatively closer to Southern Min or Hokkien than to other Sinitic branches such as Mandarin, Wu Chinese or Hakka, they are still not mutually intelligible.
Taizhou is a prefecture-level city in central Jiangsu province in eastern China. Situated on the north bank of the Yangtze River, it borders Nantong to the east, Yancheng to the north and Yangzhou to the west.
Rudong County is under the administration of Nantong, Jiangsu province, China, and lies on the Yellow Sea coast. It administers 14 towns and 5 districts. The 14 towns are Juegang, Matang, Fengli, Caobu, Chahe, Shuangdian, Xindian, Hekou, Yuanzhuang, Changsha, Ju, Yangkou, Bencha and Dayu. The county seat is Juegang.
Singaporean Mandarin is a variety of Mandarin Chinese widely spoken in Singapore. It is one of the four official languages of Singapore along with English, Malay and Tamil.
Taixing is a county-level city under the administration of Taizhou, Jiangsu province, China. It is located in the Yangtze River Delta, bordering the prefecture-level cities of Nantong to the east, Changzhou to the southwest, and Zhenjiang to the west.
This article summarizes the phonology of Standard Chinese.
Hai'an is a county-level city under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Nantong, in eastern Jiangsu province, China. Bordering Dongtai to the north, Rudong to the south-east, Rugao to the south, Taixing to the south-west, and Jiangyan to the west, the city is located on the south-western shores of the Yellow Sea.
Yi Zuolin, aka Yi Jianlou, was a Chinese linguist, educator and philanthropist. He made important pioneering contributions to the studies of modern Chinese phonetics, phonology and grammar.
Middle Tong-Tai Dialect, a branch of the Tong-Tai Dialect is mainly used in the districts including Rugao, Rudong, Taixing, east of Dongtai, east of Hai'an and southwest of Jinhai. Although it is divided into the category of Jianghuai Mandarin, interchange barrier still exists between it and other dialects of Jianghuai Mandarin like Yangzhou Dialect. The reason could be that these areas are closely bonded on the Wu region in history. For example, there are lots of marked bottom preservation of Wu Chinese in vernaculars of Rudong. So it can seem as a dialect based on Wu, but reformed by Jianghuai Mandarin later. Or as an interim zone between Wu and Jianghuai.
Differing literary and colloquial readings for certain Chinese characters are a common feature of many Chinese varieties, and the reading distinctions for these linguistic doublets often typify a dialect group. Literary readings are usually used in loanwords, names, literary works, and in formal settings, while colloquial/vernacular readings are usually used in everyday vernacular speech.
The Shenyang–Haikou Expressway, commonly referred to as the Shenhai Expressway is an expressway in China that connects the cities of Shenyang, Liaoning, and Haikou, Hainan. When fully complete, it will be 3,710 km (2,310 mi) in length.
China National Highway 228 (228国道) is a planned highway of the National Highway System of the People's Republic of China from Dandong, Liaoning on the China–North Korea border to Dongxing, Guangxi on the China–Vietnam border. En route, it will pass through Dalian and Yingkou in Liaoning; Binhai New Area in Tianjin; Huanghua in Hebei; Dongying, Yantai, Weihai, Qinghai, and Rizhao in Shandong; Lianyungang and Nantong in Jiangsu; Shanghai; Jiaxing, Ningbo, Taizhou, Wenzhou, and Ningde in Zhejiang; Fuzhou, Quanzhou, and Xiamen in Fujian; Shantou, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Zhanjiang in Guangdong; and Beihai and Fangchenggang in Guangxi.
But it is not the case that all current Mandarin dialects preserve this sandhi rule. For example, it is no longer in my dialect, Rugaohua, a Jianghuai Mandarin dialect.page 26.
Cross-dialectal as well as age differences were observed among Chinese listeners in Experiments BJ , RG and YT using natural speech stimuli from Putonghua, Rugao (a Jianghuai Mandarin dialect, Jiangsu Province) and Yantai (a Northern