|Chief of Security, Household Department, Manchukuo|
|Succeeded by||Nagao Jiwulang|
|Born||Fuzhou, Fujian, China|
Tong Jixu (simplified Chinese :佟济煦; traditional Chinese :佟濟煦; pinyin :Tong Jixu; 1884-1943) was a Chinese businessman and Manchukuo official from Fujian province in southeast China.
Tong Jixu was born in 1884, in Fuzhou city, Fujian Province in an intellectual Manchu family. His ancestors were engineers who produced the cannons for the Manchu military. His family lived on the Dongmen, Fuzhou for 7 generations as part of the Decorated Yellow Banner guard garrison. He graduated from Fujian Higher School and was a friend of Chen Baochen, Emperor Puyi's teacher. He moved to Beijing around 1902, started a photograph business and later taught English in the Academy of Law and Politics for Aristocratic Education.[ citation needed ] After 1912, ethnic Manchu were persecuted in the southern cities such as Fuzhou by Han locals and he relocated the whole family to Beijing. He then joined the Beiyang Army and was commissioned as an officer in the department of chief staffs. Because of his English skills, he was instrumental in bringing in military technologies from the western world. He started the then new air force and served as a vice-principal of the Nanyuan Aviation School at the Nanyuan Military Base (current Nanyuan Airport). However, because of his Manchu ethnicity, he did not get a promotion for many years and was not able to support the family and relatives who escaped from Fuzhou to Beijing. He quit from the military and focused on his business - Yanguangshi publishing house. He adopted the advanced technology imported from Germany to take high quality picture of artworks and publish limited-edition prints to collectors and art students. One major source of the early photo-books published by Yanguangshi was the imperial art collection that he accessed through borrowing from the emperor's relatives and Chen Baochen. His clients and collaborators included a lot of the famous collectors including Zhang Daqian, as well as many leading Manchu intellectuals and aristocrats such as Puru at the time because of his former tenure as an instructor in the Academy. He was also introduced by Chen Baochen to Zheng Xiaoxu. When Zheng was appointed as the minister of Household Department of Puyi, he recruited Tong to work as his chief of operation at the Imperial Household Department. Tong was tasked to clean up the administration and root out corruption within the Forbidden City. After Puyi was expelled from Forbidden City to exile in Zhang Yuan, Tianji, Tong moved the family to Tianjin and later to Changchun. Once Manchuguo started, he became chief of security (a three-star general ranked position) in the Imperial Household Department. Within the court, Tong was known for this anti-Japanese stance within the court of Puyi. (Secretly, two of his sons joined underground Chinese Communist Party to fight the Japanese). Tong established the Hujun, the elite guard division separated from the Japanese controlled military and tried to build up a military core that would be loyal to Puyi. However, this effort ran afoul with the Japanese military who only wanted to keep Puyi as their puppet emperor. The Kwantung Army plotted an incident when several Japanese and Korean army staff members in civilian clothes incited a fight with off-duty Hujun members. One of the Japanese officers was injured and the Japanese military police arrested the involved Hujun soldiers. Using the incident as an excuse, Kwantung Army pushed Puyi to relieve Tong from the Chief of Security post, thus stripping his command over Hujun. Hujun was also merged into the Japanese controlled military. Latter Puyi re-appointed Tong to be the Director of Internal Guards (a lower-level position). Tong died in 1943.
Tong Jixu's wife (née Zhao) was also from a Fuzhou Manchu Family. Unlike most of the prominent Chinese at the time, Tong never had any concubine and the couple had a very happy relationship throughout their lives. They had 5 sons and 2 daughters. His eldest son, Tong Zhishu (1909-1987), later run the family business, Yanguangshi, after Tong joined the emperor's court. His second and third son both got college degrees from Japan. His third son, Tong Zhishan, married a Japanese woman against the family wish when he studied in the Imperial Japanese Naval Academy. He was a naval captain who fought the Russian Red Army at the northern border of Heilongjiang. After he lost one eye in an Ussuri River gun boat battle, he became an instructor in the Manchuguo Army Academy. Secretly, he joined the Communist Party of China in order to fight the Japanese. He established an underground CCP branch and recruited several of his student cadets, including his own youngest brother. Tong Zhishan died in 1947 during the Chinese civil war, probably because his CCP identity was betrayed to the Chinese Nationalist. Tong Jixu's youngest son, known as Zhao Tong, (he changed his last name while working as an underground revolutionary and never changed back), became an educator after he retired from the military post. Zhao Tong was the vice president (provost) of two medical universities, Xinjiang Medical University and Guangxi Medical University. He committed suicide during the cultural revolutions in Nanning, Guangxi.
Puyi was the last Emperor of China as the eleventh and final Emperor of the Qing dynasty, China's last imperial dynasty. At the age of two, he was made the Xuantong Emperor from 1908 until his forced abdication on 12 February 1912, after the 1911 Revolution, though he would remain in the Forbidden Palace and continued a lavish lifestyle.
Yoshiko Kawashima was a Qing dynasty princess of Manchu descent. She was raised in Japan and served as a spy for the Japanese Kwantung Army and puppet state of Manchukuo during the Second Sino-Japanese War. She is sometimes known in fiction under the pseudonym "Eastern Mata Hari". After the war, she was captured, tried, and executed as a traitor by the Nationalist government of the Republic of China. She was also a notable descendant of Hooge, eldest son of Hong Taiji.
Aisin Gioro was the Manchu ruling clan of the Later Jin dynasty (1616–1636), the Qing dynasty (1636–1912) and, nominally, Manchukuo (1932–1945). The House of Aisin Gioro ruled China proper from 1644 until the Xinhai Revolution of 1911–1912, which established a republican government in its place. The word aisin means gold in the Manchu language, and "gioro" is the name of the Aisin Gioro's ancestral home in present-day Yilan, Heilongjiang Province. In Manchu custom, families are identified first by their hala (哈拉), i.e. their family or clan name, and then by mukūn (穆昆), the more detailed classification, typically referring to individual families. In the case of Aisin Gioro, Aisin is the mukūn, and Gioro is the hala. Other members of the Gioro clan include Irgen Gioro (伊爾根覺羅), Šušu Gioro (舒舒覺羅) and Sirin Gioro (西林覺羅).
Zaifeng, formally known by his title Prince Chun, was a Manchu prince and regent of the late Qing dynasty. He was a son of Yixuan, the seventh son of the Daoguang Emperor, and the father of Puyi, the Last Emperor. He served as Prince-Regent from 1908 to 1911 during the reign of his son until the Qing dynasty was overthrown by the Xinhai Revolution in 1911.
Manchukuo was a puppet state set up by the Empire of Japan in Manchuria which existed from 1931 to 1945. The Manchukuo regime was established four months after the Japanese withdrawal from Shanghai with Puyi as the nominal but powerless head of state to add some semblance of legitimacy, as he was a former emperor and an ethnic Manchu.
Pujie was a Qing dynasty imperial prince of Manchu descent. He was born in the Aisin Gioro clan, the imperial clan of the Qing dynasty. Pujie was the younger brother of Puyi, the last Emperor of China. After the fall of the Qing dynasty, Pujie went to Japan, where he was educated and married to Saga Hiro, a Japanese noblewoman. In 1937, he moved to Manchukuo, where his brother ruled as Emperor under varying degrees of Japanese control during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945). After the war ended, Pujie was captured by Soviet forces, held in Soviet prison camps for five years, and then extradited back to the People's Republic of China, where he was incarcerated for about 10 years in the Fushun War Criminals Management Centre. He was later pardoned and released from prison by the Chinese government, after which he remained in Beijing where he joined the Communist Party and served in a number of positions in the party until his death in 1994.
Jin Yuzhang is a Chinese civil servant, politician and nobleman. Yuzhang is an heir to the Qing emperors of China, and the current nominal head of House Aisin Gioro, the former ruling noble house of Qing dynasty China.
Ajige was a Manchu prince and military general of the early Qing dynasty. He was born in the Aisin Gioro clan as the 12th son of Nurhaci, the khan of the Later Jin dynasty.
Yuyan (1918–1997), courtesy name Yanrui, nickname Xiaoruizi, was a Chinese calligrapher of Manchu descent. He was a member of the Aisin Gioro clan, the imperial clan of the Qing dynasty. He claimed that he was appointed by Puyi, the last Emperor of China, as the heir to the throne. His claim is the subject of the travel adventure book The Empty Throne by British journalist Tony Scotland.
Zheng Xiaoxu was a Chinese statesman, diplomat and calligrapher. He served as the first Prime Minister of Manchukuo.
Chen Baochen Chinese official, hailing from Fuzhou, Fujian province in southeast China. During the last years of the Qing dynasty, he served as sub-chancellor in the Grand Secretariat and as vice president of the Ministry of Rites. Following the collapse of the imperial order and the establishment of the Republic of China in 1912, he remained loyal to the Qing dynasty and served as tutor and adviser of the former emperor, Puyi, who was allowed to stay in the Forbidden City for more than thirteen years under the "Articles of Favorable Treatment." In 1917, Chen supported the Manchu Restoration, the loyalist general Zhang Xun's abortive attempt to restore the Qing dynasty. Chen Baochen continued to serve Puyi after he was finally expelled from the Forbidden City in 1924, but unlike his rival Zheng Xiaoxu, he refused to collaborate in the establishment of Manchukuo.
Zhang Xun, courtesy name Shaoxuan, was a Qing loyalist general who attempted to restore the abdicated emperor Puyi in the Manchu Restoration of 1917. He also supported Yuan Shikai during his time as president.
Qigong was a renowned Chinese calligrapher, artist, painter, connoisseur and sinologist. He was an advisor for the September 3 Society, one of China's recognized political parties.
Wanrong, also known as Xuantong Empress, of the Manchu Bordered Plain White Banner Gobulo clan, was the wife and empress consort of Puyi, the Xuantong Emperor. She was titular Empress consort of Qing from 1922 until abolition of imperial title in 1924 and Empress consort of Manchukuo from 1934 until abolition of monarchy in 1945. She was posthumously honoured with the title Empress Xiaokemin.
Chū Kudō, real name Tetsusaburō Kudō, was a Japanese adventurer, Manchukuo politician and Lieutenant General in the Manchukuo Imperial Army.
Puru, also known as Pu Xinyu 溥心畬, Xinyu being his courtesy name, and Xishan Yishi 西山逸士, which is his sobriquet, was a traditional Chinese painter, calligrapher and nobleman. A member of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan, the ruling house of the Qing dynasty, he was a cousin to Puyi, the last Emperor of China. It was speculated that Puru would have succeeded to the Chinese throne if Puyi and the Qing government were not overthrown after the 1911 Xinhai Revolution.
Irgen Gioro is a Manchu clan and family name, which was officially categorized as a "notable clan", and member of the eight great houses of the Manchu nobility in Manchu Empire. Sibe and Nanai people also has Irgen Gioro as their family name.
Yunying (1913–1992), better known as Jin Yunying, was a Chinese princess of Manchu descent. She was the daughter of Zaifeng and Youlan, and a younger sister of Puyi, the Last Emperor of China. She was married to Runqi, the younger brother of Puyi's first wife, Wanrong.
Yanguangshi, was the first Chinese publishing house to publish Photobooks of famous ancient painting and calligraphy from the imperial collections using the colophon photographic printing technique.
Shanqi, courtesy name Aitang (艾堂), was a prince of the Aisin-Gioro clan, the ruling clan of the Qing Dynasty, as well as a minister in the late Qing. He was from the Bordered White Banner and the 10th generation Prince Su, the first Qing hereditary prince position.