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Tongan narrative (or Tongan mythology) is a variant of a more general Polynesian narrative in Tonga.
In the beginning there was just the sea, and the spirit world, Pulota; and between them was a rock called Touiaʻo Futuna. On the rock lived Biki and his twin sister, Kele, ʻAtungaki and his twin sister, Maimoaʻo Longona, Fonua'uta and his twin sister, Fonuavai, and Hemoana and his twin sister, Lupe. Biki lay with his own sister and she bore him two children, a son, Taufulifonua, and a daughter, Havea Lolofonua; ʻAtungaki also lay with his sister, who bore him a daughter, Velelahi; and Fonuaʻuta lay with his sister and she bore him a daughter, Velesiʻi.
When Taufulifonua grew to manhood, his sister, Havea Lolofonua, bore him a son, Hikuleʻ o, Tangaloa and Maui divided the creation between them. Hikuleʻo took as his portion, Pulotu, Tangaloa took the sky and Maui the underworld. Hemoana, whose form the sea snake, and Lupe, whose form was a dove, then divided the remainder between them, Hemoana taking the sea and Lupe taking the land.
Tangaloa had several sons in the sky: Tangaloa Tamapoʻuli ʻAlamafoa, Tangaloa ʻEitumatupuʻa, Tangaloa ʻAtulongolongo and Tangaloa Tufunga. Old Tangaloa grew tired of looking down from the sky and seeing nothing but sea, so he sent down Tangaloa ʻAtulongolongo in the form of a plover to see if he could find land. All Tangaloa 'Atulongolongo could find was a reef below the water, where ʻAta is now. So old Tangaloa told Tangaloa Tufunga to throw down into the sea the chips from the wood carving on which he was working. Tangaloa Tufunga continued to do this for a long time, and on two occasion Tangaloa ʻAtulongolongo flew down in the form of a plover to see if anything had happened, but found nothing. On the third occasion, however, he found that the chips had formed an island. This was ʻEua. Later, Tangaloa Tufunga threw down more chips to form the islands of Kao and Tofua.
Tongatapu and most of the other islands were the work of Maui. One day maui visited Manuka (Sāmoan: Manuʻa) and there an old man, Tonga Fusifonua, gave him a fish-hook. Maui went fishing with this hook, but when he tried to pull in his line he found it was caught. He exerted all his strength and succeeded in hauling the line in, to find that he had dragged up Tongatapu from the bottom of the sea. Maui continued fishing with this wonderful hook and so pulled up from the deeps the rest of the islands of Tonga, and some of those of Fiji and Samoa as well.
ʻAta began as a reef below the water and slowly rose out of the sea. One day Tangaloa ʻAtulonglongo visited ʻAta in the form of a plover and dropped a seed from the beak upon the island. the next time he visited 'Ata he found that the seed had grown into a creeper that covered the island. He pecked at the root of this creeper until it split in two. Then he returned to the sky. A few days later he returned to find that the root had rotted and a fat, juicy worm was curled up in it. He pecked the worm in two. From the top section a man was formed called Kohai. The bottom section also turned into a man called Koau. Then the plover felt a morsel left on his beak; he shook it off and it turned into a man called Momo. Kohai, Koau and Momo were the first men in Tonga. Maui brought them wives from Pulotu and they became the ancestors of the Tonga people.
The history of Tonga is recorded since the century after 900 BC, when seafarers associated with the Lapita diaspora first settled the islands which now make up the Kingdom of Tonga. Along with Fiji and Samoa, the area served as a gateway into the rest of the Pacific region known as Polynesia. Ancient Tongan mythologies recorded by early European explorers report the islands of 'Ata and Tongatapu as the first islands having been hauled to the surface from the deep ocean by Maui.
In Tongan mythology, or oral history, ʻAhoʻeitu is a son of the god ʻEitumātupuʻa and a mortal woman, ʻIlaheva Vaʻepopua. He became the first king of the Tuʻi Tonga dynasty in the early 10th century, dethroning the previous one with the same name but originating from the uanga (maggots) instead of divine; see Kohai, Koau, mo Momo.
Pulotu is the resting place of those passed on in the Polynesian narrative of Tonga and Samoa, the world of darkness "lalo fonua".
In the mythology of Tonga, Havea Hikuleʻo is the god of the world, Pulotu. The islands of Kao, Tofua, Hunga Haʻapai, Hunga Tonga, Late and Fonualei came from stones thrown down from the skies by Hikuleʻo. They are all volcanic islands. The other, (coral) islands were fished up by his brother or cousin Maui.
In the Polynesian mythology of Tonga, Laufakanaʻa was a primordial creator god. Although called 'Tongan', his home was ʻAta, and he was better known by the original Tongans on the Lau Islands than in the kingdom of Tonga proper.
In the Polynesian mythology of the Tongan island of ʻAta, the god Tamapoʻuliʻalamafoa is the king of the heavens. He is the one who ordered the sub-god Laufakanaʻa to become ruler of that island.
George Tupou I, King of Tonga was originally known as Tāufaʻāhau I, or Tupou Maeakafa Ngininginiofolanga in modern spelling. He adopted the name Siaosi, the Tongan version of George, after King George III of the United Kingdom, when he was baptized in 1831. His nickname was Lopa-ukamea, meaning iron cable.
Royal Tongan Airlines was the national airline of Tonga until liquidation in 2004. It was a government agency and operated interisland services and international routes.
Tuʻi Kanokupolu (chiefs) are a junior rank of the Haʻa Tuʻi in Tonga.
The Tuʻi Tonga Empire, or Tongan Empire, are descriptions sometimes given to Tongan expansionism and projected hegemony in Oceania which began around 950 CE, reaching its peak during the period 1200–1500.
The Tuʻi Tonga is a line of Tongan kings, which originated in the tenth century with the mythical ʻAhoʻeitu; withdrew from political power in the fifteenth century by yielding to the Tuʻi Haʻatakalaua; and died out with Laufilitonga in 1865. Today its descendants still live in the chiefly line of Kalaniuvalu.
Momo(meaning: crumb) was the 10th king in the Tuʻi Tonga dynasty of Tonga, who lived in the 11th or 12th century CE. He was named after one of the original gods of Tonga, a trio known as Kohai, Koau, mo Momo. The Tuʻi Tonga maritime empire began to expand during his reign.
ʻAta is a depopulated island in the far southern end of the Tonga archipelago, situated approximately 160 kilometres (99 mi) south-southwest of Tongatapu. After almost half its population was kidnapped in 1863 as slave labour, the King of Tonga moved the remaining inhabitants to ʻEua. It is also known as Pylstaart island.
ʻEua is an island in the kingdom of Tonga. It is close to Tongatapu, but forms a separate administrative division. It has an area of 87.44 km2 (33.76 sq mi), and a population in 2016 of 4,945 people.
Tangaloa was an important family of gods in Tongan mythology. The first Tangaloa was the cousin of Havea Hikuleʻo and Maui, or in some sources the brother or son or father of them. He was Tangaloa ʻEiki, and was assigned by his father, Taufulifonua, the realm of the sky to rule.
Tuʻi-tā-tui(translation: The king who strikes the knee) was the 11th king of the Tuʻi Tonga, a dynasty in Tonga, who supposedly lived during the 12th century AD. Most of what is known about him is through Tongan myths and tales.
The story cycle around Kae and Sinilau is well known in Polynesian mythology, found in several places. This article describes the Tongan version, of which the main source is an old poem published in 1876, and some other, incomplete manuscripts.
The Tu'i Pulotu is believed to be the head of an ancient group of people that settled in Pulotu (Fiji) during the Lapita period. It was said that the Tui Pulotu originally came from the Fiji Islands and led the Pacific Islands from the early BC era to the first 800 years AD. Many people tried to associate Pulotu with Burotu because of the different pronunciations within Tonga, Samoa and Fiji. And we all know that Burotu in Fiji was the Burotukula which used to be seen near Matuku in Lau.
Though it is no longer practiced today, Tonga's ancient religion was practiced for over 2000 years. Missionaries arrived and persuaded King George Tupou I to convert to Christianity; he ordered and strictly enforced that all Tongans become Christian and no longer practice the ancient polytheistic religion with its supreme god Tangaloa.
Tongan kava ceremonies play an integral part of Tongan society and governance. Ranging from informal “faikava” or kava “parties” to the highly stratified, ancient, and ritualized Taumafa Kava, or Royal Kava Ceremony, Tongan kava ceremonies continue to permeate Tongan society both in Tonga and diaspora, strengthening cultural values and principles, while solidifying traditional ideals of duty and reciprocity, reaffirming societal structures, and entrenching the practice of pukepuke fonua, or tightly holding on to the land, a Tongan cultural ideal to maintain, preserve, and live traditional Tongan culture.