Tongjiang, Heilongjiang

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Tongjiang

同江市
ChinaJiamusiTongjiang.png
Location of Tongjiang in Jiamusi
China Heilongjiang location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Tongjiang
Location in Heilongjiang
Coordinates: 47°39′N132°30′E / 47.650°N 132.500°E / 47.650; 132.500 Coordinates: 47°39′N132°30′E / 47.650°N 132.500°E / 47.650; 132.500
Country People's Republic of China
Province Heilongjiang
Prefecture-level city Jiamusi
Area
  Total6,164 km2 (2,380 sq mi)
Population
  Total211,609
  Density34/km2 (89/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard)
Climate Dwb
Website tongjiang.gov.cn

Tongjiang (Chinese :同江; pinyin :Tóngjiāng) is a city of 160,000 in eastern Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China, located at the confluence and on the right banks of the Songhua and Amur Rivers, the latter which marks the border with Russia. Administratively it is a county-level city of Jiamusi.

Chinese language family of languages

Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases not mutually intelligible, language varieties, forming the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Chinese is spoken by the ethnic Chinese majority and many minority ethnic groups in China. About 1.2 billion people speak some form of Chinese as their first language.

Pinyin Chinese romanization scheme for Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.

Heilongjiang Province

Heilongjiang is a province in Northeast China. The province is bordered by Jilin to the south and Inner Mongolia to the west. It also shares a border with Russia to the north and east. The capital and the largest city of the province is Harbin. Among Chinese provincial-level administrative divisions, Heilongjiang is the sixth-largest by total area and the 15th-most populous.

Contents

History

Tongjiang (labelled as T'ung-chiang (Lahasusu) Tong Jiang 
) (1956) Txu-oclc-6614368-nl53-1.jpg
Tongjiang (labelled as T'ung-chiang (Lahasusu) 同江) (1956)

Early medieval history

From 698 to 936, the kingdom of Balhae occupied northern Korea and parts of Manchuria and Primorsky Krai, consisting of the Nanai, the Udege, and the Evenks and descendants of the Tungus-speaking people and the people of the recently fallen Goguryeo kingdom of Korea. The vicinity of Tongjiang was settled at this moment by Heishui Mohe tribes (Hangul  : 흑수말갈 Hanja/Hanzi  : 黑水靺鞨 pinyin  : Hēishuǐ Mòhé). These tribes were submitted to Balhae Kingdom under King Seon's reign (818-830).

Balhae Ancient kingdom in Manchuria, northern Korean peninsula and the Russian Far East (698–926)

Balhae (698–926) was a multi-ethnic kingdom in Manchuria, Korean peninsula and Russian Far East. Balhae was established by refugees from the fallen Korean kingdom of Goguryeo and Tungusic Mohe tribes in 698, when the first king, Dae Joyeong, defeated the Wu Zhou dynasty at Tianmenling.

Korea region in East Asia

Korea is a region in East Asia. Since 1948 it has been divided between two distinct sovereign states, North Korea and South Korea. Korea consists of the Korean Peninsula, Jeju Island, and several minor islands near the peninsula. Korea is bordered by Russia to the northeast, China to the northwest, and neighbours Japan to the east via the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan.

Manchuria geographic region in Northeast Asia

Manchuria is an exonym for several large overlapping historical and geographic regions in Northeast Asia. Depending on the context, it may refer to

King Seon administrated their territories by creating a prefecture in the neighbourhood : The Hoiwon Prefecture (Hangul  : 회원부 Hanja  : 懷遠府) with Dalju (Hangul  : 달주 Hanja  :達州) present-day Tongjiang (Hanzi  :同江 pinyin  :Tóngjiāng), as its administrative centre.

Hangul Native alphabet of the Korean language

The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul in South Korea or Chosŏn'gŭl in North Korea, has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by King Sejong the Great.

Hanja Korean language characters of Chinese origin

Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. More specifically, it refers to the Chinese characters borrowed from Chinese and incorporated into the Korean language with Korean pronunciation. Hanja-mal or Hanja-eo refers to words that can be written with Hanja, and hanmun refers to Classical Chinese writing, although "Hanja" is sometimes used loosely to encompass these other concepts. Because Hanja never underwent major reform, they are almost entirely identical to traditional Chinese and kyūjitai characters, though the stroke orders for some characters are slightly different. For example, the characters and are written as 敎 and 硏. Only a small number of Hanja characters are modified or unique to Korean. By contrast, many of the Chinese characters currently in use in Japan and Mainland China have been simplified, and contain fewer strokes than the corresponding Hanja characters.

20th century

In 1929 during Sino-Soviet conflict soviet Amur Military Flotilla completely destroyed Chinese Sungary Military Flotilia at Battle near Lahasusu.

Sino-Soviet conflict (1929) 1929 border conflict

The Sino-Soviet conflict of 1929 was an armed conflict between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Chinese warlord Zhang Xueliang of the Republic of China over the Chinese Eastern Railway.

Amur Military Flotilla military flotilla

Amur military flotilla (AMF) was a military flotilla on the Amur River in the Far East region of Russia.

Amur Bridge Project

The Amur Bridge Project was proposed in 2007 by Valery Solomonovich Gurevich, the vice-chairman of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast in Russia. The railway bridge over the Amur River will connect Tongjiang with Nizhneleninskoye, a village in the Jewish Autonomous Oblast. [1]

The Amur Bridge Project is an international Sino-Russian railroad bridge under construction. The bridge will link Nizhneleninskoye in the Jewish Autonomous Oblast with Tongjiang in Heilongjiang Province. The cross-border railroad bridge will be 2.2 km long, but its corresponding track infrastructure will be 19.9 km long and is projected to cost $355 million. The bridge is expected to transport more than 3 million metric tons of cargo and 1.5 million passengers per year. Along with this railroad bridge, China and Russia agreed to construct a 2-lane highway bridge over the Amur River to link the "twin" trading cities of Blagoveshchensk and Heihe. Ceremonial ground-breaking for this bridge was held on 24 December 2016, and it is expected to open in October 2019. The highway bridge will run east-west over the Amur, below the confluence of the Zeya River. The structure of the bridge was completed in early 2019.

Valery Solomonovich Gurevich, a Russian politician, is the vice-governor of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.

Jewish Autonomous Oblast First-level administrative division of Russia

The Jewish Autonomous Oblast is a federal subject of Russia in the Russian Far East, bordering Khabarovsk Krai and Amur Oblast in Russia and Heilongjiang province in China. Its administrative center is the town of Birobidzhan.

The Chinese portion of the bridge was finished in July 2016. [2] In December 2016, work began on the Russian portion of the bridge in December 2016. The bridge is expected to open in October 2019. [3]

Transportation

See also

Related Research Articles

Amur River river in Russia and China

The Amur River or Heilong Jiang is the world's tenth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China. The largest fish species in the Amur is the kaluga, attaining a length as great as 5.6 metres (18 ft). The river basin is home to a variety of large predatory fish such as northern snakehead, Amur pike, taimen, Amur catfish, predatory carp and yellowcheek, as well as the northernmost populations of the Amur softshell turtle and Indian lotus.

Dae Insu, also known as King Seon was the 10th king of the kingdom of Balhae. He restored national strength, and is remembered today as the last of the great Balhae rulers before its fall.

History of Manchuria

Manchuria is a region in East Asia. Depending on the definition of its extent, Manchuria can either refer to a region falling entirely within China, or a larger region today divided between Northeast China and the Russian Far East. To differentiate between the two parts following the latter definition, the Russian part is also known as Outer Manchuria, while the Chinese part is known as Inner Manchuria.

Outer Manchuria

Outer Manchuria or Outer Northeast China is an unofficial term for a territory in Northeast Asia that was formerly controlled by the Qing dynasty and now belongs to Russia. It is considered part of Manchuria by some definitions. Russia officially received this territory by way of the Treaty of Aigun in 1858 and the Treaty of Peking in 1860. The northern part of the area was also in dispute between 1643 and 1689.

Go of Balhae King of Balhae

Dae Joyeong, also known as King Go, established the state of Balhae, reigning from 699 to 719.

The Mohe, Malgal, or Mogher, maybe a mispronunciation of the word Mojie, were a Tungusic people who lived primarily in modern Northeast Asia. The two most powerful Mohe groups were known as the Heishui Mohe, located along the Amur River, and the Sumo Mohe, named after the Songhua River.

The Protectorate-General to Pacify the East was a protectorate established by the Tang dynasty in the northeast after defeating the kingdom of Goguryeo. In the place of Baekje and Goguryeo, the Tang created the Protectorate General to Pacify the East, Ungjin Commandery and Gyerim Territory Area Command.

King Mun of Balhae, also known as Dae Heum-mu, was the third and longest-reigning ruler of the Balhae. He succeeded his father King Mu, upon his death in 737.

Hejiang Province province of the Republic of China

Hokiang, was a province in Northeast China, which was established in 1945. It was c.52,300 sq mi (135,500 km²) in size and the provincial capital was Jiamusi.

Mishan County-level city in Heilongjiang, Peoples Republic of China

Mishan is a county-level city in the southeast of Heilongjiang Province, China, bordering Russia's Primorsky Krai to the south and southeast. It is under the jurisdiction of the prefecture-level city of Jixi.

The Heishui Mohe, also known as the Heuksu Malgal, rendered in English as Blackriver Mohe or Blackwater Mohe, were a tribe of Mohe people in Outer Manchuria along the Amur River in what is now Russia's Khabarovsk Krai, Amur Oblast, Jewish Autonomous Oblast, and Heilongjiang in China.

Nizhneleninskoye is a rural locality in Leninsky District of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast. Located on the Amur River, Nizhneleninskoye is the location for the Amur Bridge Project which will cross over the river to China. Nizhneleninskoye will be joined by a railway bridge to Tongjiang in Heilongjiang Province.

Suibin County County in Heilongjiang, Peoples Republic of China

Suibin County is a county of eastern Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China, bordering Russia's Jewish Autonomous Oblast to the north across the Amur River. It is the easternmost county-level division of the prefecture-level city of Hegang.

G1012 Jiansanjiang–Heixiazi Island Expressway

The Jiansanjiang–Heixiazi Island Expressway (Chinese: 建三江-黑瞎子岛高速公路), commonly referred to as the Jianhei Expressway (Chinese: 建黑高速公路) and designated G1012, is an expressway linking the town of Jiansanjiang with Hexiazi Island, entirely in the prefectural-level city of Jiamusi in the Chinese province of Heilongjiang. It is 217 kilometres (135 mi) in length and opened on 13 August 2017. Prior to the national-level G designation, the highway was designated S14 by the province.

References

  1. Proposed bridge to boost bilateral trade, China Daily, June 19, 2007.
  2. Andrew Higgins (July 16, 2016). "An Unfinished Bridge, and Partnership, Between Russia and China". The New York Times. Retrieved July 17, 2016.
  3. "Russia, China launch construction of bridge across Amur river". Russia Today. December 25, 2016.