Location of Tongliao City jurisdiction in Inner Mongolia
|Coordinates(Tongliao municipal government): Coordinates:|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|Autonomous region||Inner Mongolia|
|Municipal seat||Horqin District|
|• Urban||75.63 km2 (29.20 sq mi)|
|• Districts||3,212.0 km2 (1,240.2 sq mi)|
|Elevation||179 m (587 ft)|
|Highest elevation||1,444.2 m (4,738.2 ft)|
|• Prefecture-level city||3,139,153|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (China Standard)|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-NM-05|
|Literal meaning||"Through Liao"|
|Mongolian Cyrillic||Байшинт хот|
|Mongolian script||ᠲᠦᠩᠯᠢᠶᠣᠤ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ|
Tongliao (Chinese :通辽市; Mongolian : Tüŋliyou qota, Mongolian Cyrillic.Байшинт хот) is a prefecture-level city in eastern Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China. The area is 59,535 square kilometres (22,987 sq mi) and population is 3,139,153 (as of 2010); the city proper has 898,895 inhabitants (2010). The city was the administrative centre of the defunct Jirem League (哲里木盟; ᠵᠢᠷᠢᠮ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭJirim ayimaɣ).
The original Mongolian name for Tongliao city proper (i.e. Horqin District) is Bayisingtu (Chinese :白音泰赉; pinyin :Báiyīntàilài; lit. 'having buildings'), while the original name of the prefecture-level city is Jirem. The Mongolian dialect spoken in this area is Khorchin Mongolian.
Human settlement in Tongliao and surrounding Khorchin area dates from at least 1000 BC. The Donghu people, a tribe who spoke a proto-Mongolian language, settled in today's Tongliao area, north of Yan during Warring States period. their culture was associated with the Upper Xiajiadian culture, characterized by the practice of agriculture and animal husbandry supplemented by handicrafts and bronze art. Later, the Tongliao area was controlled by Xiongnu, Xianbei, and Khitan tribes.
After the Mongolian Khanate had established the Yuan Dynasty in Chinese territory, Tongliao was put under the jurisdiction of Liaoyang province, whose provincial capital was in today's Liaoning Province. In the early Qing period, Khorchin, Dörbod, Jalaid and Gorlos tribes met in Jirem to establish an alliance, and the Jirem League was founded in 1636 to administer Khorchin territory. The Jirem League had jurisdiction over six Khorchin banners, two Gorlos banners, one Dorbod banner and one Jalaid banner. During the Republican period, the Jirem League and the surrounding Khorchin area was controlled by the Fengtian and Liaoning provinces.
In 1918, Tongliao County was first established under the administration of the Jirem League and Fengtian province. After the Japanese Kwantung Army invaded Manchuria in 1931, a Japanese-controlled puppet state Manchukuo was established in Hsinking, 280 kilometers away from today's Tongliao urban area. The Manchukuo government set up Xing'an Province and soon divided it into four parts, in order to govern the western part of former Heilongjiang, Jilin and Fengtian provinces. These Xing'an provinces roughly overlap today's eastern part of Inner Mongolia, including today's Hulunbuir League, Xingan League, Chifeng and Tongliao. After the dissolution of the Manchukuo state, the Jirem League was governed by Liaoning and Liaobei provinces until Ulanhu established Inner Mongolia in Ulanhot, governing eastern Mongolian areas including the Hulunbuir, Jirem and Ju'ud leagues. After 1969, the Jirem League was put under the administration of Jilin province administration for 10 years until 1979. In 1999, the Jirem League became defunct and changed its name to Tongliao city, which was set up a prefecture-level city.
In 1924, Oomoto leader Onisaburo Deguchi, Aikido founder Morihei Ueshiba, and Lu Zhankui were arrested by Chinese authorities in Tongliao. Lu and his men were executed by firing squad, but Deguchi and Ueshiba were released into the customer of the Japanese consul.
Tongliao spans latitude 42°15' –45°41' and longitude 119°15' –123°43', and borders Jilin province to the east, Liaoning to the south, Chifeng to the southwest, the Xilin Gol League to the west, and the Hinggan League to the north. Not far from Tongliao are silica sands. Tongliao has a total area of 59,535 square kilometres (22,987 sq mi), accounting for 5.4% of Inner Mongolia's total.
Tongliao's topography primarily consists of plains, 新开河 ), and Jiaolai rivers (教来河), collectively forming the Sanhe Plain (三河平原; 'three rivers' plain'). The highest point in the prefecture is Tunte'er Peak (吞特尔峰), at 1,444.2 m (4,738 ft).though the northern stretch of the prefecture extends into the eastern foothills of the southern Greater Khingan. The central and eastern parts of the prefecture are marked by the plains of the Xiliao, Xinkai River (
Tongliao has a four-season, monsoon-influenced, continental steppe climate (Köppen BSk), with long, cold, windy, but dry winters, and hot, humid summers. Monthly mean temperatures range from −13.0 °C (8.6 °F) in January to 24.2 °C (75.6 °F) in July, with an annual mean of 7.11 °C (44.8 °F). Much of the year's rainfall occurs from June to August, and even then dry and sunny weather dominates in the city. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 57% in July to 78% in January, sunshine is abundant year-round, with 3,054 hours of bright sunshine annually.
|Climate data for Tongliao (1981−2010 normals)|
|Average high °C (°F)||−6.6|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−13.0|
|Average low °C (°F)||−18.2|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||1.6|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||1.6||2.3||3.4||4.6||7.4||11.0||11.6||9.4||7.2||4.3||2.6||2.4||67.8|
|Average relative humidity (%)||52||44||41||41||45||60||73||72||62||53||52||54||54|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||224.7||225.3||272.7||272.0||293.1||284.2||267.2||272.8||268.1||251.3||216.2||206.0||3,053.6|
|Percent possible sunshine||78||77||74||68||65||62||57||63||72||74||74||74||69|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration (precipitation days and sunshine 1971–2000)|
|Horqin District||ᠬᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ|
|Holingol city||ᠬᠣᠣᠯᠢᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ|
(Qoolin Ɣool qota)
|Kailu County||ᠺᠠᠶᠢᠯᠦ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ|
|Hure Banner||ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ|
|Naiman Banner||ᠨᠠᠢᠮᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ|
|Jarud Banner||ᠵᠠᠷᠤᠳ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ|
| Horqin Left Middle Banner |
(Horqin Jun Garun Dundad Banner)
|ᠬᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ|
(Qorčin Jegün Ɣarun Dumdadu qosiɣu)
| Horqin Left Back Banner |
(Horqin Jun Garun Hoit Banner)
|ᠬᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠲᠤ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ|
(Qorčin Jegün Ɣarun Qoyitu qosiɣu)
Ethnic groups in Tongliao, 2000 census.
Tongliao railway station is a railway hub in both Inner Mongolia and Northeast China. Tongliao-Beijing Railway conveniently connects the city with Beijing. There are also rails connect Tongliao with Shenyang, Daqing and Jining. State Highway 111, State Highway 303, State Highway 304 and State Highway 204 run through the city and extend to harbor cities such as Tianjin, Dalian, and Qinhuangdao. The city is served by Tongliao Airport.
Inner Mongolia University for Nationalities (内蒙古民族大学)and Inner Mongolia College of Farming and Animal Husbandry(merged into Inner Mongolia University for Nationalities) are among the educational institutions of Tongliao.
Additionally Tongliao Mongolian Middle School (通辽蒙古族中学) is there.
Inner Mongolia or Nei Mongol, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked and Mongolic autonomous region of the People's Republic of China. Its border includes most of the length of China's border with the country of Mongolia. The rest of the Sino–Mongolian border coincides with part of the international border of the Xinjiang autonomous region and the entirety of the international border of Gansu province. Inner Mongolia also accounts for a small section of China's border with Russia. Its capital is Hohhot; other major cities include Baotou, Chifeng, Tongliao and Ordos.
Liaoning, is a coastal province in Northeast China that is the smallest, southernmost, and most populous province in the region. Located on the northern shore of the Yellow Sea, it is the northernmost coastal province of the People's Republic of China.
Jilin is one of the three provinces of Northeast China. Its capital and largest city is Changchun. Jilin borders North Korea and Russia to the east, Heilongjiang to the north, Liaoning to the south, and Inner Mongolia to the west. Along with the rest of Northeast China, Jilin underwent an early period of industrialization. However, Jilin's economy, characterized by heavy industry, has been facing economic difficulties with privatization. This prompted the central government to undertake a campaign called "Revitalize the Northeast". The region contains large deposits of oil shale.
Shenyang, formerly known as Fengtian or by its Manchu name Mukden, is a major Chinese sub-provincial city and the provincial capital of Liaoning province. Located in central-north Liaoning, it is the province's most populous city, with a total metropolitan population up to 8.1 million. The largest city in Northeast China by urban population, with 6.3 million people, Shenyang is also the central city of one of the major megalopolises in China, the Greater Shenyang Metropolitan Area, which has a total population over 23 million. The city's administrative region includes the ten metropolitan districts of Shenyang proper, the county-level city of Xinmin, and two counties: Kangping and Faku.
Northeast China, also known as Manchuria, is a geographical region of China. It usually corresponds specifically to the three provinces of Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang but is sometimes also meant to encompass the northeastern portion of Inner Mongolia. The heartland of the region is the Northeast China Plain. It is separated from Russian Far East to the north by the Amur, Argun, and Ussuri rivers; from Korea to the south by the Yalu and Tumen Rivers; and from China's Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region to the west by the Greater Khingans.
A banner is an administrative division of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China, corresponding to the county level.
Chifeng, also known as Ulankhad, is a prefecture-level city in Southeastern Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China. It borders Xilin Gol League to the north and west, Tongliao to the northeast, Chaoyang (Liaoning) to the southeast and Chengde (Hebei) to the south. The city has a total administrative area of 90,275 square kilometres (34,855 sq mi) and has a population of 4,341,245 inhabitants. As of the 2010 census, 1,094,970 of those residents reside within in the urban districts of Hongshan, Yuanbaoshan and Songshan. However, a large part of Songshan is still rural and Yuanbaoshan is a de facto separate town 27 kilometers away from the core district of Chifeng. The city was the administrative center of the defunct Ju Ud League.
Hulunbuir or Hulun Buir is a region that is governed as a prefecture-level city in northeastern Inner Mongolia, China. Its administrative center is located at Hailar District, its largest urban area. Major scenic features are the high steppes of the Hulun Buir grasslands, the Hulun and Buir lakes, and the Khingan range. Hulun Buir borders Russia to the north and west, Mongolia to the south and west, Heilongjiang province to the east and Hinggan League to the direct south. Hulunbuir is a linguistically diverse area: next to Mandarin Chinese, Mongolian dialects such as Khorchin and Buryat, the Mongolic language Daur, and some Tungusic languages, including Oroqen and Solon, are spoken there.
Yangsanjab, Prince Öndür, was a Mongol prince of the Khorchin Left Wing Middle Banner in southeastern Mongolia. He was one of the leading figures in the resistance against Han colonization of Mongolia. Unlike Ghada Meyiren, he is rarely spotlighted, probably because he was from the ruling class and unfits for the Marxist framework of class struggle.
Xilingol, Xilin Gol, Shiliin Gol or Xilinguole Aimag/League is one of 12 leagues of Inner Mongolia. The seat is Xilinhot, and the area is 202,580 km2 (78,220 sq mi). The league's economy is based on mining and agriculture.
Qian Gorlos Mongol Autonomous County, or simply Qian Gorlos County, commonly abbreviated as Qianguo County, is a county of northwestern Jilin province, China. It is under the administration of Songyuan City. Gorlos Mongols live here. Formerly known as, Qian Gorlos Banner.
Baarin Left Banner, or Bairin, is a banner of eastern Inner Mongolia, China, under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Chifeng. The banner spans an area of 6,644 square kilometers, and as of 2018, has a population of 340,020. Baarin Mongols live here. The distinct Mongolian dialect of this region is called Baarin. It is located at the intersection of two national highways: China National Highway 303 and 305.
Horqin District is an administrative district of the prefecture-level city of Tongliao, Inner Mongolia, China, and its seat of government.
Jarud Banner is a banner of eastern Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China. It is under the administration of Tongliao City, 150 kilometres (93 mi), and the China National Highway 304 passes through the area.
Horqin Left Middle Banner, formerly known as Darhan hoshuu, is a banner of eastern Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China, bordering Jilin province to the east. It is under the administration of Tongliao City, 101 kilometres (63 mi) to the southwest. The local Mongolian dialect is Khorchin Mongolian.
Horqin Right Middle Banner is a banner in the east of Inner Mongolia, China, bordering Jilin province to the east. It is under the administration of Hinggan League. The local Mongolian dialect is Khorchin Mongolian. The banner spans an area of 15,613 square kilometers in area, and has a population of 255,494 as of 2010.
The Jindandao incident refers to a rebellion by a Han Chinese secret society called Jindandao (金丹道), who rose in revolt in Inner Mongolia in November 1891 and massacred 150,000–500,000 Mongols before being suppressed by government troops in late December. The revolt devastated Mongol communities in the southeastern borderland and forced many Mongols to take refuge in northern banners. This massacre was later dubbed an incident by Chinese officials.
The Tongliao–Ranghulu railway or Tongrang Railway, is a railroad in northeastern China, between Tongliao station in Inner Mongolia and Daqing west station on the Harbin–Manzhouli railway in Heilongjiang Province. The railway has a total length of 421 km (262 mi) and runs north-south from eastern Inner Mongolia through western Jilin Province to the oil fields of Daqing in western Heilongjiang. The line was built from 1964 to 1966. Major cities and towns along route include Tongliao, Da'an, and Daqing.
This article documents the situation of the COVID-19 pandemic in Inner Mongolia, the People's Republic of China.