Toni von Langsdorff (30 September 1884 – 24 March 1976)was a German obstetrician/gynecologist known for her work as an early woman doctor and for her role as a pioneer member of the Medical Women's International Association.
Toni von Langsdorff was born on 30 September 1884 in Prussia to a homemaker and a Prussian army officer, the eldest of four children. Though her mother supported her career as a physician, her father was less enthusiastic due to the opposition of his Prussian army colleagues. She cited her sister's experience with spinal tuberculosis, when there was frequently a doctor at the family home, as an inspiration for becoming a physician, a career she saw as a route to independence.von Langsdorff began her undergraduate studies in anatomy at the University of Bonn but was discriminated against for her gender; all women students were classified as "visiting students". She transferred to Heidelberg University after a year at the University of Bonn, and was treated equally there. von Langsdorff took entrance examinations in 1908 to enter the University of Marburg due to the Prussian government's progressive policies regarding women in universities; however, she returned to Heidelberg to study medicine. Despite opposition from an ophthalmology professor who did not support women in medicine, von Langsdorff earned her MD from the University of Heidelberg in 1910.
Facing more opposition, von Langsdorff still found a placement in Essen as a gynecologist in 1910 and received her full medical license in 1911. She continued to practice in Essen until 1918, when she entered private practice because a surgeon in Essen refused to work with her due to her gender. For a time, she practiced with her sister. She retired in 1964, after helping to found the Medical Women's International Association.
The Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin is one of Europe's largest university hospitals, affiliated with Humboldt University and Free University Berlin. With numerous Collaborative Research Centres (CRC) of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft it is one of Germany's most research-intensive medical institutions. From 2012 to 2020, it was ranked by Focus as the best of over 1000 hospitals in Germany. In 2019 and 2020 Newsweek ranked the Charité as fifth best hospital in the world and best in Europe. More than half of all German Nobel Prize winners in Physiology or Medicine, including Emil von Behring, Robert Koch and Paul Ehrlich, have worked at the Charité. Several politicians and diplomats have been treated at the Charité, including German Chancellor Angela Merkel, who underwent meniscus treatment at the Orthopaedic Department, Yulia Tymoshenko from Ukraine, and, more recently, Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny, who has been receiving treatment at the hospital since his August 2020 poisoning.
Ernst Ludwig Alfred Hegar, aka Alfred Hegar, was a German gynecologist famous for developing new medical tools and techniques. He was born on 6 January 1830 in Darmstadt, Germany and died on 5 August 1914. He was buried in Breisgau.
The University of Duisburg-Essen is a public research university in Duisburg and Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany and a member of the newly founded University Alliance Metropolis Ruhr. It was founded in 1654 and re-established on 1 January 2003, as a merger of the Gerhard Mercator University of Duisburg and the University of Essen. Until 1994, the name of the Gerhard Mercator University was Comprehensive University of Duisburg.
Hélène Esnault is a French and German mathematician, specializing in algebraic geometry. She received her PhD in 1976 under Professor Lê Dũng Tráng, writing her dissertation on Singularites rationnelles et groupes algebriques.
Mary Jane Safford-Blake was a nurse, physician, educator, and humanitarian. As a nurse in the Union army she worked closely with Mary Ann Bickerdyke treating the sick and injured near Fort Donelson, and was nicknamed the "Cairo Angel" for her service in Cairo, Illinois. After the war she became one of the first female gynecologists in the United States and was the first woman to perform an ovariotomy. She later taught at Boston University, and was one of the first women elected to the Boston School Committee.
Heinrich Fritsch was a German gynecologist and obstetrician who was a native of Halle an der Saale.
Emil Ferdinand Hartwich was a German judge and promoter of sports education, remembered for his death in a duel.
Franziska Tiburtius was a German physician and advocate for women's education.
Emilie Lehmus was a German physician. She is known as the first female doctor in Berlin. She founded the first polyclinic for women and children in Berlin.
Eberhard H. Gothein was a German Economist and Historian. Gothein was a professor at University of Karlsruhe (1885), University of Bonn (1890), and Heidelberg University (1904). He was a representative of the liberal-positivist opposition against the Prussian historical school of Treitschke and Sybel, which was prevalent in Germany. Gothein was the author of valuable works on cultural and economic history, primarily of the 15th to 17th centuries. Furthermore, he was one of the founding fathers of the University of Mannheim's predecessor, the Handelshochschule Mannheim.
Gisela Januszewska was an Austrian physician. Having earned her degree in Switzerland, she briefly worked in Germany before becoming the first female physician in the Bosnian town of Banja Luka. She received highest decorations for her service during the First World War and social activism in Austria afterwards, but was deported to a Nazi concentration camp, where she died, during the Second World War.
Christoph Ernst Friedrich von Forcade de Biaix was a German Rittergut owner, Appellate Court Judge in Hamm, Supreme Court Judge in Berlin and Member of parliament in the German Reichstag.
Christiane Woopen is a German medical ethicist. She was appointed Professor for Ethics and Theory of Medicine at the University of Cologne in 2009. There she is Executive Director of ceres, an interdepartmental institution created by the Rector and five of the six Faculties of Cologne University. Furthermore, she is Head of the Research Unit Ethics at the Faculty of Medicine and Vice-Dean for Academic Development and Gender of that Faculty. From 2012 to 2016 she was Chair of the German Ethics Council and from 2014 to 2016 President of the Global Summit of National Ethics/Bioethics Committees. She has been portrayed by various periodicals.
Monika Petra Puskeppeleit is a German physician, public health manager and scientific researcher with special interest in medicine of remote areas, especially polar regions. She is the first German medical doctor and station leader of the first all-woman team to overwinter in Antarctica.
Paul Diepgen was a German gynecologist and historian of medicine.
Augusta von Zitzewitz was a German artist, based, for most of her working life, in Berlin. Early on in her career she was associated with the Berlin Secession movement. She is best known for her portraits.
Renate Radek is a protistologist and an associate professor at the Freie Universität Berlin.
Jenny Thomann-Koller was a gynecologist, pediatrician, and Head of Internal Medicine at the Schweizerische Pflegerinnenschule mit Spital in Zurich. In her dissertation, Beitrag zur Erblichkeitsstatistik der Geisteskranken im Ct. Zürich. Vergleichung derselben mit der erblichen Belastung gesunder Menschen u. dergl., published in 1895, she introduced a control group which challenged the then-popular theory of degeneration and eugenics.
Not until the beginning of the 20th century were university studies fully accessible to women in German speaking countries, with the exception of Switzerland. The possibility for women to have access to university education, and moreover to obtain a university degree is now part of general higher education for all.
Klara Griefahn (1897—1945) was a Jewish doctor who committed suicide in 1945 to avoid deportation by the Nazis. A number of memorials to Greifahn can be found in Jena, Germany.