Tonkatsu

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Tonkatsu
Original Tonkatsu.jpg
Tonkatsu
Place of origin Japan
Region or state East Asia
Main ingredients Cutlet (pork fillet or loin), cabbage, miso soup

Tonkatsu (豚カツ, とんかつ or トンカツ, pronounced  [toŋkatsɯ] ; "pork cutlet") is a Japanese dish that consists of a breaded, deep-fried/tempura pork cutlet. It involves cutting the pig's back center into two-to-three-centimeter-thick slices, coating them with panko (bread crumbs), frying them in oil, and then serving with tonkatsu sauce, rice, and vegetable salad (mainly cabbage). The two main types are fillet and loin. Tonkatsu is often served with shredded cabbage, or on a bed of rice (making it a donburi dish, called katsudon ).

Contents

Etymology

The word tonkatsu is a combination of the Sino-Japanese word ton () meaning "pig" and katsu (カツ), which is a shortened form of katsuretsu (カツレツ), the transliteration of the English word cutlet , which again derived from French côtelette, meaning "meat chop".

History

Tonkatsu originated in Japan in the 19th century. Early katsuretsu was usually beef; the pork version was invented in Japan in 1899 at a restaurant called Rengatei in Tokyo. [1] [2] [3] It was originally considered a type of yōshoku — Japanese versions of European cuisine invented in the late 19th and early 20th centuries—and was called katsuretsu or simply katsu. [4]

Preparation and serving

Katsu-sando (ja:katsusando), a tonkatsu sandwich, served as an ekiben KatsuSando6515.jpg
Katsu-sando (ja:カツサンド), a tonkatsu sandwich, served as an ekiben

Either a pork fillet (ヒレ, hire) or pork loin (ロース, rōsu) cut may be used; the meat is usually salted, peppered, dredged lightly in flour, dipped into beaten egg and then coated with panko (bread crumbs) before being deep fried. [5]

Tonkatsu is generally served with shredded cabbage. [6] It is most commonly eaten with a type of thick brown sauce called tonkatsu sauce or simply sōsu (sauce), karashi (mustard), and perhaps a slice of lemon. It is usually served with rice, miso soup and tsukemono and eaten with chopsticks. It may also be served with ponzu and grated daikon instead of tonkatsu sauce. [7]

In addition to being served as a single dish, it is used as a sandwich filling or in combination with curry.

Variations

Katsu curry Katsu curry by luckypines.jpg
Katsu curry
Katsudon and Soba Mini fillet cutlet donburi and kake soba at Fuji soba, Kichijoji (33266336996).jpg
Katsudon and Soba
Tonkatsu restaurant "jp:katsuya" in Tokyo, Japan Katsuya-Roppongi.jpg
Tonkatsu restaurant "jp:かつや" in Tokyo, Japan

Tonkatsu is also popular as a sandwich filling (katsu sando) or served on Japanese curry (katsu karē). Tonkatsu is sometimes served with egg on a big bowl of rice as katsudon.

In Nagoya and surrounding areas, miso katsu, tonkatsu eaten with a hatchō miso-based sauce, is a speciality. [8]

Variations on tonkatsu may be made by sandwiching an ingredient such as cheese or shiso leaf between the meat, and then breading and frying. For the calorie conscious, konnyaku is sometimes sandwiched in the meat.[ citation needed ]

Several variations of tonkatsu use alternatives to pork:

A similar dish with ingredients other than pork, beef, or chicken is called furai (fry), not katsu (cutlet), such as aji-furai (fried horse mackerel) and ebi-furai (fried prawn). [9]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Tempura is a typical Japanese dish usually consisting of seafood, meat, and vegetables that have been battered and deep fried. The dish was introduced by the Portuguese residing in Nagasaki through the fritter-cooking techniques in the 16th century. The name "tempura" may originate from the Latin phrase quatuor anni tempora, which refers to the Ember Days, during which no meat is consumed, or from the Portuguese word tempêro, meaning “seasoning”.

<i>Donburi</i> Japanese meals based on a rice bowl

Donburi is a Japanese "rice-bowl dish" consisting of fish, meat, vegetables or other ingredients simmered together and served over rice. Donburi meals are usually served in oversized rice bowls which are also called donburi. If one needs to distinguish, the bowl is called donburi-bachi (丼鉢) and the food is called donburi-mono (丼物).

<i>Gyūdon</i>

Gyūdon, also known as gyūmeshi, is a Japanese dish consisting of a bowl of rice topped with beef and onion simmered in a mildly sweet sauce flavored with dashi, soy sauce and mirin. It may sometimes also be served with toppings such as raw or soft poached eggs, Welsh onions (negi), grated cheese or kimchi. A popular food in Japan, it is commonly eaten with beni shōga, shichimi, and a side dish of miso soup.

Schnitzel Breaded, fried flat piece of meat

A schnitzel is a thin slice of meat fried in fat. The meat is usually thinned by pounding with a meat tenderizer. Most commonly, the meats are breaded before frying. The breaded schnitzel is popular in many countries and is made using veal, pork, chicken, mutton, beef, or turkey. Schnitzel is very similar to the dish escalope in France, tonkatsu in Japan, the milanesa of Italy, Mexico, Uruguay, Paraguay, Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela and chicken fried steak of the Southern United States.

Milanesa A South American variation of an Italian dish

The milanesa is a South American variation of cotoletta, or schnitzel, where generic types of meat breaded cutlet preparations are known as a milanesa.

Katsudon

Katsudon is a popular Japanese food, a bowl of rice topped with a deep-fried pork cutlet, egg, vegetables, and condiments.

Cutlet

Cutlet refers to:

  1. a thin slice of meat from the leg or ribs of veal, pork, chicken, or mutton
  2. a dish made of such slice, often breaded
  3. a croquette or cutlet-shaped patty made of ground meat
  4. a kind of fish cut where the fish is sliced perpendicular to the spine, rather than parallel ; often synonymous with steak
  5. a prawn or shrimp with its head and outer shell removed, leaving only the flesh and tail
  6. a mash of vegetables fried with bread
Japanese curry Japanese style curry dish

Japanese curry is commonly served in three main forms: curry rice, curry udon, and curry bread. It is one of the most popular dishes in Japan. The very common "curry rice" is most often referred to simply as "curry".

Menchi-katsu

Menchi-katsu (メンチカツ) is a Japanese breaded and deep-fried ground meat patty; a fried meat cake. The meat is usually ground beef, pork, or a mixture of the two. It is often served in inexpensive bento and teishoku.

Japanese regional cuisine

Japanese cuisine has a vast array of regional specialities known as kyōdo ryōri (郷土料理) in Japanese, many of them originating from dishes prepared using local ingredients and traditional recipes.

<i>Yōshoku</i>

In Japanese cuisine, yōshoku refers to a style of Western-influenced cooking which originated during the Meiji Restoration. These are primarily Japanized forms of European dishes, often featuring Western names, and usually written in katakana. It is an example of fusion cuisine.

Chicken katsu

Chicken katsu, also known as panko chicken, or tori katsu is a Japanese dish of fried chicken made with panko bread crumbs which is also popular in Australia, Hawaii, London, California, and other areas of the world.

Croquette small breadcrumbed fried food roll

A croquette (/kroʊˈkɛt/) is a small cylinder of food consisting of a thick binder combined with a filling, which is breaded and deep-fried, and served as a side dish, a snack, or fast food worldwide.

Meatball Dish made from ground meat rolled into a small ball-like form

A meatball is ground meat rolled into a small ball, sometimes along with other ingredients, such as bread crumbs, minced onion, eggs, butter, and seasoning. Meatballs are cooked by frying, baking, steaming, or braising in sauce. There are many types of meatballs using different types of meats and spices. The term is sometimes extended to meatless versions based on vegetables or fish; the latter are commonly known as fishballs.

Breaded cutlet

Breaded cutlet is a dish made from coating a cutlet of meat with breading or batter and either frying or baking it. Breaded cutlet is known as schnitzel in German-speaking countries, cotoletta alla milanese in Italy, escalope in France, filete empanado in Spain, filete empanizado in Cuba, milanesa in Latin America, katsu in Japan and Korea, kotlet in Poland, and kotleta in post-Soviet countries.

Kushikatsu Japanese food

Kushikatsu (串カツ), also known as kushiage (串揚げ), is a Japanese dish of deep-fried skewered meat and vegetables. In Japanese, kushi (串) refers to the skewers used while katsu means a deep-fried cutlet of meat.

Nagoya cuisine

Nagoya cuisine is a Japanese regional cuisine of the city of Nagoya and surrounding region in central Japan. Due to differences in culture, historical contact between other regions, climate, vegetables and other ingredients, Nagoya cuisine has unique features. Although many dishes derived from local tradition, Nagoya cuisine has been inspired by foreign cuisines such as Italian cuisine, Taiwanese cuisine, Indian cuisine, and mainland Chinese cuisine.

Dongaseu Korean pork dish

Dongaseu is a Korean dish which consists of a breaded, deep-fried pork cutlet.

References

  1. 岡田, 哲. とんかつの誕生―明治洋食事始め. p. 166.
  2. 小菅, 桂子. にっぽん洋食物語大全. p. 122.
  3. Kaneko, Amy (2007). Let's Cook Japanese Food!: Everyday Recipes for Home Cooking. Chronicle Books. p. 101. ISBN   978-0-8118-4832-9.
  4. Jennifer Ellen Robertson, ed. (2005). A companion to the anthropology of Japan. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 421. ISBN   0-631-22955-8.
  5. Tsuji, Shizuo; Fisher, M. F. K. (2007). Japanese Cooking: A Simple Art. Kodansha International. p. 240. ISBN   978-4-7700-3049-8.
  6. Hosking, Richard (1995). A Dictionary of Japanese Food - Ingredients and Culture. Tuttle. p. 159. ISBN   0-8048-2042-2.
  7. Ono, Tadashi; Salat, Harris (2013). Japanese Soul Cooking: Ramen, Tonkatsu, Tempura, and More from the Streets and Kitchens of Tokyo and Beyond. Potter/Ten Speed/Harmony/Rodale. ISBN   9781607743538 . Retrieved 21 July 2020.
  8. http://www.nic-nagoya.or.jp/en/e/archives/629
  9. "Katsu" (in Japanese). Dictionary of etymology. Difference between katsu and furai is not defined explicitly; however, cuisine made of fish or vegetables are not called katsu but called furai.